A browser automation framework and ecosystem.
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Latest commit 21d22d6 Jan 23, 2017 @jleyba jleyba [js] Update example in selenium-webdriver/testing documentation
The firefox.Driver constructor was changed in 3.0 to not do any work.
Users should always use the Builder class to create new driver

Fixes #3377
Failed to load latest commit information.
.github Explain the GeckoDriver situation a little more in the issue template Nov 23, 2016
.idea Bump guava to 21.0 Jan 17, 2017
common [py] testSelectDisabled tests need to select an option other than the… Oct 25, 2016
cpp Updating prebuilts Oct 11, 2016
dotnet Bumping .NET version number to 3.0.1 Nov 19, 2016
ide Added a bunch of improvements to webdriver playback and scheduler inc… Nov 18, 2016
iphone Remove server side of iphone driver. Dec 9, 2013
java Clean up import statements. No logical changes. Jan 23, 2017
javascript [js] Update example in selenium-webdriver/testing documentation Jan 23, 2017
py fix python HTTPS encoding for python driver (#3379) Jan 19, 2017
rake-tasks Deleting unused files. We use buck to build Java part. Dec 19, 2016
rb [rb] fixes for travis tests Jan 9, 2017
scripts/travis Fix determination of latest GeckoDriver release for Python 3 Jan 18, 2017
third_party Bump guava to 21.0 Jan 17, 2017
.OLD_AUTHORS Add target for generating AUTHORS file Dec 9, 2013
.buckconfig Use the buck-cache Sep 2, 2016
.buckhash Back to the previous buck version until facebook/buck#1074 fixed Jan 2, 2017
.buckjavaargs Introduce AppVeyor for testing the build on Windows Nov 14, 2016
.buckversion Back to the previous buck version until facebook/buck#1074 fixed Jan 2, 2017
.editorconfig using 2 spaces for java Mar 18, 2015
.git-fixfiles Fixing .git-fixfiles script for changed directory name. Fixes issue #… Aug 17, 2013
.gitattributes Update .xml in .gitattributes Jun 4, 2015
.gitignore [js] Fix atoms usage to remain platform agnostic Nov 21, 2016
.mailmap catching two more duplicate authors [ci skip] Oct 21, 2016
.travis.yml update Ruby version running on Travis Jan 3, 2017
AUTHORS authors: update Nov 1, 2016
CONTRIBUTING.md Update Contributing.MD Fixed Typo Oct 28, 2015
LICENSE Update License to show copyright belongs to SFC Oct 26, 2016
MANIFEST.in Include LICENSE in MANIFEST.in for sdist (#3006) Oct 26, 2016
NOTICE 2016 Jan 11, 2016
README.md [rb] update README with required Ruby version of 2.0 Dec 21, 2016
Rakefile Fixing the build broken by a previous commit Dec 19, 2016
SELENIUM_VERSION updating changelog bumping java to 3.0.1 Oct 18, 2016
WebDriver.snk Reorganizing .NET bindings code structure. Aug 14, 2013
appveyor.yml Introduce AppVeyor for testing the build on Windows Nov 14, 2016
conftest.py [py] Introduce marks for xfailing tests against specific drivers Oct 25, 2016
copyiedriver.bat Updating .NET online documentation to new presentation style and upda… Jan 18, 2013
generate_api_docs.sh docs: Automatically push Ruby docs to gh-pages Oct 8, 2015
go Bump max memory for go command Dec 24, 2016
go.bat KristianRosenvold: Removed windows carriage returns Jan 11, 2013
ide.iml missing file May 26, 2013
ignores.json Fix dump ignores with a terrible hack Sep 26, 2016
selenium.iml SimonStewart: Break out a server and client module for the IDEA proje… Mar 9, 2012
setup.cfg Fix pytest 3.x warning about setup.cfg section name Oct 5, 2016
setup.py [py] Release 3.0.2 Nov 28, 2016
sonar-project.properties Adding Sonarqube configuration for Java modules May 22, 2015
tox.ini [py] Fix flake8 issues and run flake8 on Travis Nov 13, 2016


Selenium Build Status


Selenium is an umbrella project encapsulating a variety of tools and libraries enabling web browser automation. Selenium specifically provides infrastructure for the W3C WebDriver specification — a platform and language-neutral coding interface compatible with all major web browsers.

The project is made possible by volunteer contributors who've generously donated thousands of hours in code development and upkeep.

Selenium's source code is made available under the Apache 2.0 license.


Narrative documentation:

API documentation:

Pull Requests

Please read CONTRIBUTING.md before submitting your pull requests.


Selenium uses a custom build system aptly named crazyfun available on all fine platforms (Linux, Mac, Windows). We are in the process of replacing crazyfun with buck, so don't be alarmed if you see directories carrying multiple build directive files. For reference, crazyfun's build files are named build.desc, while buck's are named simply BUCK.

Before building ensure that you have the most recent chromedriver available on your $PATH. You may have to update this from time to time.

To build Selenium, in the same directory as this file:

./go build

The order of building modules is determined by the build system. If you want to build an individual module (assuming all dependent modules have previously been built), try the following:

./go //javascript/atoms:test:run

In this case, javascript/atoms is the module directory, test is a target in that directory's build.desc file, and run is the action to run on that target.

As you see build targets scroll past in the log, you may want to run them individually. crazyfun can run them individually, by target name as long as :run is appended (see above).

To list all available targets, you can append the -T flag:

./go -T


Although the plan is to return to a vanilla build of Buck as soon as possible, we currently use a fork hosted at https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/buck To build using Buck, first clone that repo and build using ant. Then add Buck's "bin" directory to your PATH.

To obtain a list of all available targets:

buck targets

And build a particular file:

buck build //java/client/src/org/openqa/selenium:webdriver-api

There are aliases for commonly invoked targets in the .buckconfig file, and these aliases can be invoked directly:

buck build htmlunit

All buck output is stored under "buck-out", with the outputs of build rules in buck-out/gen.

If you are doing a number of incremental builds, then you may want to use buckd, which starts a long-lived buck process to watch outputs and input files. If you do this, consider using watchman too, since the Java 7 file watcher isn't terribly efficient. This can be cloned from https://github.com/facebook/watchman


Although the build system is based on rake it's strongly advised to rely on the version of JRuby in third_party/ that is invoked by go. The only developer type who would want to deviate from this is the “build maintainer” who's experimenting with a JRuby upgrade.

Note that all Selenium Java artefacts are built with Java 8 (mandatory). Those will work with any Java >= 8.

Optional Requirements

  • Python 2.6.x to 2.7 (without this, Python tests will be skipped)
  • Ruby 2.0

Internet Explorer Driver

If you plan to compile the IE driver you also need:

The build will work on any platform, but the tests for IE will be skipped silently, if you are not building on Windows.

Common Tasks

For an express build of the binaries we release run the following from the directory containing the Rakefile:

./go release

All build output is placed under the build directory. The output can be found under build/dist. If an error occurs while running this task complaining about a missing Albacore gem, the chances are you're using rvm. If this is the case, switch to the system ruby:

rvm system

Of course, building the entire project can take too long. If you just want to build a single driver, then you can run one of these targets:

./go chrome
./go firefox
./go htmlunit
./go ie

As the build progresses, you'll see it report where the build outputs are being placed. Of course, just building isn't enough. We should really be able to run the tests too. Try:

./go test_chrome
./go test_firefox
./go test_htmlunit
./go test_ie

Note that the test_chrome target requires that you have the separate Chrome Driver binary available on your PATH.

If you are interested in a single language binding, try one of:

./go test_java
./go test_dotnet
./go test_rb
./go test_javascript

To run all the tests just run:

./go test

This will detect your OS and run all the tests that are known to be stable for every browser that's appropriate to use for all language bindings. This can take a healthy amount of time to run.

To run the minimal logical Selenium build:

./go test_javascript test_java

As a side note, none of the developers run tests using Cygwin. It is very unlikely that the build will work as expected if you try and use it.


The code base is generally segmented around the languages used to write the component. Selenium makes extensive use of JavaScript, so let's start there. Working on the JavaScript is easy. First of all, start the development server:

./go debug-server

Now navigate to http://localhost:2310/javascript. You'll find the contents of the javascript/ directory being shown. We use the Closure Library for developing much of the javascript, so now navigate to http://localhost:2310/javascript/atoms/test.

The tests in this directory are normal HTML files with names ending with _test.html. Click on one to load the page and run the test. You can run all the javascript tests using:

./go test_javascript

Maven POM files

Here is the public Selenium Maven repository.

Build Output

./go only makes a top-level build directory. Outputs are placed under that relative to the target name. Which is probably best described with an example. For the target:

./go //java/client/src/org/openqa/selenium:selenium-api

The output is found under:


If you watch the build, each step should print where its output is going. Java test outputs appear in one of two places: either under build/test_logs for JUnit or in build/build_log.xml for TestNG tests. If you'd like the build to be chattier, just append log=true to the build command line.

Help with go

More general, but basic, help for go

./go --help

Remember, go is just a wrapper around Rake, so you can use the standard commands such as rake -T to get more information about available targets.

Maven per se

If it is not clear already, Selenium is not built with Maven, it is built with Buck, though that is invoked with go as outlined above so you do not really have to learn too much about that.

That said, it is possible to relatively quickly build selenium pieces for Maven to use. You are only really going to want to do this when you are testing the cutting-edge of Selenium development (which we welcome) against your application. Here is the quickest way to build and deploy into you local maven repository (~/.m2/repository), while skipping Selenium's own tests.

./go maven-install

The maven jars should now be in your local ~/.m2/repository. You can also publish directly using Buck:

buck publish -r your-repo //java/client/src/org/openqa/selenium:selenium

This sequence will push some seven or so jars into your local Maven repository with something like 'selenium-server-3.0.0.jar' as the name.

Useful Resources

Refer to the Building Web Driver wiki page for the last word on building the bits and pieces of Selenium.