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""" Utility functions for dealing with URLs in pyramid """
import os
from zope.deprecation import deprecated
from repoze.lru import lru_cache
from pyramid.interfaces import IContextURL
from pyramid.interfaces import IRoutesMapper
from pyramid.interfaces import IStaticURLInfo
from pyramid.encode import urlencode
from pyramid.path import caller_package
from pyramid.threadlocal import get_current_registry
from pyramid.traversal import TraversalContextURL
from pyramid.traversal import quote_path_segment
def route_url(route_name, request, *elements, **kw):
"""Generates a fully qualified URL for a named :app:`Pyramid`
:term:`route configuration`.
.. note:: Calling :meth:`pyramid.Request.route_url` can be used to
achieve the same result as :func:`pyramid.url.route_url`.
Use the route's ``name`` as the first positional argument. Use a
request object as the second positional argument. Additional
positional arguments are appended to the URL as path segments
after it is generated.
Use keyword arguments to supply values which match any dynamic
path elements in the route definition. Raises a :exc:`KeyError`
exception if the URL cannot be generated for any reason (not
enough arguments, for example).
For example, if you've defined a route named "foobar" with the path
``{foo}/{bar}/*traverse``::
route_url('foobar', request, foo='1') => <KeyError exception>
route_url('foobar', request, foo='1', bar='2') => <KeyError exception>
route_url('foobar', request, foo='1', bar='2',
traverse=('a','b')) => http://e.com/1/2/a/b
route_url('foobar', request, foo='1', bar='2',
traverse='/a/b') => http://e.com/1/2/a/b
Values replacing ``:segment`` arguments can be passed as strings
or Unicode objects. They will be encoded to UTF-8 and URL-quoted
before being placed into the generated URL.
Values replacing ``*remainder`` arguments can be passed as strings
*or* tuples of Unicode/string values. If a tuple is passed as a
``*remainder`` replacement value, its values are URL-quoted and
encoded to UTF-8. The resulting strings are joined with slashes
and rendered into the URL. If a string is passed as a
``*remainder`` replacement value, it is tacked on to the URL
untouched.
If a keyword argument ``_query`` is present, it will be used to
compose a query string that will be tacked on to the end of the
URL. The value of ``_query`` must be a sequence of two-tuples
*or* a data structure with an ``.items()`` method that returns a
sequence of two-tuples (presumably a dictionary). This data
structure will be turned into a query string per the documentation
of :func:`pyramid.encode.urlencode` function. After the query
data is turned into a query string, a leading ``?`` is prepended,
and the resulting string is appended to the generated URL.
.. note:: Python data structures that are passed as ``_query``
which are sequences or dictionaries are turned into a
string under the same rules as when run through
:func:`urllib.urlencode` with the ``doseq`` argument
equal to ``True``. This means that sequences can be
passed as values, and a k=v pair will be placed into the
query string for each value.
If a keyword argument ``_anchor`` is present, its string
representation will be used as a named anchor in the generated URL
(e.g. if ``_anchor`` is passed as ``foo`` and the route URL is
``http://example.com/route/url``, the resulting generated URL will
be ``http://example.com/route/url#foo``).
.. note:: If ``_anchor`` is passed as a string, it should be UTF-8
encoded. If ``_anchor`` is passed as a Unicode object, it
will be converted to UTF-8 before being appended to the
URL. The anchor value is not quoted in any way before
being appended to the generated URL.
If both ``_anchor`` and ``_query`` are specified, the anchor
element will always follow the query element,
e.g. ``http://example.com?foo=1#bar``.
If a keyword ``_app_url`` is present, it will be used as the
protocol/hostname/port/leading path prefix of the generated URL.
For example, using an ``_app_url`` of
``http://example.com:8080/foo`` would cause the URL
``http://example.com:8080/foo/fleeb/flub`` to be returned from
this function if the expansion of the route pattern associated
with the ``route_name`` expanded to ``/fleeb/flub``. If
``_app_url`` is not specified, the result of
``request.application_url`` will be used as the prefix (the
default).
This function raises a :exc:`KeyError` if the URL cannot be
generated due to missing replacement names. Extra replacement
names are ignored.
If the route object which matches the ``route_name`` argument has
a :term:`pregenerator`, the ``*elements`` and ``**kw`` arguments
arguments passed to this function might be augmented or changed.
"""
try:
reg = request.registry
except AttributeError:
reg = get_current_registry() # b/c
mapper = reg.getUtility(IRoutesMapper)
route = mapper.get_route(route_name)
if route is None:
raise KeyError('No such route named %s' % route_name)
if route.pregenerator is not None:
elements, kw = route.pregenerator(request, elements, kw)
anchor = ''
qs = ''
app_url = None
if '_query' in kw:
qs = '?' + urlencode(kw.pop('_query'), doseq=True)
if '_anchor' in kw:
anchor = kw.pop('_anchor')
if isinstance(anchor, unicode):
anchor = anchor.encode('utf-8')
anchor = '#' + anchor
if '_app_url' in kw:
app_url = kw.pop('_app_url')
path = route.generate(kw) # raises KeyError if generate fails
if elements:
suffix = _join_elements(elements)
if not path.endswith('/'):
suffix = '/' + suffix
else:
suffix = ''
if app_url is None:
# we only defer lookup of application_url until here because
# it's somewhat expensive; we won't need to do it if we've
# been passed _app_url
app_url = request.application_url
return app_url + path + suffix + qs + anchor
def route_path(route_name, request, *elements, **kw):
"""Generates a path (aka a 'relative URL', a URL minus the host, scheme,
and port) for a named :app:`Pyramid` :term:`route configuration`.
.. note:: Calling :meth:`pyramid.Request.route_path` can be used to
achieve the same result as :func:`pyramid.url.route_path`.
This function accepts the same argument as :func:`pyramid.url.route_url`
and performs the same duty. It just omits the host, port, and scheme
information in the return value; only the script_name, path,
query parameters, and anchor data are present in the returned string.
For example, if you've defined a route named 'foobar' with the path
``/{foo}/{bar}``, this call to ``route_path``::
route_path('foobar', request, foo='1', bar='2')
Will return the string ``/1/2``.
.. note:: Calling ``route_path('route', request)`` is the same as calling
``route_url('route', request, _app_url=request.script_name)``.
``route_path`` is, in fact, implemented in terms of ``route_url``
in just this way. As a result, any ``_app_url`` passed within the
``**kw`` values to ``route_path`` will be ignored.
"""
kw['_app_url'] = request.script_name
return route_url(route_name, request, *elements, **kw)
def resource_url(resource, request, *elements, **kw):
"""
Generate a string representing the absolute URL of the :term:`resource`
object based on the ``wsgi.url_scheme``, ``HTTP_HOST`` or
``SERVER_NAME`` in the ``request``, plus any ``SCRIPT_NAME``. The
overall result of this function is always a UTF-8 encoded string
(never Unicode).
.. note:: Calling :meth:`pyramid.Request.resource_url` can be used to
achieve the same result as :func:`pyramid.url.resource_url`.
Examples::
resource_url(context, request) =>
http://example.com/
resource_url(context, request, 'a.html') =>
http://example.com/a.html
resource_url(context, request, 'a.html', query={'q':'1'}) =>
http://example.com/a.html?q=1
resource_url(context, request, 'a.html', anchor='abc') =>
http://example.com/a.html#abc
Any positional arguments passed in as ``elements`` must be strings
Unicode objects, or integer objects. These will be joined by slashes and
appended to the generated resource URL. Each of the elements passed in
is URL-quoted before being appended; if any element is Unicode, it will
converted to a UTF-8 bytestring before being URL-quoted. If any element
is an integer, it will be converted to its string representation before
being URL-quoted.
.. warning:: if no ``elements`` arguments are specified, the resource
URL will end with a trailing slash. If any
``elements`` are used, the generated URL will *not*
end in trailing a slash.
If a keyword argument ``query`` is present, it will be used to
compose a query string that will be tacked on to the end of the
URL. The value of ``query`` must be a sequence of two-tuples *or*
a data structure with an ``.items()`` method that returns a
sequence of two-tuples (presumably a dictionary). This data
structure will be turned into a query string per the documentation
of ``pyramid.url.urlencode`` function. After the query data is
turned into a query string, a leading ``?`` is prepended, and the
resulting string is appended to the generated URL.
.. note:: Python data structures that are passed as ``query``
which are sequences or dictionaries are turned into a
string under the same rules as when run through
:func:`urllib.urlencode` with the ``doseq`` argument
equal to ``True``. This means that sequences can be
passed as values, and a k=v pair will be placed into the
query string for each value.
If a keyword argument ``anchor`` is present, its string
representation will be used as a named anchor in the generated URL
(e.g. if ``anchor`` is passed as ``foo`` and the resource URL is
``http://example.com/resource/url``, the resulting generated URL will
be ``http://example.com/resource/url#foo``).
.. note:: If ``anchor`` is passed as a string, it should be UTF-8
encoded. If ``anchor`` is passed as a Unicode object, it
will be converted to UTF-8 before being appended to the
URL. The anchor value is not quoted in any way before
being appended to the generated URL.
If both ``anchor`` and ``query`` are specified, the anchor element
will always follow the query element,
e.g. ``http://example.com?foo=1#bar``.
If the ``resource`` passed in has a ``__resource_url__`` method, it will
be used to generate the URL (scheme, host, port, path) that for the base
resource which is operated upon by this function. See also
:ref:`overriding_resource_url_generation`.
.. note:: If the :term:`resource` used is the result of a
:term:`traversal`, it must be :term:`location`-aware.
The resource can also be the context of a :term:`URL
dispatch`; contexts found this way do not need to be
location-aware.
.. note:: If a 'virtual root path' is present in the request
environment (the value of the WSGI environ key
``HTTP_X_VHM_ROOT``), and the resource was obtained via
:term:`traversal`, the URL path will not include the
virtual root prefix (it will be stripped off the
left hand side of the generated URL).
.. note:: For backwards compatibility purposes, this function can also be
imported as ``model_url``, although doing so will emit a deprecation
warning.
"""
try:
reg = request.registry
except AttributeError:
reg = get_current_registry() # b/c
context_url = reg.queryMultiAdapter((resource, request), IContextURL)
if context_url is None:
context_url = TraversalContextURL(resource, request)
resource_url = context_url()
qs = ''
anchor = ''
if 'query' in kw:
qs = '?' + urlencode(kw['query'], doseq=True)
if 'anchor' in kw:
anchor = kw['anchor']
if isinstance(anchor, unicode):
anchor = anchor.encode('utf-8')
anchor = '#' + anchor
if elements:
suffix = _join_elements(elements)
else:
suffix = ''
return resource_url + suffix + qs + anchor
model_url = resource_url # b/w compat (forever)
deprecated(
'model_url',
'pyramid.url.model_url is deprecated as of Pyramid 1.0. Use'
'``pyramid.url.resource_url`` instead (API-compat, simple '
'rename).')
def static_url(path, request, **kw):
"""
Generates a fully qualified URL for a static :term:`asset`.
The asset must live within a location defined via the
:meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view`
:term:`configuration declaration` (see :ref:`static_assets_section`).
.. note:: Calling :meth:`pyramid.Request.static_url` can be used to
achieve the same result as :func:`pyramid.url.static_url`.
Example::
static_url('mypackage:static/foo.css', request) =>
http://example.com/static/foo.css
The ``path`` argument points at a file or directory on disk which
a URL should be generated for. The ``path`` may be either a
relative path (e.g. ``static/foo.css``) or a :term:`asset
specification` (e.g. ``mypackage:static/foo.css``). A ``path``
may not be an absolute filesystem path (a :exc:`ValueError` will
be raised if this function is supplied with an absolute path).
The ``request`` argument should be a :term:`request` object.
The purpose of the ``**kw`` argument is the same as the purpose of
the :func:`pyramid.url.route_url` ``**kw`` argument. See the
documentation for that function to understand the arguments which
you can provide to it. However, typically, you don't need to pass
anything as ``*kw`` when generating a static asset URL.
This function raises a :exc:`ValueError` if a static view
definition cannot be found which matches the path specification.
"""
if os.path.isabs(path):
raise ValueError('Absolute paths cannot be used to generate static '
'urls (use a package-relative path or an asset '
'specification).')
if not ':' in path:
# if it's not a package:relative/name and it's not an
# /absolute/path it's a relative/path; this means its relative
# to the package in which the caller's module is defined.
package = caller_package()
path = '%s:%s' % (package.__name__, path)
try:
reg = request.registry
except AttributeError:
reg = get_current_registry() # b/c
info = reg.queryUtility(IStaticURLInfo)
if info is None:
raise ValueError('No static URL definition matching %s' % path)
return info.generate(path, request, **kw)
def current_route_url(request, *elements, **kw):
"""Generates a fully qualified URL for a named :app:`Pyramid`
:term:`route configuration` based on the 'current route'.
This function supplements :func:`pyramid.url.route_url`. It presents an
easy way to generate a URL for the 'current route' (defined as the route
which matched when the request was generated).
The arguments to this function have the same meaning as those with the
same names passed to :func:`pyramid.url.route_url`. It also understands
an extra argument which ``route_url`` does not named ``_route_name``.
The route name used to generate a URL is taken from either the
``_route_name`` keyword argument or the name of the route which is
currently associated with the request if ``_route_name`` was not passed.
Keys and values from the current request :term:`matchdict` are combined
with the ``kw`` arguments to form a set of defaults named ``newkw``.
Then ``route_url(route_name, request, *elements, **newkw)`` is called,
returning a URL.
Examples follow.
If the 'current route' has the route pattern ``/foo/{page}`` and the
current url path is ``/foo/1`` , the matchdict will be ``{'page':'1'}``.
The result of ``current_route_url(request)`` in this situation will be
``/foo/1``.
If the 'current route' has the route pattern ``/foo/{page}`` and the
current url path is ``/foo/1``, the matchdict will be
``{'page':'1'}``. The result of ``current_route_url(request, page='2')``
in this situation will be ``/foo/2``.
Usage of the ``_route_name`` keyword argument: if our routing table
defines routes ``/foo/{action}`` named 'foo' and ``/foo/{action}/{page}``
named ``fooaction``, and the current url pattern is ``/foo/view`` (which
has matched the ``/foo/{action}`` route), we may want to use the
matchdict args to generate a URL to the ``fooaction`` route. In this
scenario, ``current_route_url(request, _route_name='fooaction', page='5')``
Will return string like: ``/foo/view/5``.
"""
if '_route_name' in kw:
route_name = kw.pop('_route_name')
else:
route = getattr(request, 'matched_route', None)
route_name = getattr(route, 'name', None)
if route_name is None:
raise ValueError('Current request matches no route')
newkw = {}
newkw.update(request.matchdict)
newkw.update(kw)
return route_url(route_name, request, *elements, **newkw)
@lru_cache(1000)
def _join_elements(elements):
return '/'.join([quote_path_segment(s, safe=':@&+$,') for s in elements])
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