DevStack is a set of scripts and utilities to quickly deploy an OpenStack cloud.
- To quickly build dev OpenStack environments in a clean Ubuntu or Fedora environment
- To describe working configurations of OpenStack (which code branches work together? what do config files look like for those branches?)
- To make it easier for developers to dive into OpenStack so that they can productively contribute without having to understand every part of the system at once
- To make it easy to prototype cross-project features
- To provide an environment for the OpenStack CI testing on every commit to the projects
Read more at http://devstack.org.
IMPORTANT: Be sure to carefully read
stack.sh and any other scripts you
execute before you run them, as they install software and will alter your
networking configuration. We strongly recommend that you run
in a clean and disposable vm when you are first getting started.
The DevStack master branch generally points to trunk versions of OpenStack components. For older, stable versions, look for branches named stable/[release] in the DevStack repo. For example, you can do the following to create a grizzly OpenStack cloud:
git checkout stable/grizzly ./stack.sh
You can also pick specific OpenStack project releases by setting the appropriate
*_BRANCH variables in the
localrc section of
local.conf (look in
stackrc for the default set). Usually just before a release there will be
milestone-proposed branches that need to be tested::
Start A Dev Cloud
Installing in a dedicated disposable VM is safer than installing on your dev machine! Plus you can pick one of the supported Linux distros for your VM. To start a dev cloud run the following NOT AS ROOT (see DevStack Execution Environment below for more on user accounts):
When the script finishes executing, you should be able to access OpenStack endpoints, like so:
We also provide an environment file that you can use to interact with your cloud via CLI:
# source openrc file to load your environment with OpenStack CLI creds . openrc # list instances nova list
If the EC2 API is your cup-o-tea, you can create credentials and use euca2ools:
# source eucarc to generate EC2 credentials and set up the environment . eucarc # list instances using ec2 api euca-describe-instances
DevStack Execution Environment
DevStack runs rampant over the system it runs on, installing things and uninstalling other things. Running this on a system you care about is a recipe for disappointment, or worse. Alas, we're all in the virtualization business here, so run it in a VM. And take advantage of the snapshot capabilities of your hypervisor of choice to reduce testing cycle times. You might even save enough time to write one more feature before the next feature freeze...
stack.sh needs to have root access for a lot of tasks, but uses
for all of those tasks. However, it needs to be not-root for most of its
work and for all of the OpenStack services.
does not run if started as root.
This is a recent change (Oct 2013) from the previous behaviour of
automatically creating a
stack user. Automatically creating
user accounts is not the right response to running as root, so
that bit is now an explicit step using
Run that (as root!) or just check it out to see what DevStack's
expectations are for the account it runs under. Many people simply
use their usual login (the default 'ubuntu' login on a UEC image
You can override environment variables used in
stack.sh by creating file
local.conf with a
localrc section as shown below. It is likely
that you will need to do this to tweak your networking configuration should
you need to access your cloud from a different host.
See the Local Configuration section below for more details.
Multiple database backends are available. The available databases are defined in the lib/databases directory.
mysql is the default database, choose a different one by putting the
following in the
disable_service mysql enable_service postgresql
mysql is the default database.
Multiple RPC backends are available. Currently, this
includes RabbitMQ (default), Qpid, and ZeroMQ. Your backend of
choice may be selected via the
Note that selecting more than one RPC backend will result in a failure.
Apache web server is enabled for wsgi services by setting
APACHE_ENABLED_SERVICES in your
localrc section. Remember to
enable these services at first as above.
Swift is disabled by default. When enabled, it is configured with only one replica to avoid being IO/memory intensive on a small vm. When running with only one replica the account, container and object services will run directly in screen. The others services like replicator, updaters or auditor runs in background.
If you would like to enable Swift you can add this to your
enable_service s-proxy s-object s-container s-account
If you want a minimal Swift install with only Swift and Keystone you
can have this instead in your
disable_all_services enable_service key mysql s-proxy s-object s-container s-account
If you only want to do some testing of a real normal swift cluster
with multiple replicas you can do so by customizing the variable
SWIFT_REPLICAS in your
localrc section (usually to 3).
If you are enabling
ENABLED_SERVICES DevStack will
install the swift3 middleware emulation. Swift will be configured to
act as a S3 endpoint for Keystone so effectively replacing the
Only Swift proxy server is launched in the screen session all other
services are started in background and managed by
In order to enable Neutron a single node setup, you'll need the
following settings in your
disable_service n-net enable_service q-svc enable_service q-agt enable_service q-dhcp enable_service q-l3 enable_service q-meta enable_service q-metering # Optional, to enable tempest configuration as part of DevStack enable_service tempest
stack.sh as normal.
DevStack supports setting specific Neutron configuration flags to the
service, Open vSwitch plugin and LinuxBridge plugin configuration files.
To make use of this feature, the settings can be added to
Q_XXX_EXTRA_XXX_OPTS variables are deprecated and will be removed
in the near future. The
local.conf headers for the replacements are:
[[post-config|/$Q_PLUGIN_CONF_FILE]] [linuxbridge] # or [ovs]
[[post-config|/$Q_PLUGIN_CONF_FILE]] [linuxbridge] # or [ovs]
Example extra config in
[[post-config|/$Q_PLUGIN_CONF_FILE]] [agent] tunnel_type=vxlan vxlan_udp_port=8472 [[post-config|$NEUTRON_CONF]] [DEFAULT] tenant_network_type=vxlan
DevStack also supports configuring the Neutron ML2 plugin. The ML2 plugin can run with the OVS, LinuxBridge, or Hyper-V agents on compute hosts. This is a simple way to configure the ml2 plugin:
# VLAN configuration Q_PLUGIN=ml2 ENABLE_TENANT_VLANS=True # GRE tunnel configuration Q_PLUGIN=ml2 ENABLE_TENANT_TUNNELS=True # VXLAN tunnel configuration Q_PLUGIN=ml2 Q_ML2_TENANT_NETWORK_TYPE=vxlan
The above will default in DevStack to using the OVS on each compute host.
To change this, set the
Q_AGENT variable to the agent you want to run
Variable Name Notes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q_AGENT This specifies which agent to run with the ML2 Plugin (either `openvswitch` or `linuxbridge`). Q_ML2_PLUGIN_MECHANISM_DRIVERS The ML2 MechanismDrivers to load. The default is none. Note, ML2 will work with the OVS and LinuxBridge agents by default. Q_ML2_PLUGIN_TYPE_DRIVERS The ML2 TypeDrivers to load. Defaults to all available TypeDrivers. Q_ML2_PLUGIN_GRE_TYPE_OPTIONS GRE TypeDriver options. Defaults to none. Q_ML2_PLUGIN_VXLAN_TYPE_OPTIONS VXLAN TypeDriver options. Defaults to none. Q_ML2_PLUGIN_VLAN_TYPE_OPTIONS VLAN TypeDriver options. Defaults to none.
Heat is disabled by default. To enable it you'll need the following settings
enable_service heat h-api h-api-cfn h-api-cw h-eng
Heat can also run in standalone mode, and be configured to orchestrate
on an external OpenStack cloud. To launch only Heat in standalone mode
you'll need the following settings in your
disable_all_services enable_service rabbit mysql heat h-api h-api-cfn h-api-cw h-eng HEAT_STANDALONE=True KEYSTONE_SERVICE_HOST=... KEYSTONE_AUTH_HOST=...
If tempest has been successfully configured, a basic set of smoke tests can be run as follows:
$ cd /opt/stack/tempest $ nosetests tempest/scenario/test_network_basic_ops.py
DevStack on Xenserver
If you would like to use Xenserver as the hypervisor, please refer to the instructions in
DevStack has a hook mechanism to call out to a dispatch script at specific
points in the execution of
allows upper-layer projects, especially those that the lower layer projects
have no dependency on, to be added to DevStack without modifying the core
scripts. Tempest is built this way as an example of how to structure the
dispatch script, see
for more information.
A more interesting setup involves running multiple compute nodes, with Neutron networks connecting VMs on different compute nodes.
You should run at least one "controller node", which should have a
stackrc that includes at least:
disable_service n-net enable_service q-svc enable_service q-agt enable_service q-dhcp enable_service q-l3 enable_service q-meta enable_service neutron
You likely want to change your
localrc section to run a scheduler that
will balance VMs across hosts:
You can then run many compute nodes, each of which should have a
stackrc which includes the following, with the IP address of the above controller node:
ENABLED_SERVICES=n-cpu,rabbit,g-api,neutron,q-agt SERVICE_HOST=[IP of controller node] MYSQL_HOST=$SERVICE_HOST RABBIT_HOST=$SERVICE_HOST Q_HOST=$SERVICE_HOST MATCHMAKER_REDIS_HOST=$SERVICE_HOST
Cells is a new scaling option with a full spec at http://wiki.openstack.org/blueprint-nova-compute-cells.
To setup a cells environment add the following to your
Be aware that there are some features currently missing in cells, one notable one being security groups. The exercises have been patched to disable functionality not supported by cells.
Historically DevStack has used
localrc to contain all local configuration and customizations. More and more of the configuration variables available for DevStack are passed-through to the individual project configuration files. The old mechanism for this required specific code for each file and did not scale well. This is handled now by a master local configuration file.
The new config file
local.conf is an extended-INI format that introduces a new meta-section header that provides some additional information such as a phase name and destination config filename:
[[ <phase> | <config-file-name> ]]
<phase> is one of a set of phase names defined by
<config-file-name> is the configuration filename. The filename is
eval'ed in the
stack.sh context so all environment variables are
available and may be used. Using the project config file variables in
the header is strongly suggested (see the
NOVA_CONF example below).
If the path of the config file does not exist it is skipped.
The defined phases are:
- local - extracts
- post-config - runs after the layer 2 services are configured and before they are started
- extra - runs after services are started and before any files in
- post-extra - runs after files in
The file is processed strictly in sequence; meta-sections may be specified more than once but if any settings are duplicated the last to appear in the file will be used.
[[post-config|$NOVA_CONF]] [DEFAULT] use_syslog = True [osapi_v3] enabled = False
A specific meta-section
local|localrc is used to provide a default
localrc file (actually
.localrc.auto). This allows all custom
settings for DevStack to be contained in a single file. If
exists it will be used instead to preserve backward-compatibility.
[[local|localrc]] FIXED_RANGE=10.254.1.0/24 ADMIN_PASSWORD=speciale LOGFILE=$DEST/logs/stack.sh.log
Q_PLUGIN_CONF_FILE is unique in that it is assumed to NOT
start with a
/ (slash) character. A slash will need to be added: