PythonJS development has moved to Rusthon
Python JavaScript Perl

README.md

Introduction

PythonJS is a transpiler written in Python that converts a python like language into fast JavaScript. It also includes experimental backends that translate to: Dart, Lua, CoffeeScript, and Go.

Syntax Documentation

Go backend

The Go backend uses a fully typed subset of Python, mixed with extra syntax inspired by Golang to output Go programs that can be compiled to native executeables, or translated to JavaScript using GopherJS.

Syntax Documentation

Getting Started

PythonJS can be run with regular Python, or fully self-hosted within NodeJS using Empythoned.

To get started, you have two options:

  1. install NodeJS, python-js package, and write a build script.

  2. or install Python2 and use translator.py from this repo directly.

  3. Installing NodeJS Package


You can quickly get started with the stable version of PythonJS by installing the NodeJS package, and writing a build script in javascript to compile your python scripts to javascript. (Python2.7 is not required)

npm install python-js

NodeJS Quick Example

var pythonjs = require('python-js');
var pycode = "a = []; a.append('hello'); a.append('world'); print(a)";
var jscode = pythonjs.translator.to_javascript( pycode );
eval( pythonjs.runtime.javascript + jscode );

Example Projects

The example projects below, require the NodeJS python-js package.

https://github.com/PythonJS/pythonjs-demo-server-nodejs

https://github.com/PythonJS/pypubjs

  1. translator.py

If you want to run the latest version of the translator, you will need to install Python2.7 and git clone this repo. (the NodeJS package above is not required) Then, to translate your python script, directly run the translator.py script in the "pythonjs" directory. You can give it a list of python files to translate at once.
It will output the translation to stdout. The default output type is JavaScript.
An html file can also be used as input, python code inside a script tag: <script type="text/python"> will be converted into JavaScript.

Usage::

translator.py [--help|--go|--dart|--coffee|--lua|--no-wrapper|--analyzer] file.py

Examples::

cd pythonjs
./translator.py myscript.py > myscript.js
./translator.py myapp.html > app.html

The option --no-wrapper will output the raw JavaScript, by default the output is wrapped as a requirejs module.

The option --analyzer requires the Dart SDK is installed to your home directory: ~/dart-sdk, if this option is used then your script is also translated using the dart backend and fed to dartanalyzer which will perform static analysis of your code. Dartanalyzer is able to catch many types of errors, like: missing functions, invalid names, calling a function with the wrong argument types. The quality of the analysis will depend on how much type information can be inferred from your code, combined with the variables you have manually typed. If dartanalyzer detects an error in your code, translation will abort, and debugging information is printed.

Speed

PythonJS gives you the option to optimize your program for speed with a new syntax for static typing, in some cases this results in code that is 20X faster. A variable can be statically typed as: int, float, long, str, list, or dict.
The translator then uses this type information to speed up runtime checks and method calls. In the example below x and y are typed as int.

def f(x,y):
	int x
	int y
	return x+y

The int type is accurate up to 53bits, if you need true 64bit integer math you can use the long type. Note using long requires the Long.js library.

You can further optimize your code with pythonjs.configure or special with statements that mark sections of the code as less dynamic.

N-Body benchmark

nbody

More benchmarks: Richards, n-body, Pystone, Fannkuch

GPU Translation

A Python typed subset can be translated to a GLSL fragment shader to speed up math on large arrays. GPU Documentation

Supported Features

####Language Overview

classes
multiple inheritance
operator overloading
function and class decorators
getter/setter function decorators
list comprehensions
yield (generator functions)
regular and lambda functions
function calls with *args and **kwargs

####Language Keywords

global, nonlocal
while, for, continue, break
if, elif, else
try, except, raise
def, lambda
new, class
from, import, as
pass, assert
and, or, is, in, not
return, yield

####HTML DOM: for item in iterable NodeList FileList ClientRectList DOMSettableTokenList DOMStringList DataTransferItemList HTMLCollection HTMLAllCollection SVGElementInstanceList SVGNumberList SVGTransformList

####Operator Overloading

__getattr__
__getattribute__
__getitem__
__setitem__
__call__
__iter__
__add__
__mul__

####builtins

dir
type
hasattr
getattr
setattr
issubclass
isinstance
dict
list
tuple
int
float
str
round
range
sum
len
map
filter
min
max
abs
ord
chr
open  (nodejs only)

####List

list.append
list.extend
list.remove
list.insert
list.index
list.count
list.pop
list.__len__
list.__contains__
list.__getitem__
list.__setitem__
list.__iter__
list.__getslice__

####Set

set.bisect
set.difference
set.intersection
set.issubset

####String

str.split
str.splitlines
str.strip
str.startswith
str.endswith
str.join
str.upper
str.lower
str.index
str.find
str.isdigit
str.format
str.__iter__
str.__getitem__
str.__len__
str.__getslice__

####Dict

dict.copy
dict.clear
dict.has_key
dict.update
dict.items
dict.keys
dict.get
dict.set
dict.pop
dict.values
dict.__contains__
dict.__iter__
dict.__len__
dict.__getitem__
dict.__setitem__

####Libraries

time.time
time.sleep
math.sin
math.cos
math.sqrt
array.array
os.path.dirname
bisect.bisect
random.random
threading.start_new_thread

#####Libraries (nodejs only) tempfile.gettempdir sys.stdin sys.stdout sys.stderr sys.argv sys.exit subprocess.Popen subprocess.call os.path.*


Regression Tests

The best way to see what features are currently supported with each of the backends is to run the automated regression tests in PythonJS/regtests. To test all the backends you need to install NodeJS, CoffeeScript, and Dart2JS. You should download the Dart SDK, and make sure that the executeable dart2js is in ~/dart-sdk/bin/

####Run Regression Tests

cd PythonJS/regtests
./run.py

Community

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/pythonjs

irc freenode::

#pythonjs

pythonjs.configure

The special function call pythonjs.configure can be inserted anywhere in your code to turn off an on dynamic features of the language.

If the option direct_keys is True then dictionary key lookups are done directly (faster), objects can not be used as keys, only strings and numbers can then be used as dictionary keys.

The option direct_operator controls operator overloading for a given operator: '+', '*'. If '+' is declared a direct operator then __add__ overload methods are not called, the operands are always assumed to be compatible with javascript addition.

The option runtime_exceptions if False disables extra runtime checking of expressions and assignments, note this is always False in javascript mode.

pythonjs.configure(
	javascript=True/False,          ## default False
	runtime_exceptions=True/False,  ## default True
	direct_keys=True/False,         ## default False
	direct_operator=string          ## default 'None'
)

Gotchas

  1. in a dictionary number keys will be converted to strings. In the example below the key 100 and "100" are the same key.
a = {"100": 'X'}
a[ 100 ] = 'Y'
  1. The calling context of this must be taken into account when using fast javascript mode, code that comes after: pythonjs.configure(javascript=True) or is inside a with javascript: block. When in javascript mode, passing a method as a callback, or setting it as an attribute on another object, requires you call f.bind(self) to ensure that self within the method points to the class instance. This is not required when using classes defined normal mode, because the this calling context is automatically managed. Note: you can use the special -> syntax in place of the attribute operator . to call bind automatically.
class A:
	def method(self):
		print(self)

a = A()

with javascript:
	class B:
		def method(self):
			print(self)

	b = B()
	a.b_method1 = b.method
	a.b_method2 = b.method.bind(b)
	a.b_method3 = b->method

	a.method()     ## OK: prints a
	a.b_method1()  ## FAILS: prints a, should have printed b
	a.b_method2()  ## OK: prints b
	a.b_method3()  ## OK: prints b

	b.a_method = a.method
	b.a_method()   ## OK: prints a

  1. When using direct operators, builtins are also affected. List + list will no longer return a new array of items from both lists. String * N will no longer return the string multipled by the number.
a = [1,2] + [3,4]  ## OK: a is [1,2,3,4]
pythonjs.configure(direct_operator="+")
b = [1,2] + [3,4]  ## FAILS

c = "HI" * 2  ## OK: c is "HIHI"
pythonjs.configure(direct_operator="*")
d = "HI" * 2  ## FAILS

  1. The syntax from mymodule import * allows you to import another python script from the same folder, but both mymodule and the parent will share the same namespace, mymodule can use global variables defined in the parent.

  2. Using tuples as keys in a dict is allowed, the tuple may contain other tuples, objects, and a mix of numbers or strings. Note that tuples in PythonJS are actually JavaScript arrays, so if you modify the contents of the tuple, it would no longer be the same key in a dict.

a = (1,2,3)
b = ("1","2","3")
D = { a: 'hello', b: 'world' }
D[ a ] == 'hello'  ## OK
D[ b ] == 'world'  ## OK
  1. AttributeError and KeyError are only raised in javascript mode when inside a block that catches those errors. In the default python mode these errors will always be thrown, and halt the program.
pythonjs.configure(javascript=True)
a = {}
# this will not throw any error
b = a['xxx']
# this works as expected, "b" will be set to "my-default"
b = a['xxx'] except KeyError: 'my-default'