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$NetBSD: UPDATING,v 1.238 2012/08/22 04:16:47 dholland Exp $
This file (UPDATING) is intended to be a brief reference to recent
changes that might cause problems in the build process, and a guide for
what to do if something doesn't work.
For a more detailed description of the recommended way to build NetBSD
using, see the BUILDING file.
Note that much of the advice in this UPDATING file was written before existed. Nevertheless, the advice here may be useful for
working around specific problems with
See also: BUILDING,, Makefile.
Recent changes:
The update of openssl requires cleaning both the openssl build
directory and DESTDIR; update builds done without taking these
steps may fail, or if not, have been observed to cause
third-party software to link incorrectly.
The database schema for makemandb was changed. You will
need to update the database using 'makemandb -f' or wait
for the next weekly run to fix it.
sys/conf/ has been modified to adjust the
size of db_symtab automatically. You need to update dbsym in
your $TOOLDIR to build kernels with options SYMTAB_SPACE. If
you don't want this behavior, add AUTO_SYMTAB_SPACE=no to your
Default for MKCATPAGES changed to NO. Update builds will fail
unless DESTDIR is cleaned manually. If you built between 20120207
and 20120216, daily and weekly could have created an unreable
/var/db/man.db index for apropos. Running makemandb -f or
the next run of weekly will fix it.
If you built between 20111225 and 20111227 you need to remove
/usr/lib/* and /usr/lib/security/*.so.4, since the
bump has been reverted.
The "rnd" pseudodevice has been added to sys/conf/std, which
means it should no longer be explicitly listed in kernel
configuration files. The line "pseudo-device rnd" should be
removed from any custom kernel config files users may have.
A problem with the datastructures used by the rndctl(8)
utility (pointers in datastructures in an array, making 32->64
bit compatibility very painful) has been fixed in a
non-backwards-compatible way. If you replace your kernel,
replace your rndctl executable too.
the prop_*_send_syscall() functions from proplib(3) have been
changed and their new version is not backward compatible with the old
one. So ensure that all consumers of these functions (currently:
quota2 code and its tests) are updated together with the new lib.
sparc has been changed to use GCC 4.5.3, so any objdir or
DESTDIR for them should be deleted before updating.
i386 and amd64 have been changed to use GCC 4.5.3, so any
objdir or DESTDIR for them should be deleted before updating.
The update to GCC 4.5.3 requires a non-trivial portion of
the tree to be cleaned. Best to delete both objdir and
DESTDIR before running this update. So far, only the
sparc64, mips and powerpc platforms have changed.
The layout of external/public-domain/xz has changed. To do an
update build you will have to remove the contents of the OBJDIR
for external/public-domain/xz/bin by hand as the xz entry there
is now a directory.
The configuration of src/tools/gcc has changed. To do an
update build you have to clean both tools/binutils and
tools/gcc by hand.
Building the Xorg binary was moved into a subdirectory to fix
ordering issues with "make all". It may be necessary to remove
the OBJDIR for external/mit/xorg/server/xorg-server/hw/xfree86
if your update build fails, as the "Xorg" entry there is now a
Assembler files no longer use -traditional-cpp. This can break
the build of individual parts of the tree. This is handled
correctly by Manual builds have to update /usr/share/mk
and re-run config(1) for any kernel configurations as needed.
The tcpdump(8) program was changed to drop privileges and chroot(2)
by default. It may be necessary to manually update passwd(5) and
group(5) in order to make the program work with existing setups.
The latest changes to setenv(3) dissallow setting environment
variables with names that contain '='. Revision 1.18 of env.c
assumed that this was allowed. Installing a new libc with an
old copy of /usr/bin/env causes env x=1 printenv | grep x= to
break which affects the autoconf tests for dependency finding,
so building gcc will end up printing:
checking dependency style of gcc... none
configure: error: no usable dependency style found
Fix it by rebuilding and re-installing env.
Recent Xorg updates in xsrc/external/mit/ may cause various build
or run-time problems. Delete your entire DESTDIR and OBJDIR if you
have any build problems with xsrc, or problems with mismatched
versions between xorg-server and drivers.
The update of ATF to 0.9 causes old tests written in shell to fail
unless they are rebuilt. If you are building with MKUPDATE=yes,
you need to clean the src/external/bsd/atf/tests/ and the src/tests/
trees by hand.
Recent Xorg updates in xsrc/external/mit/ will cause various build
problems. Delete your entire DESTDIR and OBJDIR if you have any
build problems with xsrc.
private section of <ctype.h> was splitted, and now mklocale(1)
include ctype_local.h, so you have to make cleandir in tools/mklocale.
The location of the xkb compiled descriptions has changed. Please
remove usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xkb/compiled from your $DESTDIR.
The shared objects file extension has been changed from .so to
.pico, in order to avoid conflicts with shared libraries names All now stale regular .so files can be removed from
your object directories.
The termcap database has been removed from the sources,
but has not been marked obsolete so it is not removed
from the system when upgrading.
As such, you will need to remove them from your object
and destination directories.
After updating, it may be necessary to make the 'cleandir'
target in src/tools/yacc/ and in src/usr.bin/yacc/ before a
' -u tools' or ' -u distribution'. Ditto
src/tools/lex/ and src/usr.bin/lex/.
On amd64 you must rebuild tools (to get the new binutils)
before building a kernel, or the build fails on cpufunc.S.
An error will create a ./usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xkb/compiled/xkb
symlink, failing the build. Delete the link, and the subdir
it is in, and retry your build.
libc build changed so that strchr() provides the extra entry
point for index(). Update build of libc.a (and libc_pic.a)
may fail because the archive contains the unwanted index.o.
(Similarly for strrchr() and rindex().)
Native Xorg was upgraded again. Builds will probably fail again
without a clean objdir, at least for src/external/mit/xorg.
Native Xorg was upgraded. Builds will need a clean objdir for
src/external/mit/xorg. Upgrading a system from sets will not
work properly yet as the /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/pc
subdirectory has been changed into a file, and this needs to
be manually "rm -r"'ed before installing xbase.tgz.
Several new functions were added to string.h/libc, and this
can cause autoconf problems during the tool build for people
who fail to clean out their tools objects properly. If you
note messages about stpcpy, stpncpy or strnlen accompanying a
failure during the tool build, clean out all your tools
objects and start again.
The i386 port was switched to i486 default toolchain. This requires
cleaning your src/tools directory and $TOOLDIR and rebuilding them.
The __posix_fadvise50 system call changed assembly stub type. You
need to 'rm -f __posix_fadvise50.*' in the libc build directory
to avoid using the old assembly stub.
pkg_install now depends on the pkgdb cache for automatic conflict
detection. It is recommented to rebuild the cache with
``pkg_admin rebuild''.
time_t and dev_t have been bumped to 64 bit quantities. To upgrade:
1. Make sure your kernel has COMPAT_50 in it. Build and install.
This is needed even in the MODULAR kernel because there is
conditionally compiled code in rtsock.c.
2. make sure completes and the binaries in a chroot work
before installing.
3. If you don't use and you build directly to root, and
your build breaks in the middle, don't despair. Make sure headers
are installed properly, and start building libraries first libc
and libutil, install them and then continue building all the
libraries in src/lib and src/gnu/lib and install them. Once
the new libraries are installed, you can restart the build.
4. If you compile packages and you notice link time warnings,
rebuild the required packages to update their shared libraries.
Any package you rebuild will require rebuilding all the packages
that depend on it.
5. Next time you run pwd_mkdb with the new binary, the file
will be upgraded and it will not be backwards compatible.
6. The utmpx/wtmpx files (/var/run/utmpx and /var/log/wtmpx, see
lastlogx(5)) have been versioned, and there is a heuristic
for utmp. You are better off removing the old files after
upgrading. The automated clearing of /var/run during
boot, and the automated rotating of files in /var/log by
newsyslog(8), may mean that you do not have to remove the
files manually.
7. The optional accounting file (/var/account/acct, see
accton(8)) has not been versioned, and will need to be
removed. The automatic rotation of the accounting file by
/etc/daily limits the bad consequences of failure to remove
the file.
8. Application software that writes time_t to binary files on
disk will break or need attention. Most notably: if you are
using PostgreSQL < 8.4, you need to dump your databases,
rebuild PostgreSQL with the new time_t, then restore.
config(1) has been updated, and one of the files it creates -
swapnetbsd.o - has changed format. You need to rebuild config
(done automatically by and then you need to rerun
config on all kernel configuration files before rebuilding those
If you build with MKX11=no, you should remove /etc/rc.d/xdm and
/etc/rc.d/xfs from DESTDIR because those files were moved to the xetc
set and will appear as extra files for MKX11=no update builds.
On i386, various kernel options(4) in GENERIC including
file systems have been disabled and moved into kernel modules.
Before trying a new GENERIC kernel, you have to prepare the
following files as well as a new GENERIC kernel:
- build and install kernel modules from src/sys/modules
- install the latest bootloader, which will load a module
for the file system from which the kernel is loaded automatically
If you have to load your kernel from a file system which is not of
the same type as the root file system, you have to load the necessary
file system module manually on the boot prompt or in the boot.cfg file.
If you built and installed a libc from sources between
2008/08/20 and 2008/08/26 you got a broken strtouq(3)
which results in false errors reported by lint(1).
Since this breaks the libc build itself, manual help is
needed -- lint must be disabled temporarily, e.g.:
$ (cd lib/libc && make MKLINT=no dependall install)
MKDEBUG build was broken because the .depend files did not know
about .go files. You need to remove all .depend files and rebuild.
A regression in binary compatibility for pthread_mutex_t has
been fixed. Unfortunately, the price is breaking compatibility
for -current.
Threaded programs (using libpthread) and C++ programs (using
libstdc++) compiled after 20070907 and before 20080802 need to
be recompiled.
One way to find affected pkgsrc packages:
$ grep REQUIRES=/usr/lib/libpthread /var/db/pkg/*/+BUILD_INFO
$ grep REQUIRES=/usr/lib/libstdc++ /var/db/pkg/*/+BUILD_INFO
WAPBL (metadata journaling support) has been added, but at this
time isn't backwards compatible with pre-WAPBL aware kernels
and userland (fsck_ffs in particular). Please make sure you
don't use a journaled filesystem with an older kernel/userland,
especially an uncleanly mounted journaled filesystem. WAPBL
also requires the super block to be in the UFS2 format. You
can use fsck_ffs -c 4 to update the superblock format.
Assembler warnings are now fatal if $WARNS>0 and $NOGCCERROR
isn't defined.
The ioctl number of DRVSUSPENDDEV command on /dev/drvctl changed
from 125 (conflicted with DRVCTLCOMMAND) to 129. The drvctl(8)
utility needs to be rebuilt and reinstalled as older binaries
won't work correctly. The following sequence of commands:
$ (cd sys/sys/ && nbmake-$arch includes)
$ (cd sbin/drvctl/ && nbmake-$arch clean)
$ (cd sbin/drvctl/ && nbmake-$arch all)
leaves new drvctl utility in sbin/drvctl build directory.
The <> variable MKPRIVATELIB was renamed to LIBISPRIVATE.
For a while, unprivileged UPDATE builds would fail to
succeed at the checkflist stage, complaining that
${DESTDIR}/stand/<arch>/ did not exist. A fix for this
problem was committed to share/mk/, revision 1.9.
If you already hit this problem, update the .mk file,
remove ${DESTDIR}/stand/<arch>, and re-run the build.
Linker warnings are now fatal if $WARNS>0.
The posix_fadvise system call has been changed from an assembly
stub, to a c file that calls an assembly stub. You need to
'rm -f posix_fadvise.* .depend' in the libc build directory to
avoid using the old assembly stub.
The acpiec(4) driver has been split into two attachments. If you
get ACPI errors before the attachment, please update your kernel
configuration file appropriately or see GENERIC for more details.
The it(4) driver has been renamed to itesio(4) and the old port
argument specified in the kernel configuration file is not valid
anymore. The itesio(4) driver now uses the Super I/O address port
rather than the EC address port. Please update your kernel
configuration file appropriately or see GENERIC for more details.
The pccons(4) driver has been removed from the NetBSD/shark port.
You need to update any custom kernel configuration file you have
to remove any references to pccons (which includes removing the
now useless XSERVER option) and replace them with the correct
entries for the wscons driver. See the GENERIC configuration file
for more details.
A latent bug in dhclient/dhcpd that caused it to be unable to
enumerate interfaces was fixed. The bug began to cause
problems after 20070911 when the kernel's SIOCGIFCONF
implementation was repaired. From 20070529 to 20070911 racoon
could not enumerate interfaces. (These are noted because
normal kernel/userspace version matching hygiene is not
sufficient to avoid this problem.) Ensure that both kernel
and userland are from after 20070913.
nbinstall has been renamed ${MACHINE_GNU_ARCH}-install. It
calls the target-specific strip program, and the logic to pass
down STRIP from make has been removed. This requires a
re-installation of tools.
The way OS emulations lookup filenames inside the emulation root
has been changed. Rather than modify the pathname (and copy back
to userspace) namei() and lookup() directly check the emulation
root. One side effect is that absolute symlinks inside the emulated
root file system will be relative to that file system - unless they
start /../ this is useful when the emulated root is a real install
that has such links.
This might affect symlinks that have been added to reference outside
the emulated root.
The pckbc driver on sgimips IP32 has been removed. Use macekbc
instead. See the GENERIC32_IP3x kernel configuration for an
src/lib/libc/Makefile revision 1.129 broke libc and ld.elf_so
on many platforms due to incorrect flags settings. If you
updated and built after about 20070315, do "nbmake-$arch
cleandir" in src/lib/libc and src/libexec/ld.elf_so to force a
rebuild of object files that might have been built
incorrectly, and ensure that you have at least
src/lib/libc/Makefile 1.130.
src/sys/sys/{sa.h,savar.h} were removed.
find ${OBJDIR} \( -name .depend -o -name '*.d' \) -print \
| xargs egrep -l '/sa.h|/savar.h' | xargs rm
will allow dependencies on those files to get get rebuilt
The threading model was changed when the newlock2 branch
was merged to NetBSD-current. If you boot with a new
kernel (version 4.99.10), then you also need a new pthread
library (/usr/lib/ If you boot with
an old kernel, then you need the old pthread library
(/usr/lib/ Provided you keep the kernel and
the pthread library in sync, old threaded applications should
continue to work with an old or new kernel. Note that named(8)
is the only threaded application in the base system.
Following the move of string_to_flags() and flags_to_string()
from the bin/ls/ sources to libutil, users doing UPDATE builds
will need to do a "make cleandir" in
tools/mtree/, tools/makefs/, tools/binstall/, tools/pax/,
bin/pax/, bin/ls/, usr.sbin/mtree/, usr.sbin/makefs/,
usr.bin/xinstall/, libexec/ftpd/, rescue/, as well
as the installation images in distrib/
in order to excise stale references to the old stat_flags.h header
file in the ls sources -- stat_flags.h has been removed.
The configure script used in the src/tools/gcc compiler has been
changed to indicate that our libc has ssp support built-in and
does not depend on -lssp and -lssp-nonshared. You'll need to
make clean in src/tools/gcc first to rebuild the compiler.
The sysctl variables net.inet{,6}.tcp{,6}.newreno are no longer
available. Use net.inet{,6}.tcp{,6}.congctl.selected instead.
The vt, vidcconsole, kbd, and rpckbd drivers on acorn32 have been
withdrawn. Use vidcvideo and pckbd instead. See the GENERIC
kernel configuration for an example. X servers from the last
few years should cope.
MPACPI is no more. We always configure PCI interrupts using ACPI
if we have an ACPI kernel. The option MPACPI_SCANPCI has been renamed
to ACPI_SCANPCI. Thanks to work from fvdl.
socket(2) has changed, and its system call has been versioned.
For userlands with the old version of socket(2), make sure that
your kernel has 'options COMPAT_30' set, or else 'bad system call'
errors will result.
Hints for a more successful build:
Use, but do not use its "expert mode":
This will automatically build the tools in the
correct order, and it will keep the tools and the
new build products from interfering with the running
system. This will allow you to ignore most of the
other advice in this file.
Build a new kernel first:
This makes sure that any new system calls or features
expected by the new userland will be present. This
helps to avoid critical errors when upgrading.
Use object directories:
This helps to keep stale object
files from polluting the build if a Makefile "forgets"
about one. It also makes it easier to clean up after
a build. It's also necessary if you want to use the
same source tree for multiple machines.
To use object directories with
a) invoke with the "-M" or "-O" options.
To use object directories without using
a) cd /usr/src ; make cleandir
b) Add "OBJMACHINE=yes" to /etc/mk.conf
c) Add "MKOBJDIRS=yes" to /etc/mk.conf
d) cd /usr/src ; make build
Note that running "make obj" in a directory will create
in obj.$MACHINE directory.
Build to a DESTDIR:
This helps to keep old installed files (especially libraries)
from interfering with the new build.
To build to a DESTDIR with, use the "-D" option.
To build to a DESTDIR without using, set the DESTDIR
environment variable before running make build. It should be
set to the pathname of an initially empty directory.
Problems: if you do not use, you might need to
update critical utilities without using DESTDIR since
nothing is executed from what is installed in DESTDIR.
(See critical utils, below.)
Build often:
This keeps critical utilities current enough to not choke
on any other part of the source tree that depends on up to
date functionality. If you use, you should not have
this problem.
What to do if things don't work:
When things don't work there are usually a few things that commonly
should be done.
1) make includes
This should be done automatically by make build.
2) cd share/mk && make install
Again, automatically done by make build.
Failsafe rebuild of a small part of the tree:
To make sure you rebuild something correctly you want to do
something like the following:
1) Make sure the includes and .mk files are up to date.
2) Make sure any program used to build the particular
utility is up to date. (yacc, lex, etc...)
3) cd ...path/to/util...
make cleandir
rm ...all obj directories...
make cleandir # yes, again
make obj
make depend && make
Failsafe rebuild of the entire tree:
If you really want to make sure the source tree is clean and
ready for a build try the following. Note that sourcing /etc/mk.conf
(a make(1) Makefile) in this manner is not right, and will not work
for anyone who uses any make(1) features in /etc/mk.conf.
---cut here---
. /etc/mk.conf
if [ -z $NETBSDSRCDIR ] ; then
if [ \! -d $NETBSDSRCDIR ] ; then
echo Unable to find sources
exit 1
find $NETBSDSRCDIR -name \*.o -o -name obj.\* -o -name obj -exec rm \{\} \;
if [ -z $BSDOBJDIR ] ; then
if [ -d $BSDOBJDIR ] ; then
cd $NETBSDSRCDIR && make cleandir
---cut here---
Critical utilities:
Other problems and possible solutions:
Symptom:Complaints involving a Makefile.
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/make:
cd usr.bin/make && make && make install
Or, a failsafe method if that doesn't work:
cd usr.bin/make && cc *.c */*.c -I . -o make && mv make /usr/bin
Fix: Make sure .mk files are up to date.
cd share/mk && make install
Symptom:Kernel `config' fails to configure any kernel, including GENERIC.
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/config
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/yacc
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/lex
Fix: rm /usr/lib/libbfd.a
Symptom:Obsolete intermediate files are used during compilation
Fix: Try the following sequence of commands in the directory in question.
make cleandir; rm `make print-objdir`; make cleandir; make obj
(If you built the tree without "make obj" in the past, obsolete files
may remain. The command tries to clean everything up)
Symptom:.../sysinst/run.c:xx: warning: initialization from incompatible
pointer type
Fix: Rebuild and install usr.bin/menuc
Symptom:mklocale not found during build in share/locale/ctype
Fix: Build and install usr.bin/mklocale
Symptom:undefined reference to `__assert13' or `__unsetenv13'
Fix: Rebuild and install lib/libc
Symptom:usr.bin/config fails to build.
Fix: Try building with -DMAKE_BOOTSTRAP added to CFLAGS in Makefile.
Symptom:undefined reference to `getprogname' or `setprogname'
Fix: Rebuild and install lib/libc
Symptom:lint does not understand the '-X' option
Fix: May need to build & install libs with NOLINT=1 before rebuilding lint
Symptom:Update build fails in src/tools/gcc complaining that a variable
(e.g. CPPFLAGS) has changed since the previous run.
Fix: Run "nbmake-${ARCH} clean" in src/tools/gcc or do a clean build.
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