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lxml changelog
3.0alpha2 (2012-08-23)
Features added
* The ``.iter()`` method of elements now accepts ``tag`` arguments like
``"{*}name"`` to search for elements with a given local name in any
namespace. With this addition, all combinations of wildcards now work
as expected:
``"{ns}name"``, ``"{}name"``, ``"{*}name"``, ``"{ns}*"``, ``"{}*"``
and ``"{*}*"``. Note that ``"name"`` is equivalent to ``"{}name"``,
but ``"*"`` is ``"{*}*"``.
The same change applies to the ``.getiterator()``, ``.itersiblings()``,
``.iterancestors()``, ``.iterdescendants()``, ``.iterchildren()``
and ``.itertext()`` methods;the ``strip_attributes()``,
``strip_elements()`` and ``strip_tags()`` functions as well as the
``iterparse()`` class.
* C14N allows specifying the inclusive prefixes to be promoted
to top-level during exclusive serialisation.
Bugs fixed
* Passing long Unicode strings into the ``feed()`` parser interface
failed to read the entire string.
Other changes
* The code was adapted to work with the upcoming libxml2 2.9.0 release.
3.0alpha1 (2012-07-31)
Features added
* Initial support for building in PyPy (through cpyext).
* DTD objects gained an API that allows read access to their
* ```` gained support for parsing line-by-line (e.g.
from grep output) and for surrounding the output with a new root
* ``E-factory`` in ``lxml.builder`` accepts subtypes of known data
types (such as string subtypes) when building elements around them.
* Tree iteration and ``iterparse()`` with a selective ``tag``
argument supports passing a set of tags. Tree nodes will be
returned by the iterators if they match any of the tags.
Bugs fixed
* The ``.find*()`` methods in ``lxml.objectify`` no longer use XPath
internally, which makes them faster in many cases (especially when
short circuiting after a single or couple of elements) and fixes
some behavioural differences compared to ``lxml.etree``. Note that
this means that they no longer support arbitrary XPath expressions
but only the subset that the ``ElementPath`` language supports.
The previous implementation was also redundant with the normal
XPath support, which can be used as a replacement.
* ``el.find('*')`` could accidentally return a comment or processing
instruction that happened to be in the wrong spot. (Same for the
other ``.find*()`` methods.)
* The error logging is less intrusive and avoids a global setup where
* Fixed undefined names in html5lib parser.
* ```` did not work in Python 3.
* ``Element.attrib.update()`` did not accept an ``attrib`` of
another Element as parameter.
* For subtypes of ``ElementBase`` that make the ``.text`` or ``.tail``
properties immutable (as in objectify, for example), inserting text
when creating Elements through the E-Factory feature of the class
constructor would fail with an exception, stating that the text
cannot be modified.
Other changes
* The code base was overhauled to properly use 'const' where the API
of libxml2 and libxslt requests it. This also has an impact on the
public C-API of lxml itself, as defined in ``etreepublic.pxd``, as
well as the provided declarations in the ``lxml/includes/`` directory.
Code that uses these declarations may have to be adapted. On the
plus side, this fixes several C compiler warnings, also for user
code, thus making it easier to spot real problems again.
* The functionality of "lxml.cssselect" was moved into a separate PyPI
package called "cssselect". To continue using it, you must install
that package separately. The "lxml.cssselect" module is still
available and provides the same interface, provided the "cssselect"
package can be imported at runtime.
* Element attributes passed in as an ``attrib`` dict or as keyword
arguments are now sorted by (namespaced) name before being created
to make their order predictable for serialisation and iteration.
Note that adding or deleting attributes afterwards does not take
that order into account, i.e. setting a new attribute appends it
after the existing ones.
* Several classes that are for internal use only were removed
from the ``lxml.etree`` module dict:
``_InputDocument, _ResolverRegistry, _ResolverContext, _BaseContext,
_ExsltRegExp, _IterparseContext, _TempStore, _ExceptionContext,
__ContentOnlyElement, _AttribIterator, _NamespaceRegistry,
_ClassNamespaceRegistry, _FunctionNamespaceRegistry,
_XPathFunctionNamespaceRegistry, _ParserDictionaryContext,
_FileReaderContext, _ParserContext, _PythonSaxParserTarget,
_TargetParserContext, _ReadOnlyProxy, _ReadOnlyPIProxy,
_ReadOnlyEntityProxy, _ReadOnlyElementProxy, _OpaqueNodeWrapper,
_OpaqueDocumentWrapper, _ModifyContentOnlyProxy,
_ModifyContentOnlyPIProxy, _ModifyContentOnlyEntityProxy,
_AppendOnlyElementProxy, _SaxParserContext, _FilelikeWriter,
_ParserSchemaValidationContext, _XPathContext,
_XSLTResolverContext, _XSLTContext, _XSLTQuotedStringParam``
* Several internal classes can no longer be inherited from:
``_InputDocument, _ResolverRegistry, _ExsltRegExp, _ElementUnicodeResult,
_IterparseContext, _TempStore, _AttribIterator, _ClassNamespaceRegistry,
_XPathFunctionNamespaceRegistry, _ParserDictionaryContext,
_FileReaderContext, _PythonSaxParserTarget, _TargetParserContext,
_ReadOnlyPIProxy, _ReadOnlyEntityProxy, _OpaqueDocumentWrapper,
_ModifyContentOnlyPIProxy, _ModifyContentOnlyEntityProxy,
_AppendOnlyElementProxy, _FilelikeWriter, _ParserSchemaValidationContext,
_XPathContext, _XSLTResolverContext, _XSLTContext, _XSLTQuotedStringParam,
_XSLTResultTree, _XSLTProcessingInstruction``
2.3.5 (2012-07-31)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Crash when merging text nodes in ``element.remove()``.
* Crash in sax/target parser when reporting empty doctype.
Other changes
2.3.4 (2012-03-26)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Crash when building an nsmap (Element property) with empty
namespace URIs.
* Crash due to race condition when errors (or user messages) occur
during threaded XSLT processing.
* XSLT stylesheet compilation could ignore compilation errors.
Other changes
2.3.3 (2012-01-04)
Features added
* ``lxml.html.tostring()`` gained new serialisation options
``with_tail`` and ``doctype``.
Bugs fixed
* Fixed a crash when using ``iterparse()`` for HTML parsing and
requesting start events.
* Fixed parsing of more selectors in cssselect. Whitespace before
pseudo-elements and pseudo-classes is significant as it is a
descendant combinator.
"E :pseudo" should parse the same as "E \*:pseudo", not "E:pseudo".
Patch by Simon Sapin.
* lxml.html.diff no longer raises an exception when hitting
'img' tags without 'src' attribute.
Other changes
2.3.2 (2011-11-11)
Features added
* ``lxml.objectify.deannotate()`` has a new boolean option
``cleanup_namespaces`` to remove the objectify namespace
declarations (and generally clean up the namespace declarations)
after removing the type annotations.
* ``lxml.objectify`` gained its own ``SubElement()`` function as a
copy of ``etree.SubElement`` to avoid an otherwise redundant import
of ``lxml.etree`` on the user side.
Bugs fixed
* Fixed the "descendant" bug in cssselect a second time (after a first
fix in lxml 2.3.1). The previous change resulted in a serious
performance regression for the XPath based evaluation of the
translated expression. Note that this breaks the usage of some of
the generated XPath expressions as XSLT location paths that
previously worked in 2.3.1.
* Fixed parsing of some selectors in cssselect. Whitespace after combinators
">", "+" and "~" is now correctly ignored. Previously is was parsed as
a descendant combinator. For example, "div> .foo" was parsed the same as
"div>* .foo" instead of "div>.foo". Patch by Simon Sapin.
Other changes
2.3.1 (2011-09-25)
Features added
* New option ``kill_tags`` in ``lxml.html.clean`` to remove specific
tags and their content (i.e. their whole subtree).
* ``pi.get()`` and ``pi.attrib`` on processing instructions to parse
pseudo-attributes from the text content of processing instructions.
* ``lxml.get_include()`` returns a list of include paths that can be
used to compile external C code against lxml.etree. This is
specifically required for statically linked lxml builds when code
needs to compile against the exact same header file versions as lxml
* ``Resolver.resolve_file()`` takes an additional option
``close_file`` that configures if the file(-like) object will be
closed after reading or not. By default, the file will be closed,
as the user is not expected to keep a reference to it.
Bugs fixed
* HTML cleaning didn't remove 'data:' links.
* The html5lib parser integration now uses the 'official'
implementation in html5lib itself, which makes it work with newer
releases of the library.
* In ``lxml.sax``, ``endElementNS()`` could incorrectly reject a plain
tag name when the corresponding start event inferred the same plain
tag name to be in the default namespace.
* When an open file-like object is passed into ``parse()`` or
``iterparse()``, the parser will no longer close it after use. This
reverts a change in lxml 2.3 where all files would be closed. It is
the users responsibility to properly close the file(-like) object,
also in error cases.
* Assertion error in lxml.html.cleaner when discarding top-level elements.
* In lxml.cssselect, use the xpath 'A//B' (short for
'A/descendant-or-self::node()/B') instead of 'A/descendant::B' for
the css descendant selector ('A B'). This makes a few edge cases
like ``"div *:last-child"`` consistent with the selector behavior in
WebKit and Firefox, and makes more css expressions valid location
paths (for use in xsl:template match).
* In lxml.html, non-selected ``<option>`` tags no longer show up in the
collected form values.
* Adding/removing ``<option>`` values to/from a multiple select form
field properly selects them and unselects them.
Other changes
* Static builds can specify the download directory with the
``--download-dir`` option.
2.3 (2011-02-06)
Features added
* When looking for children, ``lxml.objectify`` takes '{}tag' as
meaning an empty namespace, as opposed to the parent namespace.
Bugs fixed
* When finished reading from a file-like object, the parser
immediately calls its ``.close()`` method.
* When finished parsing, ``iterparse()`` immediately closes the input
* Work-around for libxml2 bug that can leave the HTML parser in a
non-functional state after parsing a severly broken document (fixed
in libxml2 2.7.8).
* ``marque`` tag in HTML cleanup code is correctly named ``marquee``.
Other changes
* Some public functions in the Cython-level C-API have more explicit
return types.
2.3beta1 (2010-09-06)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Crash in newer libxml2 versions when moving elements between
documents that had attributes on replaced XInclude nodes.
* ``XMLID()`` function was missing the optional ``parser`` and
``base_url`` parameters.
* Searching for wildcard tags in ``iterparse()`` was broken in Py3.
* ``lxml.html.open_in_browser()`` didn't work in Python 3 due to the
use of os.tempnam. It now takes an optional 'encoding' parameter.
Other changes
2.3alpha2 (2010-07-24)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Crash in XSLT when generating text-only result documents with a
stylesheet created in a different thread.
Other changes
* ``repr()`` of Element objects shows the hex ID with leading 0x
(following ElementTree 1.3).
2.3alpha1 (2010-06-19)
Features added
* Keyword argument ``namespaces`` in ``lxml.cssselect.CSSSelector()``
to pass a prefix-to-namespace mapping for the selector.
* New function ``lxml.etree.register_namespace(prefix, uri)`` that
globally registers a namespace prefix for a namespace that newly
created Elements in that namespace will use automatically. Follows
ElementTree 1.3.
* Support 'unicode' string name as encoding parameter in
``tostring()``, following ElementTree 1.3.
* Support 'c14n' serialisation method in ``ElementTree.write()`` and
``tostring()``, following ElementTree 1.3.
* The ElementPath expression syntax (``el.find*()``) was extended to
match the upcoming ElementTree 1.3 that will ship in the standard
library of Python 3.2/2.7. This includes extended support for
predicates as well as namespace prefixes (as known from XPath).
* During regular XPath evaluation, various ESXLT functions are
available within their namespace when using libxslt 1.1.26 or later.
* Support passing a readily configured logger instance into
``PyErrorLog``, instead of a logger name.
* On serialisation, the new ``doctype`` parameter can be used to
override the DOCTYPE (internal subset) of the document.
* New parameter ``output_parent`` to ``XSLTExtension.apply_templates()``
to append the resulting content directly to an output element.
* ``XSLTExtension.process_children()`` to process the content of the
XSLT extension element itself.
* ISO-Schematron support based on the de-facto Schematron reference
'skeleton implementation'.
* XSLT objects now take XPath object as ``__call__`` stylesheet
* Enable path caching in ElementPath (``el.find*()``) to avoid parsing
* Setting the value of a namespaced attribute always uses a prefixed
namespace instead of the default namespace even if both declare the
same namespace URI. This avoids serialisation problems when an
attribute from a default namespace is set on an element from a
different namespace.
* XSLT extension elements: support for XSLT context nodes other than
elements: document root, comments, processing instructions.
* Support for strings (in addition to Elements) in node-sets returned
by extension functions.
* Forms that lack an ``action`` attribute default to the base URL of
the document on submit.
* XPath attribute result strings have an ``attrname`` property.
* Namespace URIs get validated against RFC 3986 at the API level
(required by the XML namespace specification).
* Target parsers show their target object in the ``.target`` property
(compatible with ElementTree).
Bugs fixed
* API is hardened against invalid proxy instances to prevent crashes
due to incorrectly instantiated Element instances.
* Prevent crash when instantiating ``CommentBase`` and friends.
* Export ElementTree compatible XML parser class as
``XMLTreeBuilder``, as it is called in ET 1.2.
* ObjectifiedDataElements in lxml.objectify were not hashable. They
now use the hash value of the underlying Python value (string,
number, etc.) to which they compare equal.
* Parsing broken fragments in lxml.html could fail if the fragment
contained an orphaned closing '</div>' tag.
* Using XSLT extension elements around the root of the output document
* ``lxml.cssselect`` did not distinguish between ``x[attr="val"]`` and
``x [attr="val"]`` (with a space). The latter now matches the
attribute independent of the element.
* Rewriting multiple links inside of HTML text content could end up
replacing unrelated content as replacements could impact the
reported position of subsequent matches. Modifications are now
simplified by letting the ``iterlinks()`` generator in ``lxml.html``
return links in reversed order if they appear inside the same text
node. Thus, replacements and link-internal modifications no longer
change the position of links reported afterwards.
* The ``.value`` attribute of ``textarea`` elements in lxml.html did
not represent the complete raw value (including child tags etc.). It
now serialises the complete content on read and replaces the
complete content by a string on write.
* Target parser didn't call ``.close()`` on the target object if
parsing failed. Now it is guaranteed that ``.close()`` will be
called after parsing, regardless of the outcome.
Other changes
* Official support for Python 3.1.2 and later.
* Static MS Windows builds can now download their dependencies
* ``Element.attrib`` no longer uses a cyclic reference back to its
Element object. It therefore no longer requires the garbage
collector to clean up.
* Static builds include libiconv, in addition to libxml2 and libxslt.
2.2.8 (2010-09-02)
Bugs fixed
* Crash in newer libxml2 versions when moving elements between
documents that had attributes on replaced XInclude nodes.
* Import fix for urljoin in Python 3.1+.
2.2.7 (2010-07-24)
Bugs fixed
* Crash in XSLT when generating text-only result documents with a
stylesheet created in a different thread.
2.2.6 (2010-03-02)
Bugs fixed
* Fixed several Python 3 regressions by building with Cython 0.11.3.
2.2.5 (2010-02-28)
Features added
* Support for running XSLT extension elements on the input root node
(e.g. in a template matching on "/").
Bugs fixed
* Crash in XPath evaluation when reading smart strings from a document
other than the original context document.
* Support recent versions of html5lib by not requiring its
``XHTMLParser`` in ```` anymore.
* Manually instantiating the custom element classes in
``lxml.objectify`` could crash.
* Invalid XML text characters were not rejected by the API when they
appeared in unicode strings directly after non-ASCII characters.
* lxml.html.open_http_urllib() did not work in Python 3.
* The functions ``strip_tags()`` and ``strip_elements()`` in
``lxml.etree`` did not remove all occurrences of a tag in all cases.
* Crash in XSLT extension elements when the XSLT context node is not
an element.
2.2.4 (2009-11-11)
Bugs fixed
* Static build of libxml2/libxslt was broken.
2.2.3 (2009-10-30)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* The ``resolve_entities`` option did not work in the incremental feed
* Looking up and deleting attributes without a namespace could hit a
namespaced attribute of the same name instead.
* Late errors during calls to ``SubElement()`` (e.g. attribute related
ones) could leave a partially initialised element in the tree.
* Modifying trees that contain parsed entity references could result
in an infinite loop.
* ObjectifiedElement.__setattr__ created an empty-string child element when the
attribute value was rejected as a non-unicode/non-ascii string
* Syntax errors in ``lxml.cssselect`` could result in misleading error
* Invalid syntax in CSS expressions could lead to an infinite loop in
the parser of ``lxml.cssselect``.
* CSS special character escapes were not properly handled in
* CSS Unicode escapes were not properly decoded in ``lxml.cssselect``.
* Select options in HTML forms that had no explicit ``value``
attribute were not handled correctly. The HTML standard dictates
that their value is defined by their text content. This is now
supported by lxml.html.
* XPath raised a TypeError when finding CDATA sections. This is now
fully supported.
* Calling ``help(lxml.objectify)`` didn't work at the prompt.
* The ``ElementMaker`` in lxml.objectify no longer defines the default
namespaces when annotation is disabled.
* Feed parser failed to honout the 'recover' option on parse errors.
* Diverting the error logging to Python's logging system was broken.
Other changes
2.2.2 (2009-06-21)
Features added
* New helper functions ``strip_attributes()``, ``strip_elements()``,
``strip_tags()`` in lxml.etree to remove attributes/subtrees/tags
from a subtree.
Bugs fixed
* Namespace cleanup on subtree insertions could result in missing
namespace declarations (and potentially crashes) if the element
defining a namespace was deleted and the namespace was not used by
the top element of the inserted subtree but only in deeper subtrees.
* Raising an exception from a parser target callback didn't always
terminate the parser.
* Only {true, false, 1, 0} are accepted as the lexical representation for
BoolElement ({True, False, T, F, t, f} not any more), restoring lxml <= 2.0
Other changes
2.2.1 (2009-06-02)
Features added
* Injecting default attributes into a document during XML Schema
validation (also at parse time).
* Pass ``huge_tree`` parser option to disable parser security
restrictions imposed by libxml2 2.7.
Bugs fixed
* The script for statically building libxml2 and libxslt didn't work
in Py3.
* ``XMLSchema()`` also passes invalid schema documents on to libxml2
for parsing (which could lead to a crash before release 2.6.24).
Other changes
2.2 (2009-03-21)
Features added
* Support for ``standalone`` flag in XML declaration through
``tree.docinfo.standalone`` and by passing ``standalone=True/False``
on serialisation.
Bugs fixed
* Crash when parsing an XML Schema with external imports from a
2.2beta4 (2009-02-27)
Features added
* Support strings and instantiable Element classes as child arguments
to the constructor of custom Element classes.
* GZip compression support for serialisation to files and file-like
Bugs fixed
* Deep-copying an ElementTree copied neither its sibling PIs and
comments nor its internal/external DTD subsets.
* Soupparser failed on broken attributes without values.
* Crash in XSLT when overwriting an already defined attribute using
* Crash bug in exception handling code under Python 3. This was due
to a problem in Cython, not lxml itself.
* ``lxml.html.FormElement._name()`` failed for non top-level forms.
* ``TAG`` special attribute in constructor of custom Element classes
was evaluated incorrectly.
Other changes
* Official support for Python 3.0.1.
* ``Element.findtext()`` now returns an empty string instead of None
for Elements without text content.
2.2beta3 (2009-02-17)
Features added
* ``XSLT.strparam()`` class method to wrap quoted string parameters
that require escaping.
Bugs fixed
* Memory leak in XPath evaluators.
* Crash when parsing indented XML in one thread and merging it with
other documents parsed in another thread.
* Setting the ``base`` attribute in ``lxml.objectify`` from a unicode
string failed.
* Fixes following changes in Python 3.0.1.
* Minor fixes for Python 3.
Other changes
* The global error log (which is copied into the exception log) is now
local to a thread, which fixes some race conditions.
* More robust error handling on serialisation.
2.2beta2 (2009-01-25)
Bugs fixed
* Potential memory leak on exception handling. This was due to a
problem in Cython, not lxml itself.
* ``iter_links`` (and related link-rewriting functions) in
``lxml.html`` would interpret CSS like ``url("link")`` incorrectly
(treating the quotation marks as part of the link).
* Failing import on systems that have an ``io`` module.
2.1.5 (2009-01-06)
Bugs fixed
* Potential memory leak on exception handling. This was due to a
problem in Cython, not lxml itself.
* Failing import on systems that have an ``io`` module.
2.2beta1 (2008-12-12)
Features added
* Allow ``lxml.html.diff.htmldiff`` to accept Element objects, not
just HTML strings.
Bugs fixed
* Crash when using an XPath evaluator in multiple threads.
* Fixed missing whitespace before ``Link:...`` in ``lxml.html.diff``.
Other changes
* Export ``lxml.html.parse``.
2.1.4 (2008-12-12)
Bugs fixed
* Crash when using an XPath evaluator in multiple threads.
2.0.11 (2008-12-12)
Bugs fixed
* Crash when using an XPath evaluator in multiple threads.
2.2alpha1 (2008-11-23)
Features added
* Support for XSLT result tree fragments in XPath/XSLT extension
* QName objects have new properties ``namespace`` and ``localname``.
* New options for exclusive C14N and C14N without comments.
* Instantiating a custom Element classes creates a new Element.
Bugs fixed
* XSLT didn't inherit the parse options of the input document.
* 0-bytes could slip through the API when used inside of Unicode
* With ``lxml.html.clean.autolink``, links with balanced parenthesis,
that end in a parenthesis, will be linked in their entirety (typical
with Wikipedia links).
Other changes
2.1.3 (2008-11-17)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Ref-count leaks when lxml enters a try-except statement while an
outside exception lives in sys.exc_*(). This was due to a problem in
Cython, not lxml itself.
* Parser Unicode decoding errors could get swallowed by other
* Name/import errors in some Python modules.
* Internal DTD subsets that did not specify a system or public ID were
not serialised and did not appear in the docinfo property of
* Fix a pre-Py3k warning when parsing from a gzip file in Py2.6.
* Test suite fixes for libxml2 2.7.
* Resolver.resolve_string() did not work for non-ASCII byte strings.
* Resolver.resolve_file() was broken.
* Overriding the parser encoding didn't work for many encodings.
Other changes
2.0.10 (2008-11-17)
Bugs fixed
* Ref-count leaks when lxml enters a try-except statement while an
outside exception lives in sys.exc_*(). This was due to a problem in
Cython, not lxml itself.
2.1.2 (2008-09-05)
Features added
* lxml.etree now tries to find the absolute path name of files when
parsing from a file-like object. This helps custom resolvers when
resolving relative URLs, as lixbml2 can prepend them with the path
of the source document.
Bugs fixed
* Memory problem when passing documents between threads.
* Target parser did not honour the ``recover`` option and raised an
exception instead of calling ``.close()`` on the target.
Other changes
2.0.9 (2008-09-05)
Bugs fixed
* Memory problem when passing documents between threads.
* Target parser did not honour the ``recover`` option and raised an
exception instead of calling ``.close()`` on the target.
2.1.1 (2008-07-24)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Crash when parsing XSLT stylesheets in a thread and using them in
* Encoding problem when including text with ElementInclude under
Python 3.
Other changes
2.0.8 (2008-07-24)
Features added
* ``lxml.html.rewrite_links()`` strips links to work around documents
with whitespace in URL attributes.
Bugs fixed
* Crash when parsing XSLT stylesheets in a thread and using them in
* CSS selector parser dropped remaining expression after a function
with parameters.
Other changes
2.1 (2008-07-09)
Features added
* Smart strings can be switched off in XPath (``smart_strings``
keyword option).
* ``lxml.html.rewrite_links()`` strips links to work around documents
with whitespace in URL attributes.
Bugs fixed
* Custom resolvers were not used for XMLSchema includes/imports and
XInclude processing.
* CSS selector parser dropped remaining expression after a function
with parameters.
Other changes
* ``objectify.enableRecursiveStr()`` was removed, use
``objectify.enable_recursive_str()`` instead
* Speed-up when running XSLTs on documents from other threads
2.0.7 (2008-06-20)
Features added
* Pickling ``ElementTree`` objects in lxml.objectify.
Bugs fixed
* Descending dot-separated classes in CSS selectors were not resolved
* ``ElementTree.parse()`` didn't handle target parser result.
* Potential threading problem in XInclude.
* Crash in Element class lookup classes when the __init__() method of
the super class is not called from Python subclasses.
Other changes
* Non-ASCII characters in attribute values are no longer escaped on
2.1beta3 (2008-06-19)
Features added
* Major overhaul of ``tools/`` script.
* Pickling ``ElementTree`` objects in lxml.objectify.
* Support for parsing from file-like objects that return unicode
* New function ``etree.cleanup_namespaces(el)`` that removes unused
namespace declarations from a (sub)tree (experimental).
* XSLT results support the buffer protocol in Python 3.
* Polymorphic functions in ``lxml.html`` that accept either a tree or
a parsable string will return either a UTF-8 encoded byte string, a
unicode string or a tree, based on the type of the input.
Previously, the result was always a byte string or a tree.
* Support for Python 2.6 and 3.0 beta.
* File name handling now uses a heuristic to convert between byte
strings (usually filenames) and unicode strings (usually URLs).
* Parsing from a plain file object frees the GIL under Python 2.x.
* Running ``iterparse()`` on a plain file (or filename) frees the GIL
on reading under Python 2.x.
* Conversion functions ``html_to_xhtml()`` and ``xhtml_to_html()`` in
lxml.html (experimental).
* Most features in lxml.html work for XHTML namespaced tag names
Bugs fixed
* ``ElementTree.parse()`` didn't handle target parser result.
* Crash in Element class lookup classes when the __init__() method of
the super class is not called from Python subclasses.
* A number of problems related to unicode/byte string conversion of
filenames and error messages were fixed.
* Building on MacOS-X now passes the "flat_namespace" option to the C
compiler, which reportedly prevents build quirks and crashes on this
* Windows build was broken.
* Rare crash when serialising to a file object with certain encodings.
Other changes
* Non-ASCII characters in attribute values are no longer escaped on
* Passing non-ASCII byte strings or invalid unicode strings as .tag,
namespaces, etc. will result in a ValueError instead of an
AssertionError (just like the tag well-formedness check).
* Up to several times faster attribute access (i.e. tree traversal) in
2.0.6 (2008-05-31)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Incorrect evaluation of ``el.find("tag[child]")``.
* Windows build was broken.
* Moving a subtree from a document created in one thread into a
document of another thread could crash when the rest of the source
document is deleted while the subtree is still in use.
* Rare crash when serialising to a file object with certain encodings.
Other changes
* lxml should now build without problems on MacOS-X.
2.1beta2 (2008-05-02)
Features added
* All parse functions in lxml.html take a ``parser`` keyword argument.
* lxml.html has a new parser class ``XHTMLParser`` and a module
attribute ``xhtml_parser`` that provide XML parsers that are
pre-configured for the lxml.html package.
Bugs fixed
* Moving a subtree from a document created in one thread into a
document of another thread could crash when the rest of the source
document is deleted while the subtree is still in use.
* Passing an nsmap when creating an Element will no longer strip
redundantly defined namespace URIs. This prevented the definition
of more than one prefix for a namespace on the same Element.
Other changes
* If the default namespace is redundantly defined with a prefix on the
same Element, the prefix will now be preferred for subelements and
attributes. This allows users to work around a problem in libxml2
where attributes from the default namespace could serialise without
a prefix even when they appear on an Element with a different
namespace (i.e. they would end up in the wrong namespace).
2.0.5 (2008-05-01)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Resolving to a filename in custom resolvers didn't work.
* lxml did not honour libxslt's second error state "STOPPED", which
let some XSLT errors pass silently.
* Memory leak in Schematron with libxml2 >= 2.6.31.
Other changes
2.1beta1 (2008-04-15)
Features added
* Error logging in Schematron (requires libxml2 2.6.32 or later).
* Parser option ``strip_cdata`` for normalising or keeping CDATA
sections. Defaults to ``True`` as before, thus replacing CDATA
sections by their text content.
* ``CDATA()`` factory to wrap string content as CDATA section.
Bugs fixed
* Resolving to a filename in custom resolvers didn't work.
* lxml did not honour libxslt's second error state "STOPPED", which
let some XSLT errors pass silently.
* Memory leak in Schematron with libxml2 >= 2.6.31.
* lxml.etree accepted non well-formed namespace prefix names.
Other changes
* Major cleanup in internal ``moveNodeToDocument()`` function, which
takes care of namespace cleanup when moving elements between
different namespace contexts.
* New Elements created through the ``makeelement()`` method of an HTML
parser or through lxml.html now end up in a new HTML document
(doctype HTML 4.01 Transitional) instead of a generic XML document.
This mostly impacts the serialisation and the availability of a DTD
2.0.4 (2008-04-13)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* Hanging thread in conjunction with GTK threading.
* Crash bug in iterparse when moving elements into other documents.
* HTML elements' ``.cssselect()`` method was broken.
* ``ElementTree.find*()`` didn't accept QName objects.
Other changes
2.1alpha1 (2008-03-27)
Features added
* New event types 'comment' and 'pi' in ``iterparse()``.
* ``XSLTAccessControl`` instances have a property ``options`` that
returns a dict of access configuration options.
* Constant instances ``DENY_ALL`` and ``DENY_WRITE`` on
``XSLTAccessControl`` class.
* Extension elements for XSLT (experimental!)
* ``Element.base`` property returns the xml:base or HTML base URL of
an Element.
* ``docinfo.URL`` property is writable.
Bugs fixed
* Default encoding for plain text serialisation was different from
that of XML serialisation (UTF-8 instead of ASCII).
Other changes
* Minor API speed-ups.
* The benchmark suite now uses tail text in the trees, which makes the
absolute numbers incomparable to previous results.
* Generating the HTML documentation now requires Pygments_, which is
used to enable syntax highlighting for the doctest examples.
.. _Pygments:
Most long-time deprecated functions and methods were removed:
- ``etree.clearErrorLog()``, use ``etree.clear_error_log()``
- ``etree.useGlobalPythonLog()``, use
- ``etree.ElementClassLookup.setFallback()``, use
- ``etree.getDefaultParser()``, use ``etree.get_default_parser()``
- ``etree.setDefaultParser()``, use ``etree.set_default_parser()``
- ``etree.setElementClassLookup()``, use
Note that ``parser.setElementClassLookup()`` has not been removed
yet, although ``parser.set_element_class_lookup()`` should be used
- ``xpath_evaluator.registerNamespace()``, use
- ``xpath_evaluator.registerNamespaces()``, use
- ``objectify.setPytypeAttributeTag``, use
- ``objectify.setDefaultParser()``, use
2.0.3 (2008-03-26)
Features added
* soupparser.parse() allows passing keyword arguments on to
* ``fromstring()`` method in ``lxml.html.soupparser``.
Bugs fixed
* ``lxml.html.diff`` didn't treat empty tags properly (e.g.,
* Handle entity replacements correctly in target parser.
* Crash when using ``iterparse()`` with XML Schema validation.
* The BeautifulSoup parser ( did not replace entities,
which made them turn up in text content.
* Attribute assignment of custom PyTypes in objectify could fail to
correctly serialise the value to a string.
Other changes
* ``lxml.html.ElementSoup`` was replaced by a new module
``lxml.html.soupparser`` with a more consistent API. The old module
remains for compatibility with ElementTree's own ElementSoup module.
* Setting the XSLT_CONFIG and XML2_CONFIG environment variables at
build time will let pick up the ``xml2-config`` and
``xslt-config`` scripts from the supplied path name.
* Passing ``--with-xml2-config=/path/to/xml2-config`` to will
override the ``xml2-config`` script that is used to determine the C
compiler options. The same applies for the ``--with-xslt-config``
2.0.2 (2008-02-22)
Features added
* Support passing ``base_url`` to file parser functions to override
the filename of the file(-like) object.
Bugs fixed
* The prefix for objectify's pytype namespace was missing from the set
of default prefixes.
* Memory leak in Schematron (fixed only for libxml2 2.6.31+).
* Error type names in RelaxNG were reported incorrectly.
* Slice deletion bug fixed in objectify.
Other changes
* Enabled doctests for some Python modules (especially ``lxml.html``).
* Add a ``method`` argument to ``lxml.html.tostring()``
(``method="xml"`` for XHTML output).
* Make it clearer that methods like ``lxml.html.fromstring()`` take a
``base_url`` argument.
2.0.1 (2008-02-13)
Features added
* Child iteration in ``lxml.pyclasslookup``.
* Loads of new docstrings reflect the signature of functions and
methods to make them visible in API docs and ``help()``
Bugs fixed
* The module ``lxml.html.builder`` was duplicated as
* Form elements would return None for ``form.fields.keys()`` if there
was an unnamed input field. Now unnamed input fields are completely
* Setting an element slice in objectify could insert slice-overlapping
elements at the wrong position.
Other changes
* The generated API documentation was cleaned up and disburdened from
non-public classes etc.
* The previously public module ``lxml.html.setmixin`` was renamed to
``lxml.html._setmixin`` as it is not an official part of lxml. If
you want to use it, feel free to copy it over to your own source
* Passing ``--with-xslt-config=/path/to/xslt-config`` to will
override the ``xslt-config`` script that is used to determine the C
compiler options.
2.0 (2008-02-01)
Features added
* Passing the ``unicode`` type as ``encoding`` to ``tostring()`` will
serialise to unicode. The ``tounicode()`` function is now
* ``XMLSchema()`` and ``RelaxNG()`` can parse from StringIO.
* ``makeparser()`` function in ``lxml.objectify`` to create a new
parser with the usual objectify setup.
* Plain ASCII XPath string results are no longer forced into unicode
objects as in 2.0beta1, but are returned as plain strings as before.
* All XPath string results are 'smart' objects that have a
``getparent()`` method to retrieve their parent Element.
* ``with_tail`` option in serialiser functions.
* More accurate exception messages in validator creation.
* Parse-time XML schema validation (``schema`` parser keyword).
* XPath string results of the ``text()`` function and attribute
selection make their Element container accessible through a
``getparent()`` method. As a side-effect, they are now always
unicode objects (even ASCII strings).
* ``XSLT`` objects are usable in any thread - at the cost of a deep
copy if they were not created in that thread.
* Invalid entity names and character references will be rejected by
the ``Entity()`` factory.
* ``entity.text`` returns the textual representation of the entity,
e.g. ``&amp;``.
* New properties ``position`` and ``code`` on ParseError exception (as
in ET 1.3)
* Rich comparison of ``element.attrib`` proxies.
* ElementTree compatible TreeBuilder class.
* Use default prefixes for some common XML namespaces.
* ``lxml.html.clean.Cleaner`` now allows for a ``host_whitelist``, and
two overridable methods: ``allow_embedded_url(el, url)`` and the
more general ``allow_element(el)``.
* Extended slicing of Elements as in ``element[1:-1:2]``, both in
etree and in objectify
* Resolvers can now provide a ``base_url`` keyword argument when
resolving a document as string data.
* When using ``lxml.doctestcompare`` you can give the doctest option
``NOPARSE_MARKUP`` (like ``# doctest: +NOPARSE_MARKUP``) to suppress
the special checking for one test.
* Separate ``feed_error_log`` property for the feed parser interface.
The normal parser interface and ``iterparse`` continue to use
* The normal parsers and the feed parser interface are now separated
and can be used concurrently on the same parser instance.
* ``fromstringlist()`` and ``tostringlist()`` functions as in
ElementTree 1.3
* ``iterparse()`` accepts an ``html`` boolean keyword argument for
parsing with the HTML parser (note that this interface may be
subject to change)
* Parsers accept an ``encoding`` keyword argument that overrides the encoding
of the parsed documents.
* New C-API function ``hasChild()`` to test for children
* ``annotate()`` function in objectify can annotate with Python types and XSI
types in one step. Accompanied by ``xsiannotate()`` and ``pyannotate()``.
* ``ET.write()``, ``tostring()`` and ``tounicode()`` now accept a keyword
argument ``method`` that can be one of 'xml' (or None), 'html' or 'text' to
serialise as XML, HTML or plain text content.
* ``iterfind()`` method on Elements returns an iterator equivalent to
* ``itertext()`` method on Elements
* Setting a QName object as value of the .text property or as an attribute
will resolve its prefix in the respective context
* ElementTree-like parser target interface as described in
* ElementTree-like feed parser interface on XMLParser and HTMLParser
(``feed()`` and ``close()`` methods)
* Reimplemented ``objectify.E`` for better performance and improved
integration with objectify. Provides extended type support based on
registered PyTypes.
* XSLT objects now support deep copying
* New ``makeSubElement()`` C-API function that allows creating a new
subelement straight with text, tail and attributes.
* XPath extension functions can now access the current context node
(``context.context_node``) and use a context dictionary
(``context.eval_context``) from the context provided in their first
* HTML tag soup parser based on BeautifulSoup in ``lxml.html.ElementSoup``
* New module ``lxml.doctestcompare`` by Ian Bicking for writing simplified
doctests based on XML/HTML output. Use by importing ``lxml.usedoctest`` or
``lxml.html.usedoctest`` from within a doctest.
* New module ``lxml.cssselect`` by Ian Bicking for selecting Elements with CSS
* New package ``lxml.html`` written by Ian Bicking for advanced HTML
* Namespace class setup is now local to the ``ElementNamespaceClassLookup``
instance and no longer global.
* Schematron validation (incomplete in libxml2)
* Additional ``stringify`` argument to ``objectify.PyType()`` takes a
conversion function to strings to support setting text values from arbitrary
* Entity support through an ``Entity`` factory and element classes. XML
parsers now have a ``resolve_entities`` keyword argument that can be set to
False to keep entities in the document.
* ``column`` field on error log entries to accompany the ``line`` field
* Error specific messages in XPath parsing and evaluation
NOTE: for evaluation errors, you will now get an XPathEvalError instead of
an XPathSyntaxError. To catch both, you can except on ``XPathError``
* The regular expression functions in XPath now support passing a node-set
instead of a string
* Extended type annotation in objectify: new ``xsiannotate()`` function
* EXSLT RegExp support in standard XPath (not only XSLT)
Bugs fixed
* Missing import in ``lxml.html.clean``.
* Some Python 2.4-isms prevented lxml from building/running under
Python 2.3.
* XPath on ElementTrees could crash when selecting the virtual root
node of the ElementTree.
* Compilation ``--without-threading`` was buggy in alpha5/6.
* Memory leak in the ``parse()`` function.
* Minor bugs in XSLT error message formatting.
* Result document memory leak in target parser.
* Target parser failed to report comments.
* In the ``lxml.html`` ``iter_links`` method, links in ``<object>``
tags weren't recognized. (Note: plugin-specific link parameters
still aren't recognized.) Also, the ``<embed>`` tag, though not
standard, is now included in ``lxml.html.defs.special_inline_tags``.
* Using custom resolvers on XSLT stylesheets parsed from a string
could request ill-formed URLs.
* With ``lxml.doctestcompare`` if you do ``<tag xmlns="...">`` in your
output, it will then be namespace-neutral (before the ellipsis was
treated as a real namespace).
* AttributeError in feed parser on parse errors
* XML feed parser setup problem
* Type annotation for unicode strings in ``DataElement()``
* lxml failed to serialise namespace declarations of elements other than the
root node of a tree
* Race condition in XSLT where the resolver context leaked between concurrent
XSLT calls
* lxml.etree did not check tag/attribute names
* The XML parser did not report undefined entities as error
* The text in exceptions raised by XML parsers, validators and XPath
evaluators now reports the first error that occurred instead of the last
* Passing '' as XPath namespace prefix did not raise an error
* Thread safety in XPath evaluators
Other changes
* Exceptions carry only the part of the error log that is related to
the operation that caused the error.
* ``XMLSchema()`` and ``RelaxNG()`` now enforce passing the source
file/filename through the ``file`` keyword argument.
* The test suite now skips most doctests under Python 2.3.
* ``make clean`` no longer removes the .c files (use ``make
realclean`` instead)
* Minor performance tweaks for Element instantiation and subelement
* Various places in the XPath, XSLT and iteration APIs now require
keyword-only arguments.
* The argument order in ``element.itersiblings()`` was changed to
match the order used in all other iteration methods. The second
argument ('preceding') is now a keyword-only argument.
* The ``getiterator()`` method on Elements and ElementTrees was
reverted to return an iterator as it did in lxml 1.x. The ET API
specification allows it to return either a sequence or an iterator,
and it traditionally returned a sequence in ET and an iterator in
lxml. However, it is now deprecated in favour of the ``iter()``
method, which should be used in new code wherever possible.
* The 'pretty printed' serialisation of ElementTree objects now
inserts newlines at the root level between processing instructions,
comments and the root tag.
* A 'pretty printed' serialisation is now terminated with a newline.
* Second argument to ``lxml.etree.Extension()`` helper is no longer
required, third argument is now a keyword-only argument ``ns``.
* ``lxml.html.tostring`` takes an ``encoding`` argument.
* The module source files were renamed to "lxml.*.pyx", such as
"lxml.etree.pyx". This was changed for consistency with the way
Pyrex commonly handles package imports. The main effect is that
classes now know about their fully qualified class name, including
the package name of their module.
* Keyword-only arguments in some API functions, especially in the
parsers and serialisers.
* Tag name validation in lxml.etree (and lxml.html) now distinguishes
between HTML tags and XML tags based on the parser that was used to
parse or create them. HTML tags no longer reject any non-ASCII
characters in tag names but only spaces and the special characters
* lxml.etree now emits a warning if you use XPath with libxml2 2.6.27
(which can crash on certain XPath errors)
* Type annotation in objectify now preserves the already annotated type by
default to prevent loosing type information that is already there.
* ``element.getiterator()`` returns a list, use ``element.iter()`` to retrieve
an iterator (ElementTree 1.3 compatible behaviour)
* objectify.PyType for None is now called "NoneType"
* ``el.getiterator()`` renamed to ``el.iter()``, following ElementTree 1.3 -
original name is still available as alias
* In the public C-API, ``findOrBuildNodeNs()`` was replaced by the more
generic ``findOrBuildNodeNsPrefix``
* Major refactoring in XPath/XSLT extension function code
* Network access in parsers disabled by default
1.3.6 (2007-10-29)
Bugs fixed
* Backported decref crash fix from 2.0
* Well hidden free-while-in-use crash bug in ObjectPath
Other changes
* The test suites now run ``gc.collect()`` in the ``tearDown()``
methods. While this makes them take a lot longer to run, it also
makes it easier to link a specific test to garbage collection
problems that would otherwise appear in later tests.
1.3.5 (2007-10-22)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* lxml.etree could crash when adding more than 10000 namespaces to a
* lxml failed to serialise namespace declarations of elements other
than the root node of a tree
1.3.4 (2007-08-30)
Features added
* The ``ElementMaker`` in ``lxml.builder`` now accepts the keyword arguments
``namespace`` and ``nsmap`` to set a namespace and nsmap for the Elements it
* The ``docinfo`` on ElementTree objects has new properties ``internalDTD``
and ``externalDTD`` that return a DTD object for the internal or external
subset of the document respectively.
* Serialising an ElementTree now includes any internal DTD subsets that are
part of the document, as well as comments and PIs that are siblings of the
root node.
Bugs fixed
* Parsing with the ``no_network`` option could fail
Other changes
* lxml now raises a TagNameWarning about tag names containing ':' instead of
an Error as 1.3.3 did. The reason is that a number of projects currently
misuse the previous lack of tag name validation to generate namespace
prefixes without declaring namespaces. Apart from the danger of generating
broken XML this way, it also breaks most of the namespace-aware tools in
XML, including XPath, XSLT and validation. lxml 1.3.x will continue to
support this bug with a Warning, while lxml 2.0 will be strict about
well-formed tag names (not only regarding ':').
* Serialising an Element no longer includes its comment and PI siblings (only
ElementTree serialisation includes them).
1.3.3 (2007-07-26)
Features added
* ElementTree compatible parser ``ETCompatXMLParser`` strips processing
instructions and comments while parsing XML
* Parsers now support stripping PIs (keyword argument 'remove_pis')
* ``etree.fromstring()`` now supports parsing both HTML and XML, depending on
the parser you pass.
* Support ``base_url`` keyword argument in ``HTML()`` and ``XML()``
Bugs fixed
* Parsing from Python Unicode strings failed on some platforms
* ``Element()`` did not raise an exception on tag names containing ':'
* ``Element.getiterator(tag)`` did not accept ``Comment`` and
``ProcessingInstruction`` as tags. It also accepts ``Element`` now.
1.3.2 (2007-07-03)
Features added
Bugs fixed
* "deallocating None" crash bug
1.3.1 (2007-07-02)
Features added
* objectify.DataElement now supports setting values from existing data
elements (not just plain Python types) and reuses defined namespaces etc.
* E-factory support for lxml.objectify (``objectify.E``)
Bugs fixed
* Better way to prevent crashes in Element proxy cleanup code
* objectify.DataElement didn't set up None value correctly
* objectify.DataElement didn't check the value against the provided type hints
* Reference-counting bug in ``Element.attrib.pop()``
1.3 (2007-06-24)
Features added
* Module ``lxml.pyclasslookup`` module implements an Element class lookup
scheme that can access the entire tree in read-only mode to help determining
a suitable Element class
* Parsers take a ``remove_comments`` keyword argument that skips over comments
* ``parse()`` function in ``objectify``, corresponding to ``XML()`` etc.
* ``Element.addnext(el)`` and ``Element.addprevious(el)`` methods to support
adding processing instructions and comments around the root node
* ``Element.attrib`` was missing ``clear()`` and ``pop()`` methods
* Extended type annotation in objectify: cleaner annotation namespace setup
plus new ``deannotate()`` function
* Support for custom Element class instantiation in lxml.sax: passing a
``makeelement`` function to the ElementTreeContentHandler will reuse the
lookup context of that function
* '.' represents empty ObjectPath (identity)
* ``Element.values()`` to accompany the existing ``.keys()`` and ``.items()``
* ``collectAttributes()`` C-function to build a list of attribute
keys/values/items for a libxml2 node
* ``DTD`` validator class (like ``RelaxNG`` and ``XMLSchema``)
* HTML generator helpers by Fredrik Lundh in ``lxml.htmlbuilder``
* ``ElementMaker`` XML generator by Fredrik Lundh in ``lxml.builder.E``
* Support for pickeling ``objectify.ObjectifiedElement`` objects to XML
* ``update()`` method on Element.attrib
* Optimised replacement for libxml2's _xmlReconsiliateNs(). This allows lxml
a better handling of namespaces when moving elements between documents.
Bugs fixed
* Removing Elements from a tree could make them loose their namespace
* ``ElementInclude`` didn't honour base URL of original document
* Replacing the children slice of an Element would cut off the tails of the
original children
* ``Element.getiterator(tag)`` did not accept ``Comment`` and
``ProcessingInstruction`` as tags
* API functions now check incoming strings for XML conformity. Zero bytes or
low ASCII characters are no longer accepted (AssertionError).
* XSLT parsing failed to pass resolver context on to imported documents
* passing '' as namespace prefix in nsmap could be passed through to libxml2
* Objectify couldn't handle prefixed XSD type names in ``xsi:type``
* More ET compatible behaviour when writing out XML declarations or not
* More robust error handling in ``iterparse()``
* Documents lost their top-level PIs and comments on serialisation
* lxml.sax failed on comments and PIs. Comments are now properly ignored and
PIs are copied.
* Possible memory leaks in namespace handling when moving elements between
Other changes
* major restructuring in the documentation
1.2.1 (2007-02-27)
Bugs fixed
* Build fixes for MS compiler
* Item assignments to special names like ``element["text"]`` failed
* Renamed ObjectifiedDataElement.__setText() to _setText() to make it easier
to access
* The pattern for attribute names in ObjectPath was too restrictive
1.2 (2007-02-20)
Features added
* Rich comparison of QName objects
* Support for regular expressions in benchmark selection
* get/set emulation (not .attrib!) for attributes on processing instructions
* ElementInclude Python module for ElementTree compatible XInclude processing
that honours custom resolvers registered with the source document
* ElementTree.parser property holds the parser used to parse the document
* has been refactored for greater readability and flexibility
* --rpath flag to to induce automatic linking-in of dynamic library
runtime search paths has been renamed to --auto-rpath. This makes it
possible to pass an --rpath directly to distutils; previously this was being
Bugs fixed
* Element instantiation now uses locks to prevent race conditions with threads
* ElementTree.write() did not raise an exception when the file was not writable
* Error handling could crash under Python <= 2.4.1 - fixed by disabling thread
support in these environments
* Element.find*() did not accept QName objects as path
Other changes
* code cleanup: redundant _NodeBase super class merged into _Element class
Note: although the impact should be zero in most cases, this change breaks
the compatibiliy of the public C-API
1.1.2 (2006-10-30)
Features added
* Data elements in objectify support repr(), which is now used by dump()
* Source distribution now ships with a patched Pyrex
* New C-API function makeElement() to create new elements with text,
tail, attributes and namespaces
* Reuse original parser flags for XInclude
* Simplified support for handling XSLT processing instructions
Bugs fixed
* Parser resources were not freed before the next parser run
* Open files and XML strings returned by Python resolvers were not
* Crash in the IDDict returned by XMLDTDID
* Copying Comments and ProcessingInstructions failed
* Memory leak for external URLs in _XSLTProcessingInstruction.parseXSL()
* Memory leak when garbage collecting tailed root elements
* HTML script/style content was not propagated to .text
* Show text xincluded between text nodes correctly in .text and .tail
* 'integer * objectify.StringElement' operation was not supported
1.1.1 (2006-09-21)
Features added
* XSLT profiling support (``profile_run`` keyword)
* countchildren() method on objectify.ObjectifiedElement
* Support custom elements for tree nodes in lxml.objectify
Bugs fixed
* lxml.objectify failed to support long data values (e.g., "123L")
* Error messages from XSLT did not reach ``XSLT.error_log``
* Factories objectify.Element() and objectify.DataElement() were missing
``attrib`` and ``nsmap`` keyword arguments
* Changing the default parser in lxml.objectify did not update the factories
Element() and DataElement()
* Let lxml.objectify.Element() always generate tree elements (not data
* Build under Windows failed ('\0' bug in patched Pyrex version)
1.1 (2006-09-13)
Features added
* Comments and processing instructions return '<!-- coment -->' and
'<?pi-target content?>' for repr()
* Parsers are now the preferred (and default) place where element class lookup
schemes should be registered. Namespace lookup is no longer supported by
* Support for Python 2.5 beta
* Unlock the GIL for deep copying documents and for XPath()
* New ``compact`` keyword argument for parsing read-only documents
* Support for parser options in iterparse()
* The ``namespace`` axis is supported in XPath and returns (prefix, URI)
* The XPath expression "/" now returns an empty list instead of raising an
* XML-Object API on top of lxml (lxml.objectify)
* Customizable Element class lookup:
* different pre-implemented lookup mechanisms
* support for externally provided lookup functions
* Support for processing instructions (ET-like, not compatible)
* Public C-level API for independent extension modules
* Module level ``iterwalk()`` function as 'iterparse' for trees
* Module level ``iterparse()`` function similar to ElementTree (see
documentation for differences)
* Element.nsmap property returns a mapping of all namespace prefixes known at
the Element to their namespace URI
* Reentrant threading support in RelaxNG, XMLSchema and XSLT
* Threading support in parsers and serializers:
* All in-memory operations (tostring, parse(StringIO), etc.) free the GIL
* File operations (on file names) free the GIL
* Reading from file-like objects frees the GIL and reacquires it for reading
* Serialisation to file-like objects is single-threaded (high lock overhead)
* Element iteration over XPath axes:
* Element.iterdescendants() iterates over the descendants of an element
* Element.iterancestors() iterates over the ancestors of an element (from
parent to parent)
* Element.itersiblings() iterates over either the following or preceding
siblings of an element
* Element.iterchildren() iterates over the children of an element in either
* All iterators support the ``tag`` keyword argument to restrict the
generated elements
* Element.getnext() and Element.getprevious() return the direct siblings of an
Bugs fixed
* filenames with local 8-bit encoding were not supported
* 1.1beta did not compile under Python 2.3
* ignore unknown 'pyval' attribute values in objectify
* objectify.ObjectifiedElement.addattr() failed to accept Elements and Lists
* objectify.ObjectPath.setattr() failed to accept Elements and Lists
* XPathSyntaxError now inherits from XPathError
* Threading race conditions in RelaxNG and XMLSchema
* Crash when mixing elements from XSLT results into other trees, concurrent
XSLT is only allowed when the stylesheet was parsed in the main thread
* The EXSLT ``regexp:match`` function now works as defined (except for some
differences in the regular expression syntax)
* Setting element.text to '' returned None on request, not the empty string
* ``iterparse()`` could crash on long XML files
* Creating documents no longer copies the parser for later URL resolving. For
performance reasons, only a reference is kept. Resolver updates on the
parser will now be reflected by documents that were parsed before the
change. Although this should rarely become visible, it is a behavioral
change from 1.0.
1.0.4 (2006-09-09)
Features added
* List-like ``Element.extend()`` method
Bugs fixed
* Crash in tail handling in ``Element.replace()``
1.0.3 (2006-08-08)
Features added
* Element.replace(old, new) method to replace a subelement by another one
Bugs fixed
* Crash when mixing elements from XSLT results into other trees
* Copying/deepcopying did not work for ElementTree objects
* Setting an attribute to a non-string value did not raise an exception
* Element.remove() deleted the tail text from the removed Element
1.0.2 (2006-06-27)
Features added
* Support for setting a custom default Element class as opposed to namespace
specific classes (which still override the default class)
Bugs fixed
* Rare exceptions in Python list functions were not handled
* Parsing accepted unicode strings with XML encoding declaration in certain
* Parsing 8-bit encoded strings from StringIO objects raised an exception
* Module function ``initThread()`` was removed - useless (and never worked)
* XSLT and parser exception messages include the error line number
1.0.1 (2006-06-09)
Features added
* Repeated calls to Element.attrib now efficiently return the same instance
Bugs fixed
* Document deallocation could crash in certain garbage collection scenarios
* Extension function calls in XSLT variable declarations could break the
stylesheet and crash on repeated calls
* Deep copying Elements could loose namespaces declared in parents
* Deep copying Elements did not copy tail
* Parsing file(-like) objects failed to load external entities
* Parsing 8-bit strings from file(-like) objects raised an exception
* xsl:include failed when the stylesheet was parsed from a file-like object
* lxml.sax.ElementTreeProducer did not call startDocument() / endDocument()
* MSVC compiler complained about long strings (supports only 2048 bytes)
1.0 (2006-06-01)
Features added
* Element.getiterator() and the findall() methods support finding arbitrary
elements from a namespace (pattern ``{namespace}*``)
* Another speedup in tree iteration code
* General speedup of Python Element object creation and deallocation
* Writing C14N no longer serializes in memory (reduced memory footprint)
* PyErrorLog for error logging through the Python ``logging`` module
* ``Element.getroottree()`` returns an ElementTree for the root node of the
document that contains the element.
* ElementTree.getpath(element) returns a simple, absolute XPath expression to
find the element in the tree structure
* Error logs have a ``last_error`` attribute for convenience
* Comment texts can be changed through the API
* Formatted output via ``pretty_print`` keyword in serialization functions
* XSLT can block access to file system and network via ``XSLTAccessControl``
* ElementTree.write() no longer serializes in memory (reduced memory
* Speedup of Element.findall(tag) and Element.getiterator(tag)
* Support for writing the XML representation of Elements and ElementTrees to
Python unicode strings via ``etree.tounicode()``
* Support for writing XSLT results to Python unicode strings via ``unicode()``
* Parsing a unicode string no longer copies the string (reduced memory
* Parsing file-like objects reads chunks rather than the whole file (reduced
memory footprint)
* Parsing StringIO objects from the start avoids copying the string (reduced
memory footprint)
* Read-only 'docinfo' attribute in ElementTree class holds DOCTYPE
information, original encoding and XML version as seen by the parser
* etree module can be compiled without libxslt by commenting out the line
``include "xslt.pxi"`` near the end of the etree.pyx source file
* Better error messages in parser exceptions
* Error reporting also works in XSLT
* Support for custom document loaders (URI resolvers) in parsers and XSLT,
resolvers are registered at parser level
* Implementation of exslt:regexp for XSLT based on the Python 're' module,
enabled by default, can be switched off with 'regexp=False' keyword argument
* Support for exslt extensions (libexslt) and libxslt extra functions
(node-set, document, write, output)
* Substantial speedup in XPath.evaluate()
* HTMLParser for parsing (broken) HTML
* XMLDTDID function parses XML into tuple (root node, ID dict) based on xml:id
implementation of libxml2 (as opposed to ET compatible XMLID)
Bugs fixed
* Memory leak in Element.__setitem__
* Memory leak in Element.attrib.items() and Element.attrib.values()
* Memory leak in XPath extension functions
* Memory leak in unicode related setup code
* Element now raises ValueError on empty tag names
* Namespace fixing after moving elements between documents could fail if the
source document was freed too early
* Setting namespace-less tag names on namespaced elements ('{ns}t' -> 't')
didn't reset the namespace
* Unknown constants from newer libxml2 versions could raise exceptions in the
error handlers
* lxml.etree compiles much faster
* On libxml2 <= 2.6.22, parsing strings with encoding declaration could fail
in certain cases
* Document reference in ElementTree objects was not updated when the root
element was moved to a different document
* Running absolute XPath expressions on an Element now evaluates against the
root tree
* Evaluating absolute XPath expressions (``/*``) on an ElementTree could fail
* Crashes when calling XSLT, RelaxNG, etc. with uninitialized ElementTree
* Removed public function ``initThreadLogging()``, replaced by more general
``initThread()`` which fixes a number of setup problems in threads
* Memory leak when using iconv encoders in tostring/write
* Deep copying Elements and ElementTrees maintains the document information
* Serialization functions raise LookupError for unknown encodings
* Memory deallocation crash resulting from deep copying elements
* Some ElementTree methods could crash if the root node was not initialized
(neither file nor element passed to the constructor)
* Element/SubElement failed to set attribute namespaces from passed ``attrib``
* ``tostring()`` adds an XML declaration for non-ASCII encodings
* ``tostring()`` failed to serialize encodings that contain 0-bytes
* ElementTree.xpath() and XPathDocumentEvaluator were not using the
ElementTree root node as reference point
* Calling ``document('')`` in XSLT failed to return the stylesheet
0.9.2 (2006-05-10)
Features added
* Speedup for Element.makeelement(): the new element reuses the original
libxml2 document instead of creating a new empty one
* Speedup for reversed() iteration over element children (Py2.4+ only)
* ElementTree compatible QName class
* RelaxNG and XMLSchema accept any Element, not only ElementTrees
Bugs fixed
* str(xslt_result) was broken for XSLT output other than UTF-8
* Memory leak if write_c14n fails to write the file after conversion
* Crash in XMLSchema and RelaxNG when passing non-schema documents
* Memory leak in RelaxNG() when RelaxNGParseError is raised
0.9.1 (2006-03-30)
Features added
* lxml.sax.ElementTreeContentHandler checks closing elements and raises
SaxError on mismatch
* lxml.sax.ElementTreeContentHandler supports namespace-less SAX events
(startElement, endElement) and defaults to empty attributes (keyword
* Speedup for repeatedly accessing element tag names
* Minor API performance improvements
Bugs fixed
* Memory deallocation bug when using XSLT output method "html"
* was handling UTF-8 encoded tag names where it shouldn't
* lxml.tests package will no longer be installed (is still in source tar)
0.9 (2006-03-20)
Features added
* Error logging API for libxml2 error messages
* Various performance improvements
* Benchmark script for lxml, ElementTree and cElementTree
* Support for registering extension functions through new FunctionNamespace
class (see doc/extensions.txt)
* ETXPath class for XPath expressions in ElementTree notation ('//{ns}tag')
* Support for variables in XPath expressions (also in XPath class)
* XPath class for compiled XPath expressions
* XMLID module level function (ElementTree compatible)
* XMLParser API for customized libxml2 parser configuration
* Support for custom Element classes through new Namespace API (see
* Common exception base class LxmlError for module exceptions
* real iterator support in iter(Element), Element.getiterator()
* XSLT objects are callable, result trees support str()
* Added for easier creation of RPM files.
* 'getparent' method on elements allows navigation to an element's
parent element.
* Python core compatible SAX tree builder and SAX event generator. See
doc/sax.txt for more information.
Bugs fixed
* Segfaults and memory leaks in various API functions of Element
* Segfault in XSLT.tostring()
* ElementTree objects no longer interfere, Elements can be root of different
ElementTrees at the same time
* document('') works in XSLT documents read from files (in-memory documents
cannot support this due to libxslt deficiencies)
0.8 (2005-11-03)
Features added
* Support for copy.deepcopy() on elements. copy.copy() works also, but
does the same thing, and does *not* create a shallow copy, as that
makes no sense in the context of libxml2 trees. This means a
potential incompatibility with ElementTree, but there's more chance
that it works than if copy.copy() isn't supported at all.
* Increased compatibility with (c)ElementTree; .parse() on ElementTree is
supported and parsing of gzipped XML files works.
* implemented index() on elements, allowing one to find the index of a
Bugs fixed
* Use xslt-config instead of xml2-config to find out libxml2
directories to take into account a case where libxslt is installed
in a different directory than libxslt.
* Eliminate crash condition in iteration when text nodes are changed.
* Passing 'None' to tostring() does not result in a segfault anymore,
but an AssertionError.
* Some test fixes for Windows.
* Raise XMLSyntaxError and XPathSyntaxError instead of plain python
syntax errors. This should be less confusing.
* Fixed error with uncaught exception in Pyrex code.
* Calling lxml.etree.fromstring('') throws XMLSyntaxError instead of a
* has_key() works on attrib. 'in' tests also work correctly on attrib.
* INSTALL.txt was saying 2.2.16 instead of 2.6.16 as a supported
libxml2 version, as it should.
* Passing a UTF-8 encoded string to the XML() function would fail;
0.7 (2005-06-15)
Features added
* parameters (XPath expressions) can be passed to XSLT using keyword
* Simple XInclude support. Calling the xinclude() method on a tree
will process any XInclude statements in the document.
* XMLSchema support. Use the XMLSchema class or the convenience
xmlschema() method on a tree to do XML Schema (XSD) validation.
* Added convenience xslt() method on tree. This is less efficient
than the XSLT object, but makes it easier to write quick code.
* Added convenience relaxng() method on tree. This is less efficient
than the RelaxNG object, but makes it easier to write quick code.
* Make it possible to use XPathEvaluator with elements as well. The
XPathEvaluator in this case will retain the element so multiple
XPath queries can be made against one element efficiently. This
replaces the second argument to the .evaluate() method that existed
* Allow registerNamespace() to be called on an XPathEvaluator, after
creation, to add additional namespaces. Also allow registerNamespaces(),
which does the same for a namespace dictionary.
* Add 'prefix' attribute to element to be able to read prefix information.
This is entirely read-only.
* It is possible to supply an extra nsmap keyword parameter to
the Element() and SubElement() constructors, which supplies a
prefix to namespace URI mapping. This will create namespace
prefix declarations on these elements and these prefixes will show up
in XML serialization.
Bugs fixed
* Killed yet another memory management related bug: trees created
using newDoc would not get a libxml2-level dictionary, which caused
problems when deallocating these documents later if they contained a
node that came from a document with a dictionary.
* Moving namespaced elements between documents was problematic as
references to the original document would remain. This has been fixed
by applying xmlReconciliateNs() after each move operation.
* Can pass None to 'dump()' without segfaults.
* tostring() works properly for non-root elements as well.
* Cleaned out the tostring() method so it should handle encoding
* Cleaned out the ElementTree.write() method so it should handle encoding
correctly. Writing directly to a file should also be faster, as there is no
need to go through a Python string in that case. Made sure the test cases
test both serializing to StringIO as well as serializing to a real file.
0.6 (2005-05-14)
Features added
* Changed so that library_dirs is also guessed. This should
help with compilation on the Mac OS X platform, where otherwise the
wrong library (shipping with the OS) could be picked up.
* Tweaked so that it picks up the version from version.txt.
Bugs fixed
* Do the right thing when handling namespaced attributes.
* fix bug where tostring() moved nodes into new documents. tostring()
had very nasty side-effects before this fix, sorry!
0.5.1 (2005-04-09)
* Python 2.2 compatibility fixes.
* unicode fixes in Element() and Comment() as well as XML(); unicode
input wasn't properly being UTF-8 encoded.
0.5 (2005-04-08)
Initial public release.