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Base quick start (C⁺⁺)

Julian Valentin edited this page Oct 25, 2019 · 6 revisions

To be able to quickly start with a toolkit, it is often advantageous (not only for the impatient users), to look at some code examples first. In this tutorial, we give a short example program which interpolates a bivariate function on a regular sparse grid. Identical versions of the example are given in all languages currently supported by SG++: C++, Python, Java, and MATLAB.

In the example, we create a two-dimensional regular sparse grid of level 3 (with grid points f0) using piecewise bilinear basis functions f1. We then interpolate the function




by calculating the coefficients f4 such that f5 for all f6. This process is called hierarchization in sparse grid contexts; the f4 are called (hierarchical) surpluses. Note that f7 vanishes at the boundary of the domain f8; therefore, we don't have to spend sparse grid points on the boundary. Finally, we evaluate the sparse grid function f9 at a point f10.

First, we have to include the SG++ headers. We can include the meta-header sgpp_base.hpp, which includes itself all headers from the base module, or we can include only those headers we need.

// include all SG++ base headers
// #include <sgpp_base.hpp>

// or, better, include only the ones needed
#include <sgpp/base/datatypes/DataVector.hpp>
#include <sgpp/base/grid/Grid.hpp>
#include <sgpp/base/grid/GridStorage.hpp>
#include <sgpp/base/grid/generation/GridGenerator.hpp>
#include <sgpp/base/operation/BaseOpFactory.hpp>
#include <sgpp/base/operation/hash/OperationEval.hpp>

#include <iostream>

Before starting with the main function, the function f7, which we want to interpolate, is defined.

double f(double x0, double x1) { return 16.0 * (x0 - 1) * x0 * (x1 - 1) * x1; }

int main() {

First, we create a two-dimensional grid (type sgpp::base::Grid) with piecewise bilinear basis functions with the help of the factory method sgpp::base::Grid::createLinearGrid().

  size_t dim = 2;
  std::unique_ptr<sgpp::base::Grid> grid(sgpp::base::Grid::createLinearGrid(dim));

Then we obtain a reference to the grid's sgpp::base::GridStorage object which allows us, e.g., to access grid points, to obtain the dimensionality (which we print) and the number of grid points.

  sgpp::base::GridStorage& gridStorage = grid->getStorage();
  std::cout << "dimensionality:         " << gridStorage.getDimension() << std::endl;

Now, we use a sgpp::base::GridGenerator to create a regular sparse grid of level 3. Thus, gridStorage.getSize() returns 17, the number of grid points of a two-dimensional regular sparse grid of level 3.

  size_t level = 3;
  std::cout << "number of grid points:  " << gridStorage.getSize() << std::endl;

We create an object of type sgpp::base::DataVector which is essentially a wrapper around a double array. The DataVector is initialized with as many entries as there are grid points. It serves as a coefficient vector for the sparse grid interpolant we want to construct. As the entries of a freshly created DataVector are not initialized, we set them to 0.0. (This is superfluous here as we initialize them in the next few lines anyway.)

  sgpp::base::DataVector alpha(gridStorage.getSize());
  std::cout << "length of alpha vector: " << alpha.getSize() << std::endl;

The for loop iterates over all grid points: For each grid point gp, the corresponding coefficient f4 is set to the function value at the grid point's coordinates which are obtained by getStandardCoordinate(dim). The current coefficient vector is then printed.

  for (size_t i = 0; i < gridStorage.getSize(); i++) {
    sgpp::base::GridPoint& gp = gridStorage.getPoint(i);
    alpha[i] = f(gp.getStandardCoordinate(0), gp.getStandardCoordinate(1));

  std::cout << "alpha before hierarchization: " << alpha.toString() << std::endl;

An object of sgpp::base::OperationHierarchisation is created and used to hierarchize the coefficient vector, which we print.

  std::cout << "alpha after hierarchization:  " << alpha.toString() << std::endl;

Finally, a second DataVector is created which is used as a point to evaluate the sparse grid function at. An object is obtained which provides an evaluation operation (of type sgpp::base::OperationEvaluation), and the sparse grid interpolant is evaluated at f11, which is close to (but not exactly at) a grid point.

  sgpp::base::DataVector p(dim);
  p[0] = 0.52;
  p[1] = 0.73;
  std::unique_ptr<sgpp::base::OperationEval> opEval(sgpp::op_factory::createOperationEval(*grid));
  std::cout << "u(0.52, 0.73) = " << opEval->eval(alpha, p) << std::endl;

The example results in the following output:

dimensionality:         2
number of grid points:  17
length of alpha vector: 17
alpha before hierarchization: [1, 0.75, 0.75, 0.4375, 0.9375, 0.9375, 0.4375, 0.75, 0.75, 0.4375, 0.9375, 0.9375, 0.4375, 0.5625, 0.5625, 0.5625, 0.5625]
alpha after hierarchization:  [1, 0.25, 0.25, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.25, 0.25, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.0625]
u(0.52, 0.73) = 0.7696

It can be clearly seen that the surpluses decay with a factor of 1/4: on the first level, we obtain 1, on the second 1/4, and on the third 1/16 as surpluses.