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Demis Bellot
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using RedisStackOverflow.ServiceModel;
using ServiceStack;
using ServiceStack.Redis;

namespace RedisStackOverflow.ServiceInterface
{
    public interface IRepository
    {
        User GetOrCreateUser(User user);

        UserStat GetUserStats(long userId);

        List<Question> GetAllQuestions();

        List<QuestionResult> GetRecentQuestionResults(int skip, int take);

        List<QuestionResult> GetQuestionsByUser(long userId);

        List<QuestionResult> GetQuestionsTaggedWith(string tagName);

        void StoreQuestion(Question question);

        void StoreAnswer(Answer answer);

        List<Answer> GetAnswersForQuestion(long questionId);

        void VoteQuestionUp(long userId, long questionId);

        void VoteQuestionDown(long userId, long questionId);

        void VoteAnswerUp(long userId, long answerId);

        void VoteAnswerDown(long userId, long answerId);

        QuestionStat GetQuestionStats(long questionId);

        QuestionResult GetQuestion(long questionId);

        List<User> GetUsersByIds(IEnumerable<long> userIds);

        SiteStats GetSiteStats();
        
        void DeleteQuestion(long questionId);

        void DeleteAnswer(long questionId, long answerId);
    }

    public class Repository : IRepository
    {
        //Definition of all the redis keys that are used for indexes
        static class TagIndex
        {
            public static string Questions(string tag) { return "urn:tags>q:" + tag.ToLower(); }
            public static string All { get { return "urn:tags"; } }
        }

        static class QuestionUserIndex
        {
            public static string UpVotes(long questionId) { return "urn:q>user+:" + questionId; }
            public static string DownVotes(long questionId) { return "urn:q>user-:" + questionId; }
        }

        static class UserQuestionIndex
        {
            public static string Questions(long userId) { return "urn:user>q:" + userId; }
            public static string UpVotes(long userId) { return "urn:user>q+:" + userId; }
            public static string DownVotes(long userId) { return "urn:user>q-:" + userId; }
        }

        static class AnswerUserIndex
        {
            public static string UpVotes(long answerId) { return "urn:a>user+:" + answerId; }
            public static string DownVotes(long answerId) { return "urn:a>user-:" + answerId; }
        }

        static class UserAnswerIndex
        {
            public static string Answers(long userId) { return "urn:user>a:" + userId; }
            public static string UpVotes(long userId) { return "urn:user>a+:" + userId; }
            public static string DownVotes(long userId) { return "urn:user>a-:" + userId; }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets or sets the Redis Manager. The built-in IoC used with ServiceStack autowires this property.
        /// </summary>
        IRedisClientsManager RedisManager { get; set; }

        public Repository(IRedisClientsManager redisManager)
        {
            RedisManager = redisManager;
        }

        public User GetOrCreateUser(User user)
        {
            if (user.DisplayName.IsNullOrEmpty())
                throw new ArgumentNullException("DisplayName");

            var userIdAliasKey = "id:User:DisplayName:" + user.DisplayName.ToLower();

            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                //Get a typed version of redis client that works with <User>
                var redisUsers = redis.As<User>();

                //Find user by DisplayName if exists
                var userKey = redis.GetValue(userIdAliasKey);
                if (userKey != null)
                    return redisUsers.GetValue(userKey);

                //Generate Id for New User
                if (user.Id == default(long))
                    user.Id = redisUsers.GetNextSequence();

                redisUsers.Store(user);

                //Save reference to User key using the DisplayName alias
                redis.SetEntry(userIdAliasKey, user.CreateUrn());

                return redisUsers.GetById(user.Id);
            }
        }

        public UserStat GetUserStats(long userId)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                return new UserStat
                {
                    UserId = userId,
                    QuestionsCount = redis.GetSetCount(UserQuestionIndex.Questions(userId)),
                    AnswersCount = redis.GetSetCount(UserAnswerIndex.Answers(userId)),
                };
            }
        }

        public List<Question> GetAllQuestions()
        {
            return RedisManager.ExecAs<Question>(redisQuestions => redisQuestions.GetAll()).ToList();
        }

        public List<QuestionResult> GetRecentQuestionResults(int skip, int take)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetReadOnlyClient())
            {
                return ToQuestionResults(redis.As<Question>().GetLatestFromRecentsList(skip, take));
            }
        }

        public List<QuestionResult> GetQuestionsByUser(long userId)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetReadOnlyClient())
            {
                var questionIds = redis.GetAllItemsFromSet(UserQuestionIndex.Questions(userId));
                var questions = redis.As<Question>().GetByIds(questionIds);
                return ToQuestionResults(questions);
            }
        }

        public List<QuestionResult> GetQuestionsTaggedWith(string tagName)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetReadOnlyClient())
            {
                var questionIds = redis.GetAllItemsFromSet(TagIndex.Questions(tagName));
                var questions = redis.As<Question>().GetByIds(questionIds);
                return ToQuestionResults(questions);
            }
        }

        private List<QuestionResult> ToQuestionResults(IEnumerable<Question> questions)
        {
            var uniqueUserIds = questions.Map(x => x.UserId).ToHashSet();
            var usersMap = GetUsersByIds(uniqueUserIds).ToDictionary(x => x.Id);

            var results = questions.Map(x => new QuestionResult { Question = x });
            var resultsMap = results.ToDictionary(q => q.Question.Id);

            results.ForEach(x => x.User = usersMap[x.Question.UserId]);

            //Batch multiple operations in a single pipelined transaction (i.e. for a single network request/response)
            RedisManager.ExecTrans(trans =>
            {
                foreach (var question in questions)
                {
                   var q = question;

                   trans.QueueCommand(r => r.GetSetCount(QuestionUserIndex.UpVotes(q.Id)),
                       voteUpCount => resultsMap[q.Id].VotesUpCount = voteUpCount);

                   trans.QueueCommand(r => r.GetSetCount(QuestionUserIndex.DownVotes(q.Id)),
                       voteDownCount => resultsMap[q.Id].VotesDownCount = voteDownCount);

                   trans.QueueCommand(r => r.As<Question>().GetRelatedEntitiesCount<Answer>(q.Id),
                       answersCount => resultsMap[q.Id].AnswersCount = answersCount);
                }
            });

            return results;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Delete question by performing compensating actions to StoreQuestion() to keep the datastore in a consistent state
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="questionId"></param>
        public void DeleteQuestion(long questionId)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                var redisQuestions = redis.As<Question>();

                var question = redisQuestions.GetById(questionId);
                if (question == null) return;
                
                //decrement score in tags list
                question.Tags.ForEach(tag => redis.IncrementItemInSortedSet(TagIndex.All, tag, -1));

                //remove all related answers
                redisQuestions.DeleteRelatedEntities<Answer>(questionId);

                //remove this question from user index
                redis.RemoveItemFromSet(UserQuestionIndex.Questions(question.UserId), questionId.ToString());

                //remove tag => questions index for each tag
                question.Tags.ForEach(tag => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(TagIndex.Questions(tag), questionId.ToString()));

                redisQuestions.DeleteById(questionId);
            }
        }

        public void StoreQuestion(Question question)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                var redisQuestions = redis.As<Question>();

                if (question.Tags == null) question.Tags = new List<string>();
                if (question.Id == default(long))
                {
                    question.Id = redisQuestions.GetNextSequence();
                    question.CreatedDate = DateTime.UtcNow;

                    //Increment the popularity for each new question tag
                    question.Tags.ForEach(tag => redis.IncrementItemInSortedSet(TagIndex.All, tag, 1));
                }

                redisQuestions.Store(question);
                redisQuestions.AddToRecentsList(question);
                redis.AddItemToSet(UserQuestionIndex.Questions(question.UserId), question.Id.ToString());

                //Populate tag => questions index for each tag
                question.Tags.ForEach(tag => redis.AddItemToSet(TagIndex.Questions(tag), question.Id.ToString()));
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Delete Answer by performing compensating actions to StoreAnswer() to keep the datastore in a consistent state
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="questionId"></param>
        /// <param name="answerId"></param>
        public void DeleteAnswer(long questionId, long answerId)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                var answer = redis.As<Question>().GetRelatedEntities<Answer>(questionId).FirstOrDefault(x => x.Id == answerId);
                if (answer == null) return;
                
                redis.As<Question>().DeleteRelatedEntity<Answer>(questionId, answerId);
                
                //remove user => answer index
                redis.RemoveItemFromSet(UserAnswerIndex.Answers(answer.UserId), answerId.ToString());
            }
        }

        public void StoreAnswer(Answer answer)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                if (answer.Id == default(long))
                {
                    answer.Id = redis.As<Answer>().GetNextSequence();
                    answer.CreatedDate = DateTime.UtcNow;
                }

                //Store as a 'Related Answer' to the parent Question
                redis.As<Question>().StoreRelatedEntities(answer.QuestionId, answer);
                //Populate user => answer index
                redis.AddItemToSet(UserAnswerIndex.Answers(answer.UserId), answer.Id.ToString());
            }
        }

        public List<Answer> GetAnswersForQuestion(long questionId)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                return redis.As<Question>().GetRelatedEntities<Answer>(questionId);
            }
        }

        public void VoteQuestionUp(long userId, long questionId)
        {
            //Populate Question => User and User => Question set indexes in a single transaction
            RedisManager.ExecTrans(trans =>
            {
                //Register upvote against question and remove any downvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(QuestionUserIndex.UpVotes(questionId), userId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(QuestionUserIndex.DownVotes(questionId), userId.ToString()));

                //Register upvote against user and remove any downvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(UserQuestionIndex.UpVotes(userId), questionId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(UserQuestionIndex.DownVotes(userId), questionId.ToString()));
            });
        }

        public void VoteQuestionDown(long userId, long questionId)
        {
            //Populate Question => User and User => Question set indexes in a single transaction
            RedisManager.ExecTrans(trans =>
            {
                //Register downvote against question and remove any upvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(QuestionUserIndex.DownVotes(questionId), userId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(QuestionUserIndex.UpVotes(questionId), userId.ToString()));

                //Register downvote against user and remove any upvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(UserQuestionIndex.DownVotes(userId), questionId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(UserQuestionIndex.UpVotes(userId), questionId.ToString()));
            });
        }

        public void VoteAnswerUp(long userId, long answerId)
        {
            //Populate Question => User and User => Question set indexes in a single transaction
            RedisManager.ExecTrans(trans =>
            {
                //Register upvote against answer and remove any downvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(AnswerUserIndex.UpVotes(answerId), userId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(AnswerUserIndex.DownVotes(answerId), userId.ToString()));

                //Register upvote against user and remove any downvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(UserAnswerIndex.UpVotes(userId), answerId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(UserAnswerIndex.DownVotes(userId), answerId.ToString()));
            });
        }

        public void VoteAnswerDown(long userId, long answerId)
        {
            //Populate Question => User and User => Question set indexes in a single transaction
            RedisManager.ExecTrans(trans =>
            {
                //Register downvote against answer and remove any upvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(AnswerUserIndex.DownVotes(answerId), userId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(AnswerUserIndex.UpVotes(answerId), userId.ToString()));

                //Register downvote against user and remove any upvotes if any
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.AddItemToSet(UserAnswerIndex.DownVotes(userId), answerId.ToString()));
                trans.QueueCommand(redis => redis.RemoveItemFromSet(UserAnswerIndex.UpVotes(userId), answerId.ToString()));
            });
        }

        public QuestionResult GetQuestion(long questionId)
        {
            var question = RedisManager.ExecAs<Question>(redisQuestions => redisQuestions.GetById(questionId));
            if (question == null) return null;

            var result = ToQuestionResults(new[] { question })[0];
            var answers = GetAnswersForQuestion(questionId);
            var uniqueUserIds = answers.ConvertAll(x => x.UserId).ToHashSet();
            var usersMap = GetUsersByIds(uniqueUserIds).ToDictionary(x => x.Id);

            result.Answers = answers.ConvertAll(answer =>
                new AnswerResult { Answer = answer, User = usersMap[answer.UserId] });

            return result;
        }

        public List<User> GetUsersByIds(IEnumerable<long> userIds)
        {
            return RedisManager.ExecAs<User>(redisUsers => redisUsers.GetByIds(userIds)).ToList();
        }

        public QuestionStat GetQuestionStats(long questionId)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetReadOnlyClient())
            {
                var result = new QuestionStat
                {
                    VotesUpCount = redis.GetSetCount(QuestionUserIndex.UpVotes(questionId)),
                    VotesDownCount = redis.GetSetCount(QuestionUserIndex.DownVotes(questionId))
                };
                result.VotesTotal = result.VotesUpCount - result.VotesDownCount;
                return result;
            }
        }

        public List<Tag> GetTagsByPopularity(int skip, int take)
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetReadOnlyClient())
            {
                var tagEntries = redis.GetRangeWithScoresFromSortedSetDesc(TagIndex.All, skip, take);
                var tags = tagEntries.Map(kvp => new Tag { Name = kvp.Key, Score = (int)kvp.Value });
                return tags;
            }
        }

        public SiteStats GetSiteStats()
        {
            using (var redis = RedisManager.GetClient())
            {
                return new SiteStats
                {
                    QuestionsCount = redis.As<Question>().TypeIdsSet.Count,
                    AnswersCount = redis.As<Answer>().TypeIdsSet.Count,
                    TopTags = GetTagsByPopularity(0, 10)
                };
            }
        }
    }
}
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