This is an application for parsing Itinerum travel survey data into a more standard travel survey format, showing trips, activity locations, modes of travel and times of arrival/departure, etc.
How to run the scripts
- Clone or download the repo.
- Place your Itinerum output csv files in the imput directory
- The scripts require 2 input files: coordinates.csv, survey_reponses.csv (and eventually prompt_responses.csv)
- If your output/input file names do not match these then change them, or modify the corresponding names in config.py
- If you have ground truth data for generating quality metrics, place them in the outputs directory, titled episodes_ground_truth.csv and locations_ground_truth.csv respectively.
- You can also change the corresponding names in config.py for ground truth data.
- Ensure you have all the dependencies, which are identified below.
- In your shell of choice, run
python3 main.pyto generate episode and locations files in the output directory.
- If you have ground truth data, you can run
python3 compare.pyto generate quality metrics.
- Other settings can be modified in config.py at your discretion.
3 people (users A, B, and C) have generously contributed a week each of itinerum survey and classified ground truth data for testing. User D is simple a test case for error detection and not a real user.
For each user:
The basic idea in the cleaning phase to remove points not based on decent GPS data. Many points may be derived from cell-towers, wifi networks, etc. The phone is a black box in this regard. Such points often repeat a location precisely, which is unlikely with a GPS reading or they may suddenly appear very far away from their temporal neighbors.
- Remove points with high known error (h_accuracy > x meters)
- Remove points at same location as temporal neighbors
- Any major jump away and back again, especially if the h_error doesn't justify the distance may indicate a non-GPS signal or a bad error estimate. Away-and-back-again points are identified by the minimum distance from neighboring points and the angle formed between the three.
- Repeat step 2
- More to come...
Data is segmented into lists of points where we feel confident that we haven't lost track of the user, e.g. through a powered-off phone. We refer to these as known segments and let the surrounding time be considered unknown. For the moment, this consists only of:
- Consider as unknown any time where the user moves more than 1 kilometer and two hours without reporting a location. Unless the start and end of that segment is within 200m of a subway tunnel.
- More to come...
This phase largely follows the method described by Thierry Chaix and Kestens. We essentially do a time-weighted KDE on the user's points, spatio-temporally linear-interpolated where necessary. The kernel density estimation is done in R (for lack of a decent Python package) and then brought back into Python.
- Calculate a KDE based on time weighted GPS points, interpolated as appropriate. GPS points are also used as points where the PDF is estimated. This saves the cost of estimating a grid of points over sparse GPS data.
- Estimate an "activity threshold" for that surface. i.e., how high would a peak in the KDE be if someone spent X seconds at a given location, given the known parameters of
- total time under the surface (sum of time weights)
- average GPS error for the user
- kernel bandwidth
- Points with a PDF estimate above the threshold are clustered into contiguous groups.
- The maximum PDF estimate from each cluster (the peak) will be taken as a potential activity location. (It's possible that it may make sense to use a polygonized version of the cluster as a definition of the activity location rather than a point from the peak. This is not implemented yet.)
The ultimate goal of this program is to create a travel-diary-like sequence of activities; this step is where that happens. Conceptually, time may be spent in only one of two (three) ways in this model: 1) travelling, 2) at an 'activity' (or 3 it may be classified as unknown). Framing the problem thus leads to a hidden Markov model approach to discrete activity sequence classification. Each observed GPS point can be assigned an emission probability associated with each location, based on distance between the two. Transition probabilities give strong preference to state continuity and disallow teleporting (activities without intermediating travel).
The Viterbi algorithm provides the most likely underlying classification of points, and these are used to map time to travel and activities.
Any stationary activities shorter than the configured time threshold are merged back into surrunding acivities.
Data is output in several files, some of which contain somewhat overlapping information.
The episodes file is the most esential output. It's in a sort of this happenend and then that happened format.
This file contains a list of potential activity locations, many of which will correspond to an entry in the episodes file. Locations not used will be marked as such.
Person Days File
This file summarizes the episodes file per calendar day. Since many people may stay up a little past midnight, but few go all the way around the clock, a calndar date is considered to go from 3am to 3am. Each episode type is counted and summed. E.g. How much time was spent at home today and how many trips were made? Eventually this will be made timezone aware; for now it s configured for a single configured time zone.
- Python 3
- R 3.3+
- ks package
ksNeeds to be installed through R:
- ks package