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import contextlib
import json
import os
import re
from zope.interface import (
implementer,
providedBy,
)
from zope.interface.registry import Components
from pyramid.interfaces import (
IJSONAdapter,
IRendererFactory,
IRendererInfo,
)
from pyramid.compat import (
string_types,
text_type,
)
from pyramid.decorator import reify
from pyramid.events import BeforeRender
from pyramid.httpexceptions import HTTPBadRequest
from pyramid.path import caller_package
from pyramid.response import _get_response_factory
from pyramid.threadlocal import get_current_registry
# API
def render(renderer_name, value, request=None, package=None):
""" Using the renderer ``renderer_name`` (a template
or a static renderer), render the value (or set of values) present
in ``value``. Return the result of the renderer's ``__call__``
method (usually a string or Unicode).
If the ``renderer_name`` refers to a file on disk, such as when the
renderer is a template, it's usually best to supply the name as an
:term:`asset specification`
(e.g. ``packagename:path/to/template.pt``).
You may supply a relative asset spec as ``renderer_name``. If
the ``package`` argument is supplied, a relative renderer path
will be converted to an absolute asset specification by
combining the package ``package`` with the relative
asset specification ``renderer_name``. If ``package``
is ``None`` (the default), the package name of the *caller* of
this function will be used as the package.
The ``value`` provided will be supplied as the input to the
renderer. Usually, for template renderings, this should be a
dictionary. For other renderers, this will need to be whatever
sort of value the renderer expects.
The 'system' values supplied to the renderer will include a basic set of
top-level system names, such as ``request``, ``context``,
``renderer_name``, and ``view``. See :ref:`renderer_system_values` for
the full list. If :term:`renderer globals` have been specified, these
will also be used to augment the value.
Supply a ``request`` parameter in order to provide the renderer
with the most correct 'system' values (``request`` and ``context``
in particular).
"""
try:
registry = request.registry
except AttributeError:
registry = None
if package is None:
package = caller_package()
helper = RendererHelper(name=renderer_name, package=package,
registry=registry)
with temporary_response(request):
result = helper.render(value, None, request=request)
return result
def render_to_response(renderer_name,
value,
request=None,
package=None,
response=None):
""" Using the renderer ``renderer_name`` (a template
or a static renderer), render the value (or set of values) using
the result of the renderer's ``__call__`` method (usually a string
or Unicode) as the response body.
If the renderer name refers to a file on disk (such as when the
renderer is a template), it's usually best to supply the name as a
:term:`asset specification`.
You may supply a relative asset spec as ``renderer_name``. If
the ``package`` argument is supplied, a relative renderer name
will be converted to an absolute asset specification by
combining the package ``package`` with the relative
asset specification ``renderer_name``. If you do
not supply a ``package`` (or ``package`` is ``None``) the package
name of the *caller* of this function will be used as the package.
The ``value`` provided will be supplied as the input to the
renderer. Usually, for template renderings, this should be a
dictionary. For other renderers, this will need to be whatever
sort of value the renderer expects.
The 'system' values supplied to the renderer will include a basic set of
top-level system names, such as ``request``, ``context``,
``renderer_name``, and ``view``. See :ref:`renderer_system_values` for
the full list. If :term:`renderer globals` have been specified, these
will also be used to argument the value.
Supply a ``request`` parameter in order to provide the renderer
with the most correct 'system' values (``request`` and ``context``
in particular). Keep in mind that any changes made to ``request.response``
prior to calling this function will not be reflected in the resulting
response object. A new response object will be created for each call
unless one is passed as the ``response`` argument.
.. versionchanged:: 1.6
In previous versions, any changes made to ``request.response`` outside
of this function call would affect the returned response. This is no
longer the case. If you wish to send in a pre-initialized response
then you may pass one in the ``response`` argument.
"""
try:
registry = request.registry
except AttributeError:
registry = None
if package is None:
package = caller_package()
helper = RendererHelper(name=renderer_name, package=package,
registry=registry)
with temporary_response(request):
if response is not None:
request.response = response
result = helper.render_to_response(value, None, request=request)
return result
_marker = object()
@contextlib.contextmanager
def temporary_response(request):
"""
Temporarily delete request.response and restore it afterward.
"""
attrs = request.__dict__ if request is not None else {}
saved_response = attrs.pop('response', _marker)
try:
yield
finally:
if saved_response is not _marker:
attrs['response'] = saved_response
elif 'response' in attrs:
del attrs['response']
def get_renderer(renderer_name, package=None):
""" Return the renderer object for the renderer ``renderer_name``.
You may supply a relative asset spec as ``renderer_name``. If
the ``package`` argument is supplied, a relative renderer name
will be converted to an absolute asset specification by
combining the package ``package`` with the relative
asset specification ``renderer_name``. If ``package`` is ``None``
(the default), the package name of the *caller* of this function
will be used as the package.
"""
if package is None:
package = caller_package()
helper = RendererHelper(name=renderer_name, package=package)
return helper.renderer
# concrete renderer factory implementations (also API)
def string_renderer_factory(info):
def _render(value, system):
if not isinstance(value, string_types):
value = str(value)
request = system.get('request')
if request is not None:
response = request.response
ct = response.content_type
if ct == response.default_content_type:
response.content_type = 'text/plain'
return value
return _render
_marker = object()
class JSON(object):
""" Renderer that returns a JSON-encoded string.
Configure a custom JSON renderer using the
:meth:`~pyramid.config.Configurator.add_renderer` API at application
startup time:
.. code-block:: python
from pyramid.config import Configurator
config = Configurator()
config.add_renderer('myjson', JSON(indent=4))
Once this renderer is registered as above, you can use
``myjson`` as the ``renderer=`` parameter to ``@view_config`` or
:meth:`~pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view``:
.. code-block:: python
from pyramid.view import view_config
@view_config(renderer='myjson')
def myview(request):
return {'greeting':'Hello world'}
Custom objects can be serialized using the renderer by either
implementing the ``__json__`` magic method, or by registering
adapters with the renderer. See
:ref:`json_serializing_custom_objects` for more information.
.. note::
The default serializer uses ``json.JSONEncoder``. A different
serializer can be specified via the ``serializer`` argument. Custom
serializers should accept the object, a callback ``default``, and any
extra ``kw`` keyword arguments passed during renderer construction.
This feature isn't widely used but it can be used to replace the
stock JSON serializer with, say, simplejson. If all you want to
do, however, is serialize custom objects, you should use the method
explained in :ref:`json_serializing_custom_objects` instead
of replacing the serializer.
.. versionadded:: 1.4
Prior to this version, there was no public API for supplying options
to the underlying serializer without defining a custom renderer.
"""
def __init__(self, serializer=json.dumps, adapters=(), **kw):
""" Any keyword arguments will be passed to the ``serializer``
function."""
self.serializer = serializer
self.kw = kw
self.components = Components()
for type, adapter in adapters:
self.add_adapter(type, adapter)
def add_adapter(self, type_or_iface, adapter):
""" When an object of the type (or interface) ``type_or_iface`` fails
to automatically encode using the serializer, the renderer will use
the adapter ``adapter`` to convert it into a JSON-serializable
object. The adapter must accept two arguments: the object and the
currently active request.
.. code-block:: python
class Foo(object):
x = 5
def foo_adapter(obj, request):
return obj.x
renderer = JSON(indent=4)
renderer.add_adapter(Foo, foo_adapter)
When you've done this, the JSON renderer will be able to serialize
instances of the ``Foo`` class when they're encountered in your view
results."""
self.components.registerAdapter(adapter, (type_or_iface,),
IJSONAdapter)
def __call__(self, info):
""" Returns a plain JSON-encoded string with content-type
``application/json``. The content-type may be overridden by
setting ``request.response.content_type``."""
def _render(value, system):
request = system.get('request')
if request is not None:
response = request.response
ct = response.content_type
if ct == response.default_content_type:
response.content_type = 'application/json'
default = self._make_default(request)
return self.serializer(value, default=default, **self.kw)
return _render
def _make_default(self, request):
def default(obj):
if hasattr(obj, '__json__'):
return obj.__json__(request)
obj_iface = providedBy(obj)
adapters = self.components.adapters
result = adapters.lookup((obj_iface,), IJSONAdapter,
default=_marker)
if result is _marker:
raise TypeError('%r is not JSON serializable' % (obj,))
return result(obj, request)
return default
json_renderer_factory = JSON() # bw compat
JSONP_VALID_CALLBACK = re.compile(r"^[$a-z_][$0-9a-z_\.\[\]]+[^.]$", re.I)
class JSONP(JSON):
""" `JSONP <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSONP>`_ renderer factory helper
which implements a hybrid json/jsonp renderer. JSONP is useful for
making cross-domain AJAX requests.
Configure a JSONP renderer using the
:meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_renderer` API at application
startup time:
.. code-block:: python
from pyramid.config import Configurator
config = Configurator()
config.add_renderer('jsonp', JSONP(param_name='callback'))
The class' constructor also accepts arbitrary keyword arguments. All
keyword arguments except ``param_name`` are passed to the ``json.dumps``
function as its keyword arguments.
.. code-block:: python
from pyramid.config import Configurator
config = Configurator()
config.add_renderer('jsonp', JSONP(param_name='callback', indent=4))
.. versionchanged:: 1.4
The ability of this class to accept a ``**kw`` in its constructor.
The arguments passed to this class' constructor mean the same thing as
the arguments passed to :class:`pyramid.renderers.JSON` (including
``serializer`` and ``adapters``).
Once this renderer is registered via
:meth:`~pyramid.config.Configurator.add_renderer` as above, you can use
``jsonp`` as the ``renderer=`` parameter to ``@view_config`` or
:meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view``:
.. code-block:: python
from pyramid.view import view_config
@view_config(renderer='jsonp')
def myview(request):
return {'greeting':'Hello world'}
When a view is called that uses the JSONP renderer:
- If there is a parameter in the request's HTTP query string that matches
the ``param_name`` of the registered JSONP renderer (by default,
``callback``), the renderer will return a JSONP response.
- If there is no callback parameter in the request's query string, the
renderer will return a 'plain' JSON response.
.. versionadded:: 1.1
.. seealso::
See also :ref:`jsonp_renderer`.
"""
def __init__(self, param_name='callback', **kw):
self.param_name = param_name
JSON.__init__(self, **kw)
def __call__(self, info):
""" Returns JSONP-encoded string with content-type
``application/javascript`` if query parameter matching
``self.param_name`` is present in request.GET; otherwise returns
plain-JSON encoded string with content-type ``application/json``"""
def _render(value, system):
request = system.get('request')
default = self._make_default(request)
val = self.serializer(value, default=default, **self.kw)
ct = 'application/json'
body = val
if request is not None:
callback = request.GET.get(self.param_name)
if callback is not None:
if not JSONP_VALID_CALLBACK.match(callback):
raise HTTPBadRequest('Invalid JSONP callback function name.')
ct = 'application/javascript'
body = '/**/{0}({1});'.format(callback, val)
response = request.response
if response.content_type == response.default_content_type:
response.content_type = ct
return body
return _render
@implementer(IRendererInfo)
class RendererHelper(object):
def __init__(self, name=None, package=None, registry=None):
if name and '.' in name:
rtype = os.path.splitext(name)[1]
else:
# important.. must be a string; cannot be None; see issue 249
rtype = name or ''
if registry is None:
registry = get_current_registry()
self.name = name
self.package = package
self.type = rtype
self.registry = registry
@reify
def settings(self):
settings = self.registry.settings
if settings is None:
settings = {}
return settings
@reify
def renderer(self):
factory = self.registry.queryUtility(IRendererFactory, name=self.type)
if factory is None:
raise ValueError(
'No such renderer factory %s' % str(self.type))
return factory(self)
def get_renderer(self):
return self.renderer
def render_view(self, request, response, view, context):
system = {'view':view,
'renderer_name':self.name, # b/c
'renderer_info':self,
'context':context,
'request':request,
'req':request,
}
return self.render_to_response(response, system, request=request)
def render(self, value, system_values, request=None):
renderer = self.renderer
if system_values is None:
system_values = {
'view':None,
'renderer_name':self.name, # b/c
'renderer_info':self,
'context':getattr(request, 'context', None),
'request':request,
'req':request,
}
system_values = BeforeRender(system_values, value)
registry = self.registry
registry.notify(system_values)
result = renderer(value, system_values)
return result
def render_to_response(self, value, system_values, request=None):
result = self.render(value, system_values, request=request)
return self._make_response(result, request)
def _make_response(self, result, request):
# broken out of render_to_response as a separate method for testing
# purposes
response = getattr(request, 'response', None)
if response is None:
# request is None or request is not a pyramid.response.Response
registry = self.registry
response_factory = _get_response_factory(registry)
response = response_factory(request)
if result is not None:
if isinstance(result, text_type):
response.text = result
elif isinstance(result, bytes):
response.body = result
elif hasattr(result, '__iter__'):
response.app_iter = result
else:
response.body = result
return response
def clone(self, name=None, package=None, registry=None):
if name is None:
name = self.name
if package is None:
package = self.package
if registry is None:
registry = self.registry
return self.__class__(name=name, package=package, registry=registry)
class NullRendererHelper(RendererHelper):
""" Special renderer helper that has render_* methods which simply return
the value they are fed rather than converting them to response objects;
useful for testing purposes and special case view configuration
registrations that want to use the view configuration machinery but do
not want actual rendering to happen ."""
def __init__(self, name=None, package=None, registry=None):
# we override the initializer to avoid calling get_current_registry
# (it will return a reference to the global registry when this
# thing is called at module scope; we don't want that).
self.name = None
self.package = None
self.type = ''
self.registry = None
@property
def settings(self):
return {}
def render_view(self, request, value, view, context):
return value
def render(self, value, system_values, request=None):
return value
def render_to_response(self, value, system_values, request=None):
return value
def clone(self, name=None, package=None, registry=None):
return self
null_renderer = NullRendererHelper()
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