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"""YOLO_v3 Model Defined in Keras."""
from functools import wraps
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
from keras import backend as K
from keras.layers import Conv2D, Add, ZeroPadding2D, UpSampling2D, Concatenate
from keras.layers.advanced_activations import LeakyReLU
from keras.layers.normalization import BatchNormalization
from keras.models import Model
from keras.regularizers import l2
from yolo3.utils import compose
@wraps(Conv2D)
def DarknetConv2D(*args, **kwargs):
"""Wrapper to set Darknet parameters for Convolution2D."""
darknet_conv_kwargs = {'kernel_regularizer': l2(5e-4)}
darknet_conv_kwargs['padding'] = 'valid' if kwargs.get('strides')==(2,2) else 'same'
darknet_conv_kwargs.update(kwargs)
return Conv2D(*args, **darknet_conv_kwargs)
def DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(*args, **kwargs):
"""Darknet Convolution2D followed by BatchNormalization and LeakyReLU."""
no_bias_kwargs = {'use_bias': False}
no_bias_kwargs.update(kwargs)
return compose(
DarknetConv2D(*args, **no_bias_kwargs),
BatchNormalization(),
LeakyReLU(alpha=0.1))
def resblock_body(x, num_filters, num_blocks):
'''A series of resblocks starting with a downsampling Convolution2D'''
# Darknet uses left and top padding instead of 'same' mode
x = ZeroPadding2D(((1,0),(1,0)))(x)
x = DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters, (3,3), strides=(2,2))(x)
for i in range(num_blocks):
y = compose(
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters//2, (1,1)),
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters, (3,3)))(x)
x = Add()([x,y])
return x
def darknet_body(x):
'''Darknent body having 52 Convolution2D layers'''
x = DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(32, (3,3))(x)
x = resblock_body(x, 64, 1)
x = resblock_body(x, 128, 2)
x = resblock_body(x, 256, 8)
x = resblock_body(x, 512, 8)
x = resblock_body(x, 1024, 4)
return x
def make_last_layers(x, num_filters, out_filters):
'''6 Conv2D_BN_Leaky layers followed by a Conv2D_linear layer'''
x = compose(
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters, (1,1)),
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters*2, (3,3)),
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters, (1,1)),
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters*2, (3,3)),
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters, (1,1)))(x)
y = compose(
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(num_filters*2, (3,3)),
DarknetConv2D(out_filters, (1,1)))(x)
return x, y
def yolo_body(inputs, num_anchors, num_classes):
"""Create YOLO_V3 model CNN body in Keras."""
darknet = Model(inputs, darknet_body(inputs))
x, y1 = make_last_layers(darknet.output, 512, num_anchors*(num_classes+5))
x = compose(
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(256, (1,1)),
UpSampling2D(2))(x)
x = Concatenate()([x,darknet.layers[152].output])
x, y2 = make_last_layers(x, 256, num_anchors*(num_classes+5))
x = compose(
DarknetConv2D_BN_Leaky(128, (1,1)),
UpSampling2D(2))(x)
x = Concatenate()([x,darknet.layers[92].output])
x, y3 = make_last_layers(x, 128, num_anchors*(num_classes+5))
return Model(inputs, [y1,y2,y3])
def yolo_head(feats, anchors, num_classes, input_shape):
"""Convert final layer features to bounding box parameters."""
num_anchors = len(anchors)
# Reshape to batch, height, width, num_anchors, box_params.
anchors_tensor = K.reshape(K.constant(anchors), [1, 1, 1, num_anchors, 2])
grid_shape = K.shape(feats)[1:3] # height, width
grid_y = K.tile(K.reshape(K.arange(0, stop=grid_shape[0]), [-1, 1, 1, 1]),
[1, grid_shape[1], 1, 1])
grid_x = K.tile(K.reshape(K.arange(0, stop=grid_shape[1]), [1, -1, 1, 1]),
[grid_shape[0], 1, 1, 1])
grid = K.concatenate([grid_x, grid_y])
grid = K.cast(grid, K.dtype(feats))
feats = K.reshape(
feats, [-1, grid_shape[0], grid_shape[1], num_anchors, num_classes + 5])
box_xy = K.sigmoid(feats[..., :2])
box_wh = K.exp(feats[..., 2:4])
box_confidence = K.sigmoid(feats[..., 4:5])
box_class_probs = K.sigmoid(feats[..., 5:])
# Adjust preditions to each spatial grid point and anchor size.
box_xy = (box_xy + grid) / K.cast(grid_shape[::-1], K.dtype(feats))
box_wh = box_wh * anchors_tensor / K.cast(input_shape[::-1], K.dtype(feats))
return box_xy, box_wh, box_confidence, box_class_probs
def yolo_correct_boxes(box_xy, box_wh, input_shape, image_shape):
'''Get corrected boxes'''
box_yx = box_xy[..., ::-1]
box_hw = box_wh[..., ::-1]
input_shape = K.cast(input_shape, K.dtype(box_yx))
image_shape = K.cast(image_shape, K.dtype(box_yx))
new_shape = K.round(image_shape * K.min(input_shape/image_shape))
offset = (input_shape-new_shape)/2./input_shape
scale = input_shape/new_shape
box_yx = (box_yx - offset) * scale
box_hw *= scale
box_mins = box_yx - (box_hw / 2.)
box_maxes = box_yx + (box_hw / 2.)
boxes = K.concatenate([
box_mins[..., 0:1], # y_min
box_mins[..., 1:2], # x_min
box_maxes[..., 0:1], # y_max
box_maxes[..., 1:2] # x_max
])
# Scale boxes back to original image shape.
boxes *= K.concatenate([image_shape, image_shape])
return boxes
def yolo_boxes_and_scores(feats, anchors, num_classes, input_shape, image_shape):
'''Process Conv layer output'''
box_xy, box_wh, box_confidence, box_class_probs = yolo_head(feats,
anchors, num_classes, input_shape)
boxes = yolo_correct_boxes(box_xy, box_wh, input_shape, image_shape)
boxes = K.reshape(boxes, [-1, 4])
box_scores = box_confidence * box_class_probs
box_scores = K.reshape(box_scores, [-1, num_classes])
return boxes, box_scores
def yolo_eval(yolo_outputs,
anchors,
num_classes,
image_shape,
max_boxes=20,
score_threshold=.6,
iou_threshold=.5):
"""Evaluate YOLO model on given input and return filtered boxes."""
anchor_mask = [[6,7,8], [3,4,5], [0,1,2]]
input_shape = K.shape(yolo_outputs[0])[1:3] * 32
boxes = []
box_scores = []
for l in range(3):
_boxes, _box_scores = yolo_boxes_and_scores(yolo_outputs[l],
anchors[anchor_mask[l]], num_classes, input_shape, image_shape)
boxes.append(_boxes)
box_scores.append(_box_scores)
boxes = K.concatenate(boxes, axis=0)
box_scores = K.concatenate(box_scores, axis=0)
mask = box_scores >= score_threshold
max_boxes_tensor = K.constant(max_boxes, dtype='int32')
boxes_ = []
scores_ = []
classes_ = []
for c in range(num_classes):
# TODO: use keras backend instead of tf.
class_boxes = tf.boolean_mask(boxes, mask[:, c])
class_box_scores = tf.boolean_mask(box_scores[:, c], mask[:, c])
nms_index = tf.image.non_max_suppression(
class_boxes, class_box_scores, max_boxes_tensor, iou_threshold=iou_threshold)
class_boxes = K.gather(class_boxes, nms_index)
class_box_scores = K.gather(class_box_scores, nms_index)
classes = K.ones_like(class_box_scores, 'int32') * c
boxes_.append(class_boxes)
scores_.append(class_box_scores)
classes_.append(classes)
boxes_ = K.concatenate(boxes_, axis=0)
scores_ = K.concatenate(scores_, axis=0)
classes_ = K.concatenate(classes_, axis=0)
return boxes_, scores_, classes_
def preprocess_true_boxes(true_boxes, input_shape, anchors, num_classes):
'''Preprocess true boxes to training input format
Parameters
----------
true_boxes: array, shape=(m, T, 5)
Absolute x_min, y_min, x_max, y_max, class_code reletive to input_shape.
input_shape: array-like, hw, multiples of 32
anchors: array, shape=(N, 2), wh
num_classes: integer
Returns
-------
y_true: list of array, shape like yolo_outputs, xywh are reletive value
'''
anchor_mask = [[6,7,8], [3,4,5], [0,1,2]]
true_boxes = np.array(true_boxes, dtype='float32')
input_shape = np.array(input_shape, dtype='int32')
boxes_xy = (true_boxes[..., 0:2] + true_boxes[..., 2:4]) // 2
boxes_wh = true_boxes[..., 2:4] - true_boxes[..., 0:2]
true_boxes[..., 0:2] = boxes_xy/input_shape[::-1]
true_boxes[..., 2:4] = boxes_wh/input_shape[::-1]
m = true_boxes.shape[0]
grid_shapes = [input_shape//{0:32, 1:16, 2:8}[l] for l in range(3)]
y_true = [np.zeros((m,grid_shapes[l][0],grid_shapes[l][1],len(anchor_mask[l]),5+num_classes),
dtype='float32') for l in range(3)]
# Expand dim to apply broadcasting.
anchors = np.expand_dims(anchors, 0)
anchor_maxes = anchors / 2.
anchor_mins = -anchor_maxes
valid_mask = boxes_wh[..., 0]>0
for b in range(m):
# Discard zero rows.
wh = boxes_wh[b, valid_mask[b]]
# Expand dim to apply broadcasting.
wh = np.expand_dims(wh, -2)
box_maxes = wh / 2.
box_mins = -box_maxes
intersect_mins = np.maximum(box_mins, anchor_mins)
intersect_maxes = np.minimum(box_maxes, anchor_maxes)
intersect_wh = np.maximum(intersect_maxes - intersect_mins, 0.)
intersect_area = intersect_wh[..., 0] * intersect_wh[..., 1]
box_area = wh[..., 0] * wh[..., 1]
anchor_area = anchors[..., 0] * anchors[..., 1]
iou = intersect_area / (box_area + anchor_area - intersect_area)
# Find best anchor for each true box
best_anchor = np.argmax(iou, axis=-1)
for t, n in enumerate(best_anchor):
for l in range(3):
if n in anchor_mask[l]:
i = np.floor(true_boxes[b,t,0]*grid_shapes[l][1]).astype('int32')
j = np.floor(true_boxes[b,t,1]*grid_shapes[l][0]).astype('int32')
n = anchor_mask[l].index(n)
c = true_boxes[b,t, 4].astype('int32')
y_true[l][b, j, i, n, 0:4] = true_boxes[b,t, 0:4]
y_true[l][b, j, i, n, 4] = 1
y_true[l][b, j, i, n, 5+c] = 1
break
return y_true
def box_iou(b1, b2):
'''Return iou tensor
Parameters
----------
b1: tensor, shape=(i1,...,iN, 4), xywh
b2: tensor, shape=(j, 4), xywh
Returns
-------
iou: tensor, shape=(i1,...,iN, j)
'''
# Expand dim to apply broadcasting.
b1 = K.expand_dims(b1, -2)
b1_xy = b1[..., :2]
b1_wh = b1[..., 2:4]
b1_wh_half = b1_wh/2.
b1_mins = b1_xy - b1_wh_half
b1_maxes = b1_xy + b1_wh_half
# Expand dim to apply broadcasting.
b2 = K.expand_dims(b2, 0)
b2_xy = b2[..., :2]
b2_wh = b2[..., 2:4]
b2_wh_half = b2_wh/2.
b2_mins = b2_xy - b2_wh_half
b2_maxes = b2_xy + b2_wh_half
intersect_mins = K.maximum(b1_mins, b2_mins)
intersect_maxes = K.minimum(b1_maxes, b2_maxes)
intersect_wh = K.maximum(intersect_maxes - intersect_mins, 0.)
intersect_area = intersect_wh[..., 0] * intersect_wh[..., 1]
b1_area = b1_wh[..., 0] * b1_wh[..., 1]
b2_area = b2_wh[..., 0] * b2_wh[..., 1]
iou = intersect_area / (b1_area + b2_area - intersect_area)
return iou
def yolo_loss(args, anchors, num_classes, ignore_thresh=.5):
'''Return yolo_loss tensor
Parameters
----------
yolo_outputs: list of tensor, the output of yolo_body
y_true: list of array, the output of preprocess_true_boxes
anchors: array, shape=(T, 2), wh
num_classes: integer
ignore_thresh: float, the iou threshold whether to ignore object confidence loss
Returns
-------
loss: tensor, shape=(1,)
'''
yolo_outputs = args[:3]
y_true = args[3:]
anchor_mask = [[6,7,8], [3,4,5], [0,1,2]]
input_shape = K.cast(K.shape(yolo_outputs[0])[1:3] * 32, K.dtype(y_true[0]))
grid_shapes = [K.cast(K.shape(yolo_outputs[l])[1:3], K.dtype(y_true[0])) for l in range(3)]
loss = 0
m = K.shape(yolo_outputs[0])[0]
for l in range(3):
object_mask = y_true[l][..., 4:5]
true_class_probs = y_true[l][..., 5:]
pred_xy, pred_wh, pred_confidence, pred_class_probs = yolo_head(yolo_outputs[l],
anchors[anchor_mask[l]], num_classes, input_shape)
pred_box = K.concatenate([pred_xy, pred_wh])
# Darknet box loss.
xy_delta = (y_true[l][..., :2]-pred_xy)*grid_shapes[l][::-1]
wh_delta = K.log(y_true[l][..., 2:4]) - K.log(pred_wh)
# Avoid log(0)=-inf.
wh_delta = K.switch(object_mask, wh_delta, K.zeros_like(wh_delta))
box_delta = K.concatenate([xy_delta, wh_delta], axis=-1)
box_delta_scale = 2 - y_true[l][...,2:3]*y_true[l][...,3:4]
# Find ignore mask, iterate over each of batch.
ignore_mask = tf.TensorArray(K.dtype(y_true[0]), size=1, dynamic_size=True)
object_mask_bool = K.cast(object_mask, 'bool')
def loop_body(b, ignore_mask):
true_box = tf.boolean_mask(y_true[l][b,...,0:4], object_mask_bool[b,...,0])
iou = box_iou(pred_box[b], true_box)
best_iou = K.max(iou, axis=-1)
ignore_mask = ignore_mask.write(b, K.cast(best_iou<ignore_thresh, K.dtype(true_box)))
return b+1, ignore_mask
_, ignore_mask = K.control_flow_ops.while_loop(lambda b,*args: b<m, loop_body, [0, ignore_mask])
ignore_mask = ignore_mask.stack()
ignore_mask = K.expand_dims(ignore_mask, -1)
box_loss = object_mask * K.square(box_delta*box_delta_scale)
confidence_loss = object_mask * K.square(1-pred_confidence) + \
(1-object_mask) * K.square(0-pred_confidence) * ignore_mask
class_loss = object_mask * K.square(true_class_probs-pred_class_probs)
loss += K.sum(box_loss) + K.sum(confidence_loss) + K.sum(class_loss)
return loss / K.cast(m, K.dtype(loss))
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