Welcome to A December of Algorithms. This is a small collection of algorithms to implement this December. Finish it all to get a certificate. :)
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Welcome to A December of Algorithms. This is a small collection of algorithms to implement this December. Finish them all to get a certificate :)

Send a pull request only after completing all 31 algorithms.

Please submit all PRs on or before January 7th 11:59 PM IST.

What Do I Do?

We have a small collection of algorithms, one for every day of the month. Scroll down to take a look at them. All you need to do is fork this repository, implement all 31 algorithms and send a pull request over to us. Check out our FAQ for more information.



December 1 - Binary Search

  • Problem
    • Player A chooses a secret number n. Player B can guess a number x and A replies how x compares to n (equal, larger, smaller). What's an efficient strategy for B to guess n?
  • Example
    Say my chosen number is 38. What are you going to do? Do a binary search:
    Guess 50 (half of 0 to 100) → you’re too high.
    Guess 25 (half of 0 to 50) → you’re too low.
    Guess 37 (half of 25 to 50) → you’re too low.
    Guess 43 (half of 37 to 50) → you’re too high.
    Guess 40 (half of 37 to 43) → you’re too high.
    Guess 38 (half of 37 to 40) → spot on!
    Input: A list of integers & a number x.
    Output: Find the given number in the list of integers. Print out each iteration of your search similar to the example given above.
  • Resources

December 2 - Similar Triangles

  • Problem
    • You have two triangles ABC and PQR on a plane. Your task is to determine whether they are similar.
    • In order for two triangles to be similar, any of these three conditions must be true
      • The sides of triangle ABC are proportional to the sides of PQR. (SSS Rule) AB/PQ = BC/QR = CA/RP
      • Two sides of the two triangles are proportional and the angle between the sides is the same for both triangles. (SAS Rule) AB/PQ = BC/QR AND angle(ABC) = angle(PQR)
      • If any two angles of one triangle are equal to any two angles of the other triangle. (AA Rule) angle(ABC) = angle(PQR) AND angle(BCA) = angle(QRP) AND angle(CAB) = angle(RPQ)
  • Example
    side1 = [2, 3, 3] angle1 = [80, 60, 40]
    side2 = [4, 6, 6] angle2 = [40, 60, 80]
    Output: Triangles are similar by SSS AAA SAS
  • Resources
    • You just need to find the ratio between the sides of the triangle and compare the angles.
    • Remember that the input triangles may be rotated around. For the problem given above, if side2 = [6. 6. 4] and angle2 = [80, 60, 40], the triangles are still similar.

December 3 - Lucky Number

  • Problem
    • Ticket numbers usually consist of an even number of digits. A ticket number is considered lucky if the sum of the first half of the digits is equal to the sum of the second half. Given a ticket number n, determine if it's lucky or not.
  • Example
    For n = 1230, the output should be isLucky(n) = true
    For n = 239017, the output should be isLucky(n) = false
  • Resources
    • The basic functionality needed to solve this problem is extracting all the digits from a number and manipulate it according to your needs for which this link can be used.

December 4 - Fibonacci Series

  • Problem
    • In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones. The problem here is to find the nth number in the series.
  • Uses
    0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144,…
    • Remember, you don't need to print out the whole series, you just need to find the nth number in the series.
  • Resources

December 5 - The Tower of Hanoi

  • Problem
    • Let’s slowly spice things up with a simple algorithm, yet, mind-bending if you have never seen it before. Hanoi tower has a beautiful literate solution using recursion.
    • Say we have 3 towers. The first tower consists of a number of disks with the smallest ones at the top and the largest ones at the bottom. The second and third tower have no disks.
    • Your task is to move all the disks from the first tower to the third tower while following these rules:
      • Only one disk can be moved at a time.
      • You may only move a disk that is at the top of a tower. You cannot move any disk without first moving disks that are above it.
      • No disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk.
    • You have only certain fixed moves:
      • left->right, left->middle
      • middle->left, middle->right
      • right->left, right->middle
    • Your input will be a number indicating the total number of disks on the first (left) tower.
  • Example
    > Hanoi(3)
      left => right
      left => middle
      right => middle
      left => right
      middle => left
      middle => right
      left => right
  • Resources

December 6 - LCM

  • Problem
    • Return the least common multiple of two or more numbers.
    • Use the greatest common divisor (GCD) formula and the fact that lcm(x,y) = x * y / gcd(x,y) to determine the least common multiple.
    • Hint: There are multiple ways to implement GCD. Take a leap and try doing it with recursion.
    • Optional: Allow for input of more than 2 numbers and find the combined LCM of all the numbers.
  • Example
    Input: 12, 7
    Output: 84
    Optional Input: 2, 3, 6, 12, 24
    Output: 24
  • Resources

December 7 - Are they approximately equal?

  • Problem
    • Checks if two numbers are approximately equal (i.e. Closer using the concept of rounding numbers) to each other or not.
    • Optional: Most languages have a built in function to round a number. Can you implement the rounding function by yourself?
    • Optional: Add a third parameter Tolerance level that sets an acceptable threshold level. If the difference between the two numbers is more than the threshold value, then the output will be false.
  • Example
    • Without Tolerance Level:
    IsApproximatelyEqual(3.0, 2.5706) -> true
    • With Tolerance Level:
    IsApproximatelyEqual(3.0, 2.5706, 0.01) -> false as the difference is more than the Tolerance Level

December 8 - Singular-Plural

  • Problem
    • Returns the singular or plural form of any regular noun based on the input number.
    • Let num be the second integer parameter.
    • If num is either -1 or 1, return the singular form of the word. If num is any other number, return the plural form.
    • Also if the second arguments is a string (rather than an integer), then print the singular and plural word out of the inputs provided.
    • Optional: To spice things up, use a dictionary file to compare give the appropriate outputs. Therefore this will cover Irregular nouns in it too.
  • Example
    > SingularPlural("Apple", 2)
    > SingularPlural("Apple", 1)
    > SingularPlural("Apples", 1)
    > SingularPlural("Apples", "Apple")
        Singular: Apple
        Plural: Apples
    > SingularPlural("Apples", "Orange")
        Invalid Input
  • Resources

December 9 - Is this an URL?

December 10 - Find the Determinant

  • Problem
    • Find the Determinant of any 2x2 or 3x3 input matrix. Multiply all the values in a column or row with all values in other columns or row, sum them up… and it works!
    • Optional: Find the determinant for a matrix of any order (4x4 and above).
  • Example
    Input Array(X):
      4  9  2
      3  5  7
      8  1  6
  • Resources -Matrix: Determinant

December 11 - Printing Matrix in Spiral Form

  • Problem
    • Given a Matrix of size M * N, output its elements in spiral form.
    • To better understand the problem statement, consider the following matrix
    01     02     03
    04     05     06
    07     08     09
    • The Spiral form of a matrix is as below.
      01 --> 02 --> 03 --> 06 --> 09 --> 08 --> 07 --> 04 --> 05
    • Move Right, Move Down, Move Left, Move Up till you cover all elements of matrix.
  • Uses
    • Matrices are used much more in daily life than people would have thought or noticed.
    • Matrices find numerous applications in scientific fields and apply to practical real-life problems as well, thus making an indispensable concept for solving many practical problems.
    • Applications of matrices in real life problems
  • Resources
    • Matrices are represented using n-dimensional arrays where n is the order of the matrix. In this case have a 2-D matrix, so you will need to use a 2-D array. You need to use two variables to access an element of the matrix. The first variable is used to denote row while the second denotes the column. To traverse the entire matrix, you will need to use two loops.
    • Operations on Matrices

December 12 - Reversing a Singly Linked List

  • Problem
    • Given a singly linked list, output a linked list containing the same elements but in reverse order.
    • Optional: Complete the task without creating a new list. I.E., reverse the linked list in-place.
  • Example
      10 -> 20 -> 34 -> 23 -> 889
      889 -> 23 -> 34 -> 20 -> 10
  • Uses
    • There are pretty good real examples to show the usage and importance of linked-list.
    • Consider the history section of web browsers, where it creates a linked list of web-pages visited, so that when you check history (traversal of a list) or press back button, the previous node's data is fetched.
    • One commonly cited example is low level memory management (i.e. the heap as managed by malloc in C or new in Java, etc) is often implemented as a linked list, with each node representing a used or available (free) block of memory. These blocks may be of any size, change size (combine and split), be freed or assigned in any order, and reordered. A linked list means you can keep track of all of these "nodes" and manipulate them fairly easily.
    • Also, Hash-tables that use chaining to resolve hash collisions typically have one linked list per bucket for the elements in that bucket.
  • Resources:

December 13 - Lexicographical Arrangement

  • Problem
    • Given an input string, find all possible permutations of this string. Arrange these permutations in alphabetical order and find the position at which the input string occurs.
  • Example
    Possible combinations:
      dac --> Match Found at Position 5
    • The output for this will be 5 as dac is present in the 5th position in the alphabetical list of permutations.
  • Uses and Resources
    • This question is a brain teaser and though it may not seem to have any practical application, it is used in various areas such as Crypto-Analysis and Brute-forcing cryptographic keys.

December 14 - Caesar Cipher

  • Problem
    • The Caesar cipher is one of the earliest known ciphers. Simply put, it should take in an input of a 'key' and some plain text. This key will be a number from 0-25. Your task is to simply replace each character of the message with a new character. This new character is the key-th element from the old character. Check out the examples for better understanding. Also, develop a function to decrypt the given cipher when you are given the key.
    • Optional: The Caesar cipher is trivial for modern computers to crack, even without the key. Write a program that bruteforces the cipher. Bruteforcing means simply trying out every possible combination. So in this case, try out every possible key to decode the cipher.
  • Example #1:
    Input: and 3
    Encoded output: dqg
  • Example #2:
    Input: feel 4
    Encoded output: jiip
  • Resources

December 15 - Pascal's Triangle

  • Problem
    • Pascal's Triangle is a triangle(represented as a 2-D array) in which the ends of the rows are 1. Each of the other values is equal to the sum of the two nearest numbers in the row above.
    • The pascal’s triangle is given as:
                    1          1
               1          2        1
           1         3         3      1
      1       4          6         4     1
    • Up To any number of rows. The task here is to generate a pascal’s triangle for n rows and using this find (x+y)^n
  • Example
Sample input:
rows = 3
Sample output:
1       --> row 0
11      --> row 1
121     --> row 2
1331    --> row 3
Polynomial: (1x^3y^0)+(3x^2y^1)+(3x^1y^2)+(1x^0y^3)
  • Uses
    • The numbers in Pascal's triangle have another name: Binomial coefficient, and they show up a bunch.
    • There is a formula for finding them, but for smaller numbers it's about as easy, or easier, to use the triangle as it is the formula.
  • Application
    • Binomial Expansion
      • What is (a+b)^4? It's a pain to do by hand.
      • It's not hard to realize your final answer will contain the terms a^4, a^3b, a^2b^2, ab^3, and b^4.
      • What is a pain is figuring out the coefficients.
      • Enter Pascal's Triangle.
      The coefficients correspond to the 5 values in the 4th row of the triangle
                        1          1
                   1          2        1
               1         3         3      1
          1        4          6         4     1
      The polynomial is (a+b)^4 = a^4+4a^3b+6a^2b^2+4ab^3+b^4
    • Binomial Probability Distributions
      • If the probability of rolling a die 5 times and getting exactly 2 sixes?
      • Some might say it's (1/6)^2 (two sixes) times (5/6)^4 (four non-sixes).They'd be wrong. As it turns out, this is just the probability of one possibility, like getting two sixes first, then three non-sixes, or a six at the beginning and the end.
      • The good news is that all these possibilities have the same probability, and the bad news is we have to add them all up to find the probability of exactly 2 sixes.
      • We could just multiply if we knew how many combinations there were in total.Enter pascal's triangle (or binomial coefficients.) If you want the number of combinations that leads to 0 successes in 5 tries, you go to the first number on the 5th row of Pascal's triangle. For one you go to the 2nd, and for two you go to the 3rd.
      1   5   10   10   5   1
      • At a glance we can see the number of possibilities for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 successes in 5 trials. To find the probability of 2 sixes, we just have to multiply (1/6)^2(5/6)^4 by 10.
  • Resources:

December 16 - Find Temperature Difference Between Two Cities

  • Problem

    • It’s getting harder to turn around in tech without bumping into some reference to APIs, or application programming interfaces. In the simplest terms, applications talk to each other via APIs.
    • Usually, when we use an API to retrieve data (known as an API Call), we receive a JSON file containing data. To access this data, we will need to parse the JSON file. Depending on the language you are using, there are different ways to parse it. Just Google how to parse a JSON file in your language.
    • OpenWeatherMap is a popular service that provides satellite images, Weather data, Historical data and Soil temperature and moisture.
    • The problem is to find the current temperature difference between London, GB and Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India using the OpenWeatherMap API.
    • Note #1: OpenWeatherMap APIs need a valid API key to allow responses, Packages won't work if you don't provide one. You can signup for a free API key on the OpenWeatherMap website.
    • Note #2: API keys are private and should not be made public. When committing your code, please make sure you replace your original API key with a dummy key.
    • Note #3:Alternatively, you can look into saving your API key as an Environment Variable. One final alternative is to simply store the API key in a text file and add that file to your .gitignore file. When you need to access it, open the file using your program and retrieve the API key.
  • Sample Output

    Taken at 20:35 (IST), 04-12-2018
    Current Temperature difference between Chennai,TN and London,GB is 19°C
  • Resources:

December 17 - Magic Squares

  • Problem

    • A magic square of order n is an arrangement of n^2 numbers, containing distinct integers from 1 to n^2, in a square, such that the n numbers in all rows, all columns, and both diagonals sum to the same constant.
    • This constant is called the magic constant or magic sum, M, which is given by:
      M = n(n^2+1)/2
    • Now the problem is to generate all the possible magic squares if the order of the square and magic sum is given as input.
    • Try it out for Order = 4 and Magic Sum = 34
    • Hint: It will be helpful if you breakdown the problem. First generate one magic square. Before generating the others, look at the other squares in the example carefully, you will notice something very useful.
  • Example

December 18 - How Secure is your Password?

  • Problem

    • Brute Force Attack is the most widely known password cracking method. This attack simply tries to use every possible ASCII printable characters (character code 32-126) combination as a password. Though brute forcing can be a little exhaustive, the likelihood of a password being cracked is made certain.
    • The problem is to use the length of the string to find the maximum time that will be taken by a system to crack a given password using Brute Force Attack. The larger the time, the stronger the password is.
    • Assume 500,000 passwords can be tested per second.
    • Note: That while this is a pretty cool concept, in the real world you don't really have the liberty of attempting so many different passwords on a website. You might have noticed that if you enter a wrong password enough times you may be locked out of your account. Instead hackers obtain hashes from data breaches. When they attempt to brute-force a password, they first hash it using the same algorithm that was used on the original password. They then compare each generated hash with a hashed password to see if they match.
  • Optional Task

    • Optional #1: Perform a check for dictionary attack before checking for brute-force by directly comparing the input password with each password in the .txt file in the reference.
    • Optional #2: To make their password tougher to crack, people often substitute letters with numbers. O becomes 0 for example. Think of other such replacements. Strengthen your dictionary attack by implementing a way to substitute these letters.
  • Examples

    Enter Password: h3lL0
    Maximum time taken to brute-force: 13326.48 sceonds
    Enter Password: abc
    Maximum time Taken to brute-force: Instantly
  • Resources

December 19 - Hashing

  • Problem

    • A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. Hash functions are often used in combination with a hash table, a common data structure used for rapid data lookup.
    • Consider a simple hash function:
      int simpleHash(item) {
          return item % 10;
      Input: simpleHash(77)
      Output: 7
      Input: simpleHash(3)
      Output: 3
      Input: simpleHash(908)
      Output: 8
    • As you see, each input is mapped to an output of fixed size.
    • Now, implement a hash function that takes a string of variable length and returns an integer with a fixed maximum number of digits. Try to come up with your own method of returning a fixed length hash. The simplest method would be to just use a 3-digit length of the string. 001, 042, 340 for 1, 42 and 340 characters respectively. But that's no fun.
    • Hint: Try something with the ASCII values of each word maybe.
  • Optional Problem

    • Hash functions may return the same output for various inputs. This is known as collision. There are two main collision resolution techniques:
    • Implement a hash table with one of the collision resolution techniques mentioned above.
  • Uses

    • As mentioned above, hash functions are often used in combination with a hash table for rapid data lookup.
    • They are also useful in cryptography. A cryptographic hash function allows one to easily verify that some input data maps to a given hash value, but if the input data is unknown, it is deliberately difficult to reconstruct it (or any equivalent alternatives) by knowing the stored hash value.
    • Cryptographic hash functions also play a crucial role in blockchains.
  • Resources

December 20 - Dijkstra's Shortest Reach

  • Terminologies Involved

    • An edge is a connection or line between two vertices.
    • A path is a sequence of vertices connected together by edges.
    • Every vertex in a path is adjacent to the vertices next to it.
    • Two vertices are adjacent if they share a common edge.
    • Distance is the distance travelled to reach one vertex from another vertex. It is also called the weight of an edge.
  • Problem

    • Given an undirected graph and a starting node, determine the lengths of the shortest paths from the starting node to all other nodes in the graph. If a node is unreachable, its distance is -1 or INFINITE. Nodes will be numbered consecutively from to, and edges will have varying distances or lengths. For example, consider the following graph of 9 nodes:
    • Write an algorithm that returns an array of integers that represent the shortest distance to each node from the start node in ascending order of node number, given the number of nodes, the edges and starting node number.
  • Example

    {0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0}
    {4, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 11, 0}
    {0, 8, 0, 7, 0, 4, 0, 0, 2}
    {0, 0, 7, 0, 9, 14, 0, 0, 0}
    {0, 0, 0, 9, 0, 10, 0, 0, 0}
    {0, 0, 4, 14, 10, 0, 2, 0, 0}
    {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 6}
    {8, 11, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 7}
    {0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 6, 7, 0}
    Vertex   Distance from Source
    0                0
    1                4
    2                12
    3                19
    4                21
    5                11
    6                9
    7                8
    8                14
  • Resources

December 21 - Currency Convertor

  • Problem

    • Calculate the currency exchange rates between two user input countries using the attached .csv file in the reference.
    • Note: All the given VALUES in the csv file are a country's equivalent value in USD.
    • Optional: Also, generate a complete list of currency exchange rates between the input currency and the world currencies. For instance, if the input is India, then the output should be a list of each country's exchange rate for India.
    USA = 71.93, Malaysia = 17 etc.
  • Example

      From Country: India
      Currency I have: 1000
      To Country: Russia
      1000 (India) = 895.5453149 (Russia)
  • Resources:

December 22 - Word-Count

  • Problem

    • Write a program that reads a string from a user into a text file and prints out how often each word appears in the string.
        word1 count1
        word2 count2

    Before printing, sort your list of words in alphabetical order. You may ignore case while counting the words. So "The" and "the" will be counted as the same word.

    • Optional: Implement another function which is similar to the previous but which prints just the top 20 most common words sorted so the most common word is first, then the next most common, and so on.
  • Example

    Martha! Why did you say that name?
    Please! Stop!
    Why did you say that name?
    did       2
    martha!   1
    name?     2
    please!   1
    say       2
    stop!     1
    that      2
    why       2
    you       2

December 23 - Exam Seating Arrangement

  • Problem

    • Exams happen all the time in our education system and a huge amount of effort is put into planning the seating arrangement to prevent students form indulging in malpractices. The task here is to create a system that does this automatically when the number of departments, the number of classrooms, and the students roll numbers are given and automatically generate the output plan.
    • There is only one condition when it comes to seating the students: No two students of the same department should sit together
    • This is only in the horizontal and vertical directions. Students may be seated next to each other diagonally.
    • Each Seat notation should be of the format <Department_Code><Roll_Number> and ____ if the seat is vacant.
  • Example

    Number of classrooms: 2
    Size of classrooms (1-50): 16
    Enter the number of departments (2-10): 2
    Department 1 Code: CS
    Department 2 code: EC
    Students in department 1 (1-100): 15
    Students in department 2 (1-100): 16
    ROOM 1
    CS1   EC1   CS2   EC2
    EC4   CS4   EC3   CS3
    CS5   EC5   CS6   EC6
    EC8   CS8   EC7   CS7
    ROOM 2
    CS9   EC9   CS10    EC10
    EC12  CS12  EC11    CS11
    CS13  EC13  CS14    EC14
    EC8   ____  EC15    CS15

December 24 - Reverse a String Using Recursion

  • Problem
    • Recursion simply refers to a function which calls itself. Recursive functions have two parts - a base case or stopping scenario and something that calls the same function with modified parameters. Check out the resources section for some great explanations of how it works.
    • Once you understand recursion, you will find yourself able to break down and reduce the complexity of a program much more easily. While they certainly don't replace loops, they are excellent in certain scenarios. For this question, you will have to recursively reverse a string.
    • First write a program to reverse a string normally. Then try to convert it into a recursive function.
    • Recursion has the power of performing of a finite set of instructions for infinite times without iterative control structures such as for and while.
    • Note: Refrain from using string functions.
  • Example
    Enter String: string STRING
    Reversed String: GNIRTS gnirts
  • Resources:

December 25 - Santa's Self-Driving Sleigh 🎄

  • Problem

    • Help Santa bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved children on Christmas Eve by finding a path between Santa and Child.
    • Assume a 10x10 matrix where both Santa and a Child can be anywhere on the border.
    • The Location of Santa and Child's Locations (Index) are given as input.
    • Optional: Use Recursion to solve the problem.
    • Note: There may exist more than one path so displaying any one would suffice.
    • Merry Christmas!
  • Example

    Santa's Location: (1,0)
    Child's Location: (9,8)
    * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    0 * S * * * * * * * *   
    1 *   * * * * * * * *   
    2 *   * * * * * * * *   
    3 *   * * * * * * * *      
    4 *       * * * * * *   
    5 * * *   * * * * * *   
    6 * * *   * * * * * *   
    7 * * *   * * * * * *
    8 * * *             K
    9 * * * * * * * * * *
  • Explanation

December 26 - Common Prefix

  • Problem

    • Write a function to find the longest common prefix amongst a given array of strings. If present, the function must return the prefix string in the output.
    • If there is no common prefix, return "No common prefix".
  • Note:

    • All given inputs are in lowercase letters a-z.
    • Prefix must be of minimum 2 characters.
  • Example 1:

    Input: ["Element", "Elegant" ,"Electric" ,"Election"]
    Output: "Ele"
  • Example 2:

    Input: ["dog", "cat", "parrot"]
    Output: "No common prefix"

    Explanation: There is no common prefix among the input strings.

  • Resources:

December 27 - Vowel Square

  • Problem

    • The function VowSq(strArr) takes the parameter as a 2D matrix of some size containing alphabets, find if a 2x2 square matrix composed only of vowels exists in the input matrix.
    • If a 2x2 square of vowels is found your input should return the top-left position (row-column) of the square.
    • If no 2x2 square of vowels exists, then return the string unavailable.
    • The input matrix should at least be of size 2x2.
    • Credits to coderbyte.com
  • Example #1

    • For strArr = ["abcd", "eikr", "oufj"]
    • The Matrix should be:
    a b c d
    e i k r
    o u f j
  • Example #2

    • For strArr = ["gh", "bf"]
    • The Matrix should be:
      g h b f

December 28 - Identical Diagonals

  • Problem

  • Given an M x N matrix, write a function to determine if the diagonals of the matrix are identical.

  • If so, return "Identical diagonals".

  • Else return "Diagonals are non-identical."

  • Example #1:

    Input matrix =   [7 4 6 8
                      1 7 4 6
                      9 1 7 4]
    Output: Identical diagonals
  • Explanation:

    • In the above grid, the diagonals are: "[9]", "[1, 1]", "[7, 7, 7]", "[4, 4, 4]", "[6, 6]", "[8]". In each diagonal all elements are the same, so the function must return "Identical Diagonals".
  • Example #2:

    Input matrix =   [1 2 3 4
                      5 6 7 8
                      1 4 7 9]
    Output: Diagonals are non-identical
  • Resources

December 29 - Cup and String Phone

  • Problem:
    • Tharun is playing with his friends using a string phone. He asked them to bring cup of their own and he will bring the strings for all of them so that all can communicate with each other. Now he wants to find the number of strings required to communicate with his friends. Help him with a program that takes a number of friends as input and give the number of strings as output.
    • For Example, Tharun plays with 2 of his friends. Then he will bring 3 Strings. This is because 1 string is needed to connect any two people. Since there are three people, including Tharun, then 3 connections are needed. Tharun-Friend_A, Tharun-Friend_B and Friend_A-Friend_B. So three strings are needed.

December 30 - Number of Diagonals

  • Problem :

    • There is a n-sided polygon. Find the number of diagonals that are possible. Do not count duplicates lines. Diagonals are Line segments that connect the non-adjacent vertices.
  • Example #1:

    Input : 4 (Quadrilateral - Rectangle)
    Output : 2
  • Example #2:

    Input : 5 (Pentagon)
    Output : 5
  • Example #3:

    Input : 8
    Output : 20
  • Example #4:

    Input : 11
    Output : 44
  • Uses :

  • Resources :

December 31 - Closest Cell

  • Problem

    • ClosestCell2(strArr) reads a 2D matrix that contains only 1, 0, or 2. From the index where ‘1’ is, return the number of places either left, right, down, or up you must move to reach a cell which is represented by a 2. You can fold or wrap around the matrix to move to the cell which has ‘2’.
      • The 2D matrix can have any number of 0's and 2's, but only a single 1.
      • It may not contain any 2's at all, then your program should return a 0.
      • You can try moving in each direction from the ‘1’, but you may need to add a special case if you reach the border and to jump to the other side of the matrix.
    • Credits to coderbyte.com
  • Example

    0 0 0
    1 0 0
    2 0 0
    Output: 1
    • Explanation: It takes exactly one movement to reach 2.
    2D matrix Input:"0000", "2010", "0000", "2002"
    0 0 0 0
    2 0 1 0
    0 0 0 0
    2 0 0 2
    • Explanation: For this input program should return 2. There are two ways to do this. Both involve starting at cell [1,0]. We can either move left twice and reach the 1 by wrapping around or we can move right twice. In either case, we reach 1 in two steps.


Who can join the Challenge?

Anyone who is passionate about coding and can dedicate a little time a day for the challenge for the next 31 days.

When should I submit the pull request?

You don't need to submit it everyday. Just submit it once you're done with all 31 algorithms.

What if I'm not able to code every day?

Not a problem. While coding every day is nice, we understand that other commitments might interfere with it. Plus its holiday season. So you don't have to solve one problem every day. Go at your own pace. One per day or 7 a week or even all 30 in a day.

What language should I use to code?

Anything! New to C? Best way to practice it. Wanna find out what all this hype about Python is? Use it! Any and all languages are welcomed. Maybe you could try using a different language for every problem as a mini-challenge?

Fork? Pull request? What is all that? I don't know how to use GitHub!

If you are new to Git or GitHub, check out this small tutorial.

Where are the rest of the problems?

Our code ninjas are hard at work preparing the rest of the problems. Don't worry, they'll be up soon.

How should I complete these programs?

We have a folder for each day of the month. Simply complete your code and move the file into that folder. Be sure to rename your file to the following format: language_username or language_username_problemname Some examples: python_exampleUser.py c_exampleUser.c Please do not modify any existing files in the repository.

I forked the repository but some problems were added only after that. How do I access those problems?

Not to worry! Open your nearest terminal or command prompt and navigate over to your forked repository. Enter these commands:

git remote add upstream https://github.com/SVCE-ACM/A-December-of-Algorithms.git
git fetch upstream
git merge upstream/master

If you're curious, the commands simply add a new remote called upstream that is linked to this repository. Then it 'fetches' or retrieves the contents of the repository and attempts to merge it with your progress. Note that if you've already added the upstream repository, you don't need to re-add it in the future while fetching the newer questions.

I received a merge error. What do I do?

This shouldn't happen unless you modify an existing file in the repository. There's a lot of potential troubleshooting that might be needed, but the simplest thing to do is to make a copy of your code outside the repository and then clone it once again. Now repeat the steps from the answer above. Merge it and then add your code. Now proceed as usual. :)

I'm facing difficulties with/need help understanding a particular question.

Open up an issue on this repository and we'll do our best to help you out.

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