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from __future__ import (
unicode_literals,
absolute_import,
print_function,
division,
)
nstr = str
str = type('')
import io
import os
import mmap
import errno
import struct
import warnings
from time import sleep
from threading import Thread, Event, Lock
from collections import Counter
from .local import LocalPiPin, LocalPiFactory
from ..exc import (
PinInvalidPull,
PinInvalidEdges,
PinInvalidFunction,
PinFixedPull,
PinSetInput,
)
class GPIOMemory(object):
GPIO_BASE_OFFSET = 0x200000
PERI_BASE_OFFSET = {
'BCM2708': 0x20000000,
'BCM2835': 0x20000000,
'BCM2709': 0x3f000000,
'BCM2836': 0x3f000000,
}
# From BCM2835 data-sheet, p.91
GPFSEL_OFFSET = 0x00 >> 2
GPSET_OFFSET = 0x1c >> 2
GPCLR_OFFSET = 0x28 >> 2
GPLEV_OFFSET = 0x34 >> 2
GPEDS_OFFSET = 0x40 >> 2
GPREN_OFFSET = 0x4c >> 2
GPFEN_OFFSET = 0x58 >> 2
GPHEN_OFFSET = 0x64 >> 2
GPLEN_OFFSET = 0x70 >> 2
GPAREN_OFFSET = 0x7c >> 2
GPAFEN_OFFSET = 0x88 >> 2
GPPUD_OFFSET = 0x94 >> 2
GPPUDCLK_OFFSET = 0x98 >> 2
def __init__(self):
try:
self.fd = os.open('/dev/gpiomem', os.O_RDWR | os.O_SYNC)
except OSError:
try:
self.fd = os.open('/dev/mem', os.O_RDWR | os.O_SYNC)
except OSError:
raise IOError(
'unable to open /dev/gpiomem or /dev/mem; '
'upgrade your kernel or run as root')
else:
offset = self.peripheral_base() + self.GPIO_BASE_OFFSET
else:
offset = 0
self.mem = mmap.mmap(self.fd, 4096, offset=offset)
def close(self):
self.mem.close()
os.close(self.fd)
def peripheral_base(self):
try:
with io.open('/proc/device-tree/soc/ranges', 'rb') as f:
f.seek(4)
return struct.unpack(nstr('>L'), f.read(4))[0]
except IOError:
with io.open('/proc/cpuinfo', 'r') as f:
for line in f:
if line.startswith('Hardware'):
try:
return self.PERI_BASE_OFFSET[line.split(':')[1].strip()]
except KeyError:
raise IOError('unable to determine RPi revision')
raise IOError('unable to determine peripheral base')
def __getitem__(self, index):
return struct.unpack_from(nstr('<L'), self.mem, index * 4)[0]
def __setitem__(self, index, value):
struct.pack_into(nstr('<L'), self.mem, index * 4, value)
class GPIOFS(object):
GPIO_PATH = '/sys/class/gpio'
def __init__(self):
self._lock = Lock()
self._pin_refs = Counter()
def path(self, name):
return os.path.join(self.GPIO_PATH, name)
def export(self, pin):
with self._lock:
if self._pin_refs[pin] == 0:
# Set the count to 1 to indicate the GPIO is already exported
# (we'll correct this if we find it isn't, but this enables us
# to "leave the system in the state we found it")
self._pin_refs[pin] = 1
result = None
# Dirty hack to wait for udev to set permissions on
# gpioN/direction; there's no other way around this as there's
# no synchronous mechanism for setting permissions on sysfs
for i in range(10):
try:
result = io.open(self.path('gpio%d/value' % pin), 'w+b', buffering=0)
except IOError as e:
if e.errno == errno.ENOENT:
with io.open(self.path('export'), 'wb') as f:
f.write(str(pin).encode('ascii'))
# Pin wasn't exported, so correct the ref-count
self._pin_refs[pin] = 0
elif e.errno == errno.EACCES:
sleep(i / 100)
else:
raise
else:
break
if not result:
raise RuntimeError('failed to export pin %d' % pin)
else:
result = io.open(self.path('gpio%d/value' % pin), 'w+b', buffering=0)
self._pin_refs[pin] += 1
return result
def unexport(self, pin):
with self._lock:
self._pin_refs[pin] -= 1
if self._pin_refs[pin] == 0:
with io.open(self.path('unexport'), 'wb') as f:
f.write(str(pin).encode('ascii'))
class NativeFactory(LocalPiFactory):
"""
Uses a built-in pure Python implementation to interface to the Pi's GPIO
pins. This is the default pin implementation if no third-party libraries
are discovered.
.. warning::
This implementation does *not* currently support PWM. Attempting to
use any class which requests PWM will raise an exception. This
implementation is also experimental; we make no guarantees it will
not eat your Pi for breakfast!
You can construct native pin instances manually like so::
from gpiozero.pins.native import NativeFactory
from gpiozero import LED
factory = NativeFactory()
led = LED(12, pin_factory=factory)
"""
def __init__(self):
super(NativeFactory, self).__init__()
self.mem = GPIOMemory()
self.pin_class = NativePin
def close(self):
super(NativeFactory, self).close()
self.mem.close()
class NativePin(LocalPiPin):
"""
Native pin implementation. See :class:`NativeFactory` for more information.
"""
GPIO_FUNCTIONS = {
'input': 0b000,
'output': 0b001,
'alt0': 0b100,
'alt1': 0b101,
'alt2': 0b110,
'alt3': 0b111,
'alt4': 0b011,
'alt5': 0b010,
}
GPIO_PULL_UPS = {
'up': 0b10,
'down': 0b01,
'floating': 0b00,
'reserved': 0b11,
}
GPIO_EDGES = {
'both': (True, True),
'rising': (True, False),
'falling': (False, True),
'none': (False, False),
}
GPIO_FUNCTION_NAMES = {v: k for (k, v) in GPIO_FUNCTIONS.items()}
GPIO_PULL_UP_NAMES = {v: k for (k, v) in GPIO_PULL_UPS.items()}
GPIO_EDGES_NAMES = {v: k for (k, v) in GPIO_EDGES.items()}
def __init__(self, factory, number):
super(NativePin, self).__init__(factory, number)
self._func_offset = self.factory.mem.GPFSEL_OFFSET + (number // 10)
self._func_shift = (number % 10) * 3
self._set_offset = self.factory.mem.GPSET_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._set_shift = number % 32
self._clear_offset = self.factory.mem.GPCLR_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._clear_shift = number % 32
self._level_offset = self.factory.mem.GPLEV_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._level_shift = number % 32
self._pull_offset = self.factory.mem.GPPUDCLK_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._pull_shift = number % 32
self._edge_offset = self.factory.mem.GPEDS_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._edge_shift = number % 32
self._rising_offset = self.factory.mem.GPREN_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._rising_shift = number % 32
self._falling_offset = self.factory.mem.GPFEN_OFFSET + (number // 32)
self._falling_shift = number % 32
self._when_changed = None
self._change_thread = None
self._change_event = Event()
self.function = 'input'
self.pull = 'up' if self.factory.pi_info.pulled_up(repr(self)) else 'floating'
self.bounce = None
self.edges = 'both'
def close(self):
self.frequency = None
self.when_changed = None
self.function = 'input'
self.pull = 'up' if self.factory.pi_info.pulled_up(repr(self)) else 'floating'
def _get_function(self):
return self.GPIO_FUNCTION_NAMES[(self.factory.mem[self._func_offset] >> self._func_shift) & 7]
def _set_function(self, value):
try:
value = self.GPIO_FUNCTIONS[value]
except KeyError:
raise PinInvalidFunction('invalid function "%s" for pin %r' % (value, self))
self.factory.mem[self._func_offset] = (
self.factory.mem[self._func_offset]
& ~(7 << self._func_shift)
| (value << self._func_shift)
)
def _get_state(self):
return bool(self.factory.mem[self._level_offset] & (1 << self._level_shift))
def _set_state(self, value):
if self.function == 'input':
raise PinSetInput('cannot set state of pin %r' % self)
if value:
self.factory.mem[self._set_offset] = 1 << self._set_shift
else:
self.factory.mem[self._clear_offset] = 1 << self._clear_shift
def _get_pull(self):
return self.GPIO_PULL_UP_NAMES[self._pull]
def _set_pull(self, value):
if self.function != 'input':
raise PinFixedPull('cannot set pull on non-input pin %r' % self)
if value != 'up' and self.factory.pi_info.pulled_up(repr(self)):
raise PinFixedPull('%r has a physical pull-up resistor' % self)
try:
value = self.GPIO_PULL_UPS[value]
except KeyError:
raise PinInvalidPull('invalid pull direction "%s" for pin %r' % (value, self))
self.factory.mem[self.factory.mem.GPPUD_OFFSET] = value
sleep(0.000000214)
self.factory.mem[self._pull_offset] = 1 << self._pull_shift
sleep(0.000000214)
self.factory.mem[self.factory.mem.GPPUD_OFFSET] = 0
self.factory.mem[self._pull_offset] = 0
self._pull = value
def _get_edges(self):
rising = bool(self.factory.mem[self._rising_offset] & (1 << self._rising_shift))
falling = bool(self.factory.mem[self._falling_offset] & (1 << self._falling_shift))
return self.GPIO_EDGES_NAMES[(rising, falling)]
def _set_edges(self, value):
try:
rising, falling = self.GPIO_EDGES[value]
except KeyError:
raise PinInvalidEdges('invalid edge specification "%s" for pin %r' % self)
f = self.when_changed
self.when_changed = None
try:
self.factory.mem[self._rising_offset] = (
self.factory.mem[self._rising_offset]
& ~(1 << self._rising_shift)
| (rising << self._rising_shift)
)
self.factory.mem[self._falling_offset] = (
self.factory.mem[self._falling_offset]
& ~(1 << self._falling_shift)
| (falling << self._falling_shift)
)
finally:
self.when_changed = f
def _enable_event_detect(self):
self._change_thread = Thread(target=self._change_watch)
self._change_thread.daemon = True
self._change_event.clear()
self._change_thread.start()
def _disable_event_detect(self):
self._change_event.set()
self._change_thread.join()
self._change_thread = None
def _change_watch(self):
offset = self._edge_offset
mask = 1 << self._edge_shift
self.factory.mem[offset] = mask # clear any existing detection bit
while not self._change_event.wait(0.001):
if self.factory.mem[offset] & mask:
self.factory.mem[offset] = mask
self._call_when_changed()