Haskell code associated to the "Testing Noninterference, Quickly" paper. The associated Coq proofs are in a separate repository: https://github.com/QuickChick/IFC
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Code for Testing Noninterference


  • Haskell code associated to the following paper:
    • Catalin Hritcu, Leonidas Lampropoulos, Antal Spector-Zabusky, Arthur Azevedo de Amorim, Maxime Dénès, John Hughes, Benjamin C. Pierce, and Dimitrios Vytiniotis. Testing Noninterference, Quickly. arXiv:1409.0393. Submitted to Special Issue of Journal of Functional Programming for ICFP 2013. September 2014. (http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.0393)
  • The associated Coq proofs are in a separate repository: https://github.com/QuickChick/IFC


  • GHC 7.4.x-7.8.x (known to work with 7.4.1, 7.6.3, and 7.8.3)
  • Haskell packages (available with 'cabal install package-name'):
    • QuickCheck 2.7.x (known to work with 2.7.3)
    • CmdArgs >0.9.5
    • concurrent-extra
  • UNIX utilities like make, echo, rm, etc.


Run "make" in the top directory

Using ghci

All you need to do is invoke ghci (e.g. C-c C-l in Emacs if using haskell-mode default key bindings) and the .ghci files will take care of the rest.

On Linux you might have permission problems (you might see "WARNING: .ghci is writable by someone else, IGNORING!" when starting ghci), in which case you need to make sure that this dir, its subdirs and the .ghci files inside are not group readable. A command like

chmod -R g-w .

should usually solve the problem.



stack/    -- Simple information-flow stack machine

    Machine.hs     : definition of the abstract machine
    Generation.hs  : random program generation
    Driver.hs      : experiment set up, top level properties, main
    Flags.hs       : various flags configuration of a machine
    Instr.hs       : instruction set architecture
    Labels.hs      : label models and observations
    Observable.hs  : observable classes
    ObservableInst.hs : observable classes and shrinking variations

register/ -- Information-flow register machine with advanced features

common/ -- Common definitions, and helpers
    Machine.hs              : common definitions for generic "machines"
    Pretty.hs               : pretty printing
    Trace.hs                : execution traces
    Util.hs                 : misc. helpers

Old description for stack machine code (TODO: bring this up to date)

Running the test driver from command line

You may run the test driver from the command line with:


This will run with the default configuration, shown in Flags.hs However you may override one of the options manually as well -- for instance:

./Driver --gen-strategy=GenNaive --tests=10000


./Driver --gen-strategy=GenByExec --tests=30000

All values (and names for named options) are specified in Flags.hs. Finally, you may run:

./Driver --help

to see a list of available options.

Basic profiling of test generation

TMUDriver contains flags that can profile tests for some basic statistics. Namely, the




run profiling on tests with the current configuration. The former is profiling execution lenghts, the latter is profiling the reasons for termination. You may use --tests to determine the number of tests, or --gen-strategy to determine under which strategy you want to profile, etc.

Bulk testing and profiling

Some new options have been introduced that help profile/test in the bulk.

Namely, you may want to give a string argument to --ifc-semantics, e.g.:


which will iterate over these two buggy behaviors. The --ifc-semantics flag stands for a list of behaviours you would like to test. For convenience there exists a wildcard value:


which you may use to iterate over all bugs.

When testing you may want to suppress printing information from the actual counterexample, which you can do with: --show-counterexamples=False

Here is an example usage:

./Driver --ifc-semantics="*"

Iterates over all bugs using GenByExec, not showing counterexamples. It will print out average results in some format [DV:TODO]

Coding syntax rules

The rationale for these rules is that they make refactoring easier.

In ghci, warnings will be raised:

  • if a top-level declaration is missing a type signature
  • if a tab is present
  • if a do block uses a value of type m A, for A ≠ (), without binding it to a value
  • if you have an incomplete set of pattern matches

For instance,

Prelude> let j (Just a) = a
  Warning: Pattern match(es) are non-exhaustive
    In an equation for `j': Patterns not matched: Nothing

At compile-time, these warnings are errors: you're forced to stick to these coding standards.