:app:`Pyramid` ApplicationCreating Your First
In this chapter, we will walk through the creation of a tiny :app:`Pyramid` application. After we're finished creating the application, we'll explain in more detail how it works.
Here's one of the very simplest :app:`Pyramid` applications:
When this code is inserted into a Python script named
executed by a Python interpreter which has the :app:`Pyramid` software
installed, an HTTP server is started on TCP port 8080.
$ /path/to/your/virtualenv/bin/python helloworld.py
C:\> \path\to\your\virtualenv\Scripts\python.exe helloworld.py
This command will not return and nothing will be printed to the console.
When port 8080 is visited by a browser on the URL
server will simply serve up the text "Hello world!". If your application is
running on your local system, using
in a browser will show this result.
Each time you visit a URL served by the application in a browser, a logging line will be emitted to the console displaying the hostname, the date, the request method and path, and some additional information. This output is done by the wsgiref server we've used to serve this application. It logs an "access log" in Apache combined logging format to the console.
Ctrl-Break on Windows) to stop the application.
Now that we have a rudimentary understanding of what the application does, let's examine it piece-by-piece.
helloworld.py script uses the following set of import
The script imports the :class:`~pyramid.config.Configurator` class from the :mod:`pyramid.config` module. An instance of the :class:`~pyramid.config.Configurator` class is later used to configure your :app:`Pyramid` application.
Like many other Python web frameworks, :app:`Pyramid` uses the :term:`WSGI` protocol to connect an application and a web server together. The :mod:`wsgiref` server is used in this example as a WSGI server for convenience, as it is shipped within the Python standard library.
The script also imports the :class:`pyramid.response.Response` class for later use. An instance of this class will be used to create a web response.
View Callable Declarations
The above script, beneath its set of imports, defines a function
The function accepts a single argument (
request) and it returns an
instance of the :class:`pyramid.response.Response` class. The single
argument to the class' constructor is a string computed from parameters
matched from the URL. This value becomes the body of the response.
This function is known as a :term:`view callable`. A view callable
accepts a single argument,
request. It is expected to return a
:term:`response` object. A view callable doesn't need to be a function; it
can be represented via another type of object, like a class or an instance,
but for our purposes here, a function serves us well.
A view callable is required to return a :term:`response` object because a
response object has all the information necessary to formulate an actual HTTP
response; this object is then converted to text by the :term:`WSGI` server
which called Pyramid and it is sent back to the requesting browser. To
return a response, each view callable creates an instance of the
:class:`~pyramid.response.Response` class. In the
a string is passed as the body to the response.
In the above script, the following code represents the configuration of
this simple application. The application is configured using the previously
defined imports and function definitions, placed within the confines of an
Let's break this down piece-by-piece.
if __name__ == '__main__': line in the code sample above represents a
Python idiom: the code inside this if clause is not invoked unless the script
containing this code is run directly from the operating system command
line. For example, if the file named
helloworld.py contains the entire
script body, the code within the
if statement will only be invoked when
python helloworld.py is executed from the command line.
if clause is necessary -- or at least best practice -- because
code in a Python
.py file may be eventually imported via the Python
import statement by another
.py files that are
imported by other
.py files are referred to as modules. By using the
if __name__ == '__main__': idiom, the script above is indicating that it does
not want the code within the
if statement to execute if this module is
imported from another; the code within the
if block should only be run
during a direct script execution.
config = Configurator() line above creates an instance of the
:class:`~pyramid.config.Configurator` class. The resulting
represents an API which the script uses to configure this particular
:app:`Pyramid` application. Methods called on the Configurator will cause
registrations to be made in an :term:`application registry` associated with
The second line,
hello_world function as a :term:`view callable` and makes
sure that it will be called when the
hello route is matched.
WSGI Application Creation
After configuring views and ending configuration, the script creates a WSGI
application via the :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.make_wsgi_app`
method. A call to
make_wsgi_app implies that all configuration is
finished (meaning all method calls to the configurator which set up views,
and various other configuration settings have been performed). The
make_wsgi_app method returns a :term:`WSGI` application object that can
be used by any WSGI server to present an application to a requestor.
:term:`WSGI` is a protocol that allows servers to talk to Python
applications. We don't discuss :term:`WSGI` in any depth within this book,
however, you can learn more about it by visiting wsgi.org.
The :app:`Pyramid` application object, in particular, is an instance of a
class representing a :app:`Pyramid` :term:`router`. It has a reference to
the :term:`application registry` which resulted from method calls to the
configurator used to configure it. The :term:`router` consults the registry
to obey the policy choices made by a single application. These policy
choices were informed by method calls to the :term:`Configurator` made
earlier; in our case, the only policy choices made were implied by calls
WSGI Application Serving
Finally, we actually serve the application to requestors by starting up a
WSGI server. We happen to use the :mod:`wsgiref`
maker for this purpose. We pass in as the first argument
which means "listen on all TCP interfaces." By default, the HTTP server
listens only on the
127.0.0.1 interface, which is problematic if you're
running the server on a remote system and you wish to access it with a web
browser from a local system. We also specify a TCP port number to listen on,
which is 8080, passing it as the second argument. The final argument is the
app object (a :term:`router`), which is the the application we wish to
serve. Finally, we call the server's
serve_forever method, which starts
the main loop in which it will wait for requests from the outside world.
When this line is invoked, it causes the server to start listening on TCP
port 8080. The server will serve requests forever, or at least until we stop
it by killing the process which runs it (usually by pressing
Ctrl-Break in the terminal we used to start it).
Our hello world application is one of the simplest possible :app:`Pyramid` applications, configured "imperatively". We can see that it's configured imperatively because the full power of Python is available to us as we perform configuration tasks.