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README.md

SPTCR: curated repository of scientific papers on cryonics

This repository contains a list of 70+ scientific papers on cryonics, complete with short summaries of their findings.

The list is at the bottom of this page. You can also download it in .ods and .xls.

Feel free to use the table and the diagrams for any purposes. Everything in this repository is released into the Public Domain.

You can cite this repository as follows:

[SPTCR, 2018]

SPTCR: curated repository of scientific papers on cryonics, (2018), GitHub repository, https://github.com/RomanPlusPlus/scientific-progress-towards-cryonics

Stats

StateOfCryonics2018.png

As the papers indicate, it's easier to cryopreserve smaller organisms than larger ones: biggestMass2.png TemperatureVSmass.png

Note: we define "successful cryopreservation" as a cryopreservation, after which a reanimation was achieved. If it's a whole body preservation, the organism should be brought back to life and be able to survive for at least 1 week. If it's an organ, it should be able to perform its main function after the defreeze (ideally, confirmed by a successful transplantation). If it's cells, they should be alive after the defreeze, and show at least some indication that they're still able to perform their main functions.

The lowest temperature of successful cryopreservation (as of 2018)

By neural function / behavior after defreeze:

function / behavior after defreeze Lowest temperature (°C) Details
brain cells are alive and healthy -90 Culture of fetal brain cells of a brown rat (R. norvegicus)
metabolically and functionally active synapses -79 sup. cervic. ganglion of a brown rat (R. norvegicus)
successful transplantation of the defrozen brain tissue -90 fetal brain tissue of a brown rat (R. norvegicus)
EEG shows no abnormalities -20 In-vitro brain of a cat (F. catus)
long-term memory is preserved -79 Whole body preservation of a nematode C. elegans
mammals: no abnormalities in complex behavior, higher nervous activity -1 Whole body preservation of a golden hamster (M. auratus)
humans: no abnormalities in complex behavior, higher nervous activity 10 Whole body preservation of humans (trauma patients)

By specimen (humans only):

Specimen Lowest temperature (°C) Details
cells (any type) -196 oocytes
brain cells -80 from a 9-14 week abortus
brain tissue -70 from adults
organs (adult) 5 The preservation standard for donor livers, as of 2018
embryos -196 developed into healthy humans
whole body: children (accidental hibernation) 16 human: Erika Nordby
whole body: adults (accidental hibernation) 14 human: Anna Bågenholm
whole body: adults (controlled hibernation) 10 human: trauma patients

By taxon (only adult animals counted; whole body cryopreservation):

Taxon Lowest temperature (°C) Species (where applicable)
Animals (Animalia) -272 Tardigrades (Tardigrada)
Vertebrates (Vertebrata) -32 Salamander S. keyserlingii
Mammals (Mammalia) -7 Leisler's bat (N. leisleri)
Boreoeutheria -7 Leisler's bat (N. leisleri)
Euarchontoglires -5 Golden hamster (M. auratus)
Primates 10 Humans (Homo sapiens)
Humans (Homo sapiens) 10 Humans (Homo sapiens)

By mass (only adult animals counted; whole body cryopreservation):

Mass, kg Lowest temperature (°C) Species (where applicable)
<0,01 -272 Tardigrades (Tardigrada)
0,01 – 0,099 -32 Salamander S. keyserlingii
0,1 – 0,99 -5 Golden hamster (M. auratus)
1 – 9,99 0 Marmots (Marmota)
10 – 99,9 7 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.)

The papers

Year Taxon tissue, organ or whole body? Approx. mass, kg Lowest temperature (°C) after which a successful reanimation was achieved Healthy brain activity / behavior after reanimation? Reference Useful link
1876 Guinea pig (C. porcellus) whole 1E+00 18 Unknown Bernard, 1876 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1881 Marmots (Marmota) whole 3E+00 0 Likely yes (adapted to hibernation) Horvath, 1881 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1912 Schreibers' bat (M. schreibersii) whole 2E-02 -4 Unknown Bachmetiev, 1912 http://priroda.ras.ru/ (1912 05)
1933 Bats (Chiroptera) whole 4E-03 0 Unknown Eisentraut, 1933 https://www.jstor.org/stable/1376212?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
1949 Human: unnamed donors red blood cells 9E-14 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith et al, 1949 https://www.nature.com/articles/164666a0
1949 Human: unnamed donors spermatozoa 3E-15 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Polge et al, 1949 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18143360?dopt=Abstract
1950 Tardigrades (Tardigrada) whole 2E-11 -272 Unknown Becquerel, 1950 https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12808
1950 Mammals (Mammalia) skin <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kreyberg, Hanssen, 1950 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1951 Human: unnamed 23yo woman whole 6E+01 16 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Laufmann, 1951 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/312807
1951 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 2E-01 0 Unknown Andjus, 1951 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1952 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) skin <0,1 -150 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Billingham, Medawar, 1952 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/29/3/454.short
1953 Primate: lemur C. major whole 4E-01 19 Unknown Bourliere et al, 1953 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1955 House mouse (M. musculus) spleen 1E-04 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Barnes,Loutit, 1955 https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-abstract/15/4/901/915080
1955 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 2E-01 -3 Unknown Andjus, 1955 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1365903/
1956 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 2E-01 0 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Andjus, 1956 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1956 Golden hamster (M. auratus) whole 1E-01 -1 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Lovelock, Smith, 1956 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13359396
1957 Mammals (Mammalia) ovarian tissue 5E-10 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Parkes, 1957 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1957 Primate: some Simiiformes whole 4E+00 11 Yes (habits preserved, no abnormalities) Niazi and Lewis, 1957 https://journals.lww.com/surveyanesthesiology/citation/1957/12000/profound_hypothermia_in_the_monkey_with_recovery.1.aspx
1957 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) sup. сervic. ganglion 5E-07 -79 full recovery of synaptic function Pascoe, Parkes, 1957 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspb.1957.0071
1958 Mammals (Mammalia) renal tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Vieuchange, 1958 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1958 Leisler's bat (N. leisleri) whole 1E-02 -7 Unknown Kalabukhov, 1958 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1959 Mammals (Mammalia) thyroid tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Parkes, 1959 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1959 Golden hamster (M. auratus) whole 1E-01 -5 Unknown Andjus, 1959 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1959 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) whole 2E+00 14 Unknown Andjus, 1959 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1959 Human: brain surgery patients whole 6E+01 28 Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018) Soleimanpour et al, 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166101/
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) adrenal cortex <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) epididymis <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) fallopian tube <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) hypophysis <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) parathyroid glands <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Russell et al, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) prostate gland (ps.) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) seminal vesicles <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) testicular tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Golden hamster (M. auratus) heart 1E-03 -20 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19620102256
1961 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) heart 4E-02 -21 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Connaughton, Lewis, 1961 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072955
1961 Guinea pig (C. porcellus) uteri 2E-03 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1963 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) ureters <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Barner et al, 1963 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1964 House mouse (M. musculus) thymus glands 5E-05 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Playfair et al, 1964 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1966 Cat (Felis catus) brain (in vitro) 3E-02 -20 EEG similar to the control I. Suda et al, 1966 https://www.nature.com/articles/212268a0
1967 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) small intestine <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Hailmton, Lehr, 1967 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1972 Mammals (Mammalia) heart (fetal) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue David, 1972 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1973 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) kidney 2E-02 -22 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Dietzman et al, 1973 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072955
1974 Mammals (Mammalia) bone marrow <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1974 Cat (Felis catus) brain (in vitro) 3E-02 -20 activity, but some EEG abnormalities I. Suda et al, 1974 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899374902637
1974 Mammals (Mammalia) cornea <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1977 Mammals (Mammalia) embryos 5E-10 -79 Unknown Elliot, Whelan, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1977 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) pancreases (fetal) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kemp et al, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1980 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) fetal brain tissue <0,1 -90 Successful transplantation into a rat brain Houle, Das, 1980 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899380909099
1983 Human: unnamed donors brain tissue <0,1 -70 Metabolically, functionally active synapses Hardy et al, 1983 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1983.tb08024.x
1984 Salamander S. keyserlingii whole 1E-02 -32 Unknown Berman et al, 1984 https://eurekamag.com/research/006/919/006919627.php
1984 Human: unnamed donors astrocytes (culture) <0,1 -70 Astrocytes were growing in culture Kim et al, 1984 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6475502
1986 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) fetal brain cells <0,1 -90 cultures indistinguishable from controls Kawamoto, Barrett, 1986 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899386912229
1986 Human: unnamed donors oocytes 5E-10 -196 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Chen, 1986 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2870356
1986 Human: a 9-14 week abortus fetal brain tissue <0,1 -80 Brain cells were growing in culture Groscurth et al., 1986 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3518539
1986 House mouse (M. musculus) brain cells (culture) <0,1 -15 Normal electrical activity, regeneration Scott, Lew, 1986 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3943556
1986 Human: unnamed whole (embryo) 5E-10 -196 Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018) Graham, 2005 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-embryos-survive-th/
1986 Human: Michelle Funk whole 1E+01 19 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Clawson, 2013 https://survivor-story.com/miracle-2-year-old-recovers-hour-underwater/
1989 Squirrel S. parryii whole 9E-01 -3 Unknown Barnes, 1989 https://web.archive.org/web/20081216233837/http://users.iab.uaf.edu/~brian_barnes/publications/1989barnes.pdf
1989 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) Pancreas (islets) 3E-08 -196 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Warnock, Rajotte, 1989 https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(89)90701-0/fulltext
1994 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) whole 1E+01 7 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Taylor et al, 1994 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8555538?dopt=Abstract
1999 Human: Anna Bågenholm whole 7E+01 14 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Gilbert et al, 2000 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_B%C3%A5genholm
2000 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) kidney 8E-06 -3 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kheirabadi, Fahy, 2000 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10919575
2001 Human: Erika Nordby whole 9E+00 16 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Greaves et al, 2002 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erika_Nordby
2002 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) ovaries 1E-05 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Wang et al, 2002 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072955
2003 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) whole 2E+01 10 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Behringer et al, 2003 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12771628
2003 Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) ovaries 1E-04 -140 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Bedaiwy et al, 2003 https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(02)04842-2/fulltext
2004 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) kidney 8E-06 -45 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Fahy, 2004 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15094092
2006 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) whole 5E+01 10 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Alam et al, 2006, 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16456447
2007 Human: aortic surgery patients whole 7E+01 17 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Hayashida et al, 2007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17289482
2008 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) liver 2E+00 -40 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Gavish, 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729808
2009 Beetle Upis ceramboides whole 2E-04 -60 Unknown Walters, 2009 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19403530
2012 Nematodes frozen for 26 years whole 3E-07 -20 Unknown Kagoshima et al, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987239
2015 Nematode C. elegans whole 3E-07 -79 Yes (long-term memory preserved) Vita-More, Barranco, 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620520/
2015 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) brain 1E-02 -135 Activity not tested. Excellent ultrastructural preservation McIntyre, Fahy, 2015 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001122401500245X
2015 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) brain 2E-01 -135 Activity not tested. Excellent ultrastructural preservation McIntyre, Fahy, 2015 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001122401500245X
2016 Human: trauma patients whole 8E+01 10 Likely yes (ongoing clinical trial) Kutcher et al, 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26497780
2017 Human: Tayyab Jafar whole 8E+01 21 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Ormsby, 2017 https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2017/02/19/this-queens-student-froze-to-death-on-a-kingston-pier-heres-how-he-came-back-to-life.html
2018 Nematodes frozen for 30+ tsd yrs whole 3E-07 -10 Unknown Shatilovich et al, 2018 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0012496618030079
2018 Human: unnamed donors liver 2E+00 5 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Buchholz et al, 2018 https://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Abstract/2018/07001/Extending_the_Human_Liver_Preservation_Time_for.637.aspx

Note: For the majority of the papers in the list, abstracts or even full texts are available on the Web. The full texts are usually behind paywalls, but many of them are available for free on LibGen. But check if LibGen is illegal in your country.

Feedback

This repository is a work in progress. Feedback is highly appreciated!

Please feel free to edit it directly (you need to sign up in github to do it), suggest edits using the "issue" feature, or suggest edits at New_Cryonet or reddit.com/r/cryonics

You can also subcribe to changes using RSS.

In february 2019, a prominent figure in the cryonics movement - Mike Darwin - kindly provided some lenghty feedback on the content of this repository. It's available under this link. There is a lot of relevant info in it that we plan to add to this repository.

See also

Timeline of brain preservation - a very detailed timeline of the history of cryonics

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