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:mod:`pyramid.request`

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.. module:: pyramid.request

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.. autoclass:: Request
   :members:
   :inherited-members:

   .. attribute:: context

     The :term:`context` will be available as the ``context``
     attribute of the :term:`request` object.  It will be the context
     object implied by the current request.  See
     :ref:`traversal_chapter` for information about context objects.

   .. attribute:: registry

     The :term:`application registry` will be available as the
     ``registry`` attribute of the :term:`request` object.  See
     :ref:`zca_chapter` for more information about the application
     registry.

   .. attribute:: root

      The :term:`root` object will be available as the ``root``
      attribute of the :term:`request` object.  It will be the resource
      object at which traversal started (the root).  See
      :ref:`traversal_chapter` for information about root objects.

   .. attribute:: subpath

      The traversal :term:`subpath` will be available as the
      ``subpath`` attribute of the :term:`request` object.  It will
      be a sequence containing zero or more elements (which will be
      Unicode objects).  See :ref:`traversal_chapter` for information
      about the subpath.

   .. attribute:: traversed

      The "traversal path" will be available as the ``traversed``
      attribute of the :term:`request` object.  It will be a sequence
      representing the ordered set of names that were used to
      traverse to the :term:`context`, not including the view name or
      subpath.  If there is a virtual root associated with the
      request, the virtual root path is included within the traversal
      path.  See :ref:`traversal_chapter` for more information.

   .. attribute:: view_name

      The :term:`view name` will be available as the ``view_name``
      attribute of the :term:`request` object.  It will be a single
      string (possibly the empty string if we're rendering a default
      view).  See :ref:`traversal_chapter` for information about view
      names.

   .. attribute:: virtual_root

      The :term:`virtual root` will be available as the
      ``virtual_root`` attribute of the :term:`request` object.  It
      will be the virtual root object implied by the current request.
      See :ref:`vhosting_chapter` for more information about virtual
      roots.

   .. attribute:: virtual_root_path

      The  :term:`virtual  root`  *path*  will be  available  as  the
      ``virtual_root_path`` attribute  of the :term:`request` object.
      It will  be a  sequence representing the  ordered set  of names
      that were  used to  traverse to the  virtual root  object.  See
      :ref:`vhosting_chapter`  for  more  information  about  virtual
      roots.

   .. attribute:: exception

     If an exception was raised by a :term:`root factory` or a
     :term:`view callable`, or at various other points where
     :app:`Pyramid` executes user-defined code during the
     processing of a request, the exception object which was caught
     will be available as the ``exception`` attribute of the request
     within a :term:`exception view`, a :term:`response callback` or a
     :term:`finished callback`.  If no exception occurred, the value
     of ``request.exception`` will be ``None`` within response and
     finished callbacks.

   .. attribute:: exc_info

     If an exception was raised by a :term:`root factory` or a :term:`view
     callable`, or at various other points where :app:`Pyramid` executes
     user-defined code during the processing of a request, result of
     ``sys.exc_info()`` will be available as the ``exc_info`` attribute of
     the request within a :term:`exception view`, a :term:`response callback`
     or a :term:`finished callback`.  If no exception occurred, the value of
     ``request.exc_info`` will be ``None`` within response and finished
     callbacks.

   .. attribute:: response

     This attribute is actually a "reified" property which returns an
     instance of the :class:`pyramid.response.Response` class.  The response
     object returned does not exist until this attribute is accessed.  Once
     it is accessed, subsequent accesses to this request object will return
     the same :class:`~pyramid.response.Response` object.

     The ``request.response`` API can is used by renderers.  A render obtains
     the response object it will return from a view that uses that renderer
     by accessing ``request.response``.  Therefore, it's possible to use the
     ``request.response`` API to set up a response object with "the right"
     attributes (e.g. by calling ``request.response.set_cookie(...)`` or
     ``request.response.content_type = 'text/plain'``, etc) within a view
     that uses a renderer.  For example, within a view that uses a
     :term:`renderer`::

         response = request.response
         response.set_cookie('mycookie', 'mine, all mine!')
         return {'text':'Value that will be used by the renderer'}

     Mutations to this response object will be preserved in the response sent
     to the client after rendering.  For more information about using
     ``request.response`` in conjunction with a renderer, see
     :ref:`request_response_attr`.

     Non-renderer code can also make use of request.response instead of
     creating a response "by hand".  For example, in view code::

        response = request.response
        response.body = 'Hello!'
        response.content_type = 'text/plain'
        return response

     Note that the response in this circumstance is not "global"; it still
     must be returned from the view code if a renderer is not used.

   .. attribute:: session

     If a :term:`session factory` has been configured, this attribute
     will represent the current user's :term:`session` object.  If a
     session factory *has not* been configured, requesting the
     ``request.session`` attribute will cause a
     :class:`pyramid.exceptions.ConfigurationError` to be raised.

   .. attribute:: tmpl_context

     The template context for Pylons-style applications.

   .. attribute:: matchdict

      If a :term:`route` has matched during this request, this attribute will
      be a dictionary containing the values matched by the URL pattern
      associated with the route.  If a route has not matched during this
      request, the value of this attribute will be ``None``. See
      :ref:`matchdict`.

   .. attribute:: matched_route

      If a :term:`route` has matched during this request, this attribute will
      be an obect representing the route matched by the URL pattern
      associated with the route.  If a route has not matched during this
      request, the value of this attribute will be ``None``. See
      :ref:`matched_route`.

   .. automethod:: add_response_callback

   .. automethod:: add_finished_callback

   .. automethod:: route_url

   .. automethod:: route_path

   .. automethod:: current_route_url

   .. automethod:: current_route_path

   .. automethod:: static_url

   .. automethod:: static_path

   .. automethod:: resource_url

   .. attribute::  response_*

      In Pyramid 1.0, you could set attributes on a
      :class:`pyramid.request.Request` which influenced the behavor of
      *rendered* responses (views which use a :term:`renderer` and which
      don't directly return a response).  These attributes began with
      ``response_``, such as ``response_headerlist``. If you needed to
      influence response values from a view that uses a renderer (such as the
      status code, a header, the content type, etc) you would set these
      attributes.  See :ref:`response_prefixed_attrs` for further discussion.
      As of Pyramid 1.1, assignment to ``response_*`` attrs are deprecated.
      Assigning to one is still supported but will cause a deprecation
      warning to be emitted, and eventually the feature will be removed.  For
      new code, instead of assigning ``response_*`` attributes to the
      request, use API of the the :attr:`pyramid.request.Request.response`
      object (exposed to view code as ``request.response``) to influence
      rendered response behavior.

   .. attribute:: json_body

       This property will return the JSON-decoded variant of the request
       body.  If the request body is not well-formed JSON, or there is no
       body associated with this request, this property will raise an
       exception.  See also :ref:`request_json_body`.

Note

For information about the API of a :term:`multidict` structure (such as that used as request.GET, request.POST, and request.params), see :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IMultiDict`.

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