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Simple X509 Certificate Authority/Generation Script (The sysadmin's and network security developer's best friend)
Perl Makefile
branch: master

Document --md and --pk in manual as well as usage

Also support alternate openssl output dsa_with instead of dsaWith for testing

README

NAME
    CA-baka - Simple X509 Certificate Authority/Generation Script

    The sysadmin's and network security developer's best friend.

SYNOPSIS
    CA-baka [--workdir directory] [--country|--C country] [--state|--ST
    state] [--locality|--L city] [--organization|--O company]
    [--organizationalunit|--OU department] [--days number] [--keylen bitlen]
    [--md sha256|sha224|sha384|sha512|sha1] [--pk rsa|ecc|dsa] [--newca CN
    Email] [--subca CN Email NewWorkDir] [--newserver CN [Email]]
    [--newclient CN [Email]] [--newmail CN [Email]] [--newcoder CN [Email]]
    [--altnames TYPE:value]... [--constraints METHOD;TYPE:value]...
    [--revoke CN] [--renew] [--verify filename] [--force] [--verbose]+ [-v]+
    [--quiet]

DESCRIPTION
    This Certificate Authority is designed for use by a skilled, trusted
    human who is generating full cryptographic packages for clients,
    servers, or peoples to blindly install without thought, without having
    to modify any configuration files or do special things with your shell
    before running commands, or the like. The very model of a centralized CA
    dictatorship (I'll just keep those keys for backup purposes in case you
    happen to lose them, I won't use them to decrypt your future traffic, or
    forge your signatures, honest!).

    Everyone and their dog seems to have a certificate authority/generation
    script, but all of the ones I have seen so far, frankly, suck donkey
    balls for usability, documentation, and sanity. The most common ones
    "Easy CA" and the rather anonymously named "CA" used by RHEL, are
    particularly annoying. This one does what I have wanted to do each and
    every time I have wanted to generate certificates, simply and cleanly.

    All of the most common certificate authority needs are provided: initial
    master certificate authority key/crt generation, subsidiary certificate
    authority key/crt generation, server key/crt generation, client key/crt
    generation, email key/crt generation, and certificate revocation.

    There is limited ability to modify the most popular information,
    including X509 subject identifier material, validity length, and key
    length. Defaults are available for all values (except for X509 subject
    identifier material during the initial setup of the master certificate
    authority).

    The first invocation of CA-baka (per --workdir) requires that you use
    "--newca" with "--country", "--state", "--locality", and
    "--organization" set to properly initialize the certificate authority.
    Afterwards (or indeed at the same time as the "--newca" invocation, you
    can issue other certificates using one or more of "--subca",
    "--newserver", "--newclient", "--newmail", "--newcoder" or revoke other
    certificates using "--revoke". Other arguments modify the behavior of
    the system.

OPTIONS
    The options control everything, and the script is not going to do
    anything (except perhaps error out depending on configuration) if you do
    not provide arguments.

    --workdir *directory*
        Set the certificate authority working directory. If this is not
        specified, the directory ../etc/CA relative to the location of the
        "CA-baka" program will be used. When first configuring the system
        "--newca" the working directory must not exist.

    --country|C *countrycode*
        Set the X509 C country code. This is required when using "--newca".
        Other executions, it may be specified or the value from the
        "--newca" call will be used. You may use quotes to send
        empty/complex/multiword identifiers.

    --state|ST *state*
        Set the X509 ST state. This is required when using "--newca". Other
        executions, it may be specified or the value from the "--newca" call
        will be used. You may use quotes to send empty/complex/multiword
        identifiers.

    --locality|L *city*
        Set the X509 L locality, typically the city name. This is required
        when using "--newca". Other executions, it may be specified or the
        value from the "--newca" call will be used. You may use quotes to
        send empty/complex/multiword identifiers.

    --organization|O *company*
        Set the X509 O organization, typically the company name. This is
        required when using "--newca". Other executions, it may be specified
        or the value from the "--newca" call will be used. You may use
        quotes to send empty/complex/multiword identifiers.

    --organizationalunit|OU *department*
        Set the X509 OU organizational unit, typically the department name.
        This is also optional. Non-initial executions, it may be specified
        or the (possibly empty) value from the "--newca" call will be used.
        You may use quotes to send empty/complex/multiword identifiers.

    --newca *CN Email*
        Request that the initial certificate authority be set up with the
        indicated common name and email address. You may use quotes to send
        empty/complex/multiword identifiers.

        The generated certificate, key, and various alternate forms of that
        data will be available in the work directory's archive subdirectory,
        in a further subdirectory named by the CN. Distribution of this
        material is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --subca *CN Email NewWorkDirectory*
        Request that a subsidiary certificate authority be set up with the
        indicated common name and email address, in the new work directory
        specified. This is much like creating an entirely distinct
        certificate authority with "--newca" except: (1) the certificate is
        signed by the parent certificate, (2) you cannot create lower level
        subsidiary certificates authorities, (3) the X509 subject identifier
        material is defaulted from the "--newca" call (but of course may be
        overridden on this execution, the values in play at the time of
        "--subca" will be the new defaults for the "--subca"'s work
        directory. You may use quotes to send empty/complex/multiword
        identifiers.

        The generated certificate, key, and various alternate forms of that
        data will be available in the work directory's archive subdirectory,
        in a further subdirectory named by the CN. Distribution of this
        material is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --newserver *CN [Email]*
        Request that a server certificate be generated with the indicated
        common name and the optional email address. You may use quotes to
        send empty/complex/multiword identifiers (and if you have other
        command line options after this one, you must specify an email
        address, though it may be empty.

        The generated certificate, key, and various alternate forms of that
        data will be available in the work directory's archive subdirectory,
        in a further subdirectory named by the CN. Distribution of this
        material is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --newclient *CN [Email]*
        Request that a client certificate be generated with the indicated
        common name and the optional email address. You may use quotes to
        send empty/complex/multiword identifiers (and if you have other
        command line options after this one, you must specify an email
        address, though it may be empty.

        The generated certificate, key, and various alternate forms of that
        data will be available in the work directory's archive subdirectory,
        in a further subdirectory named by the CN. Distribution of this
        material is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --newmail *CN [Email]*
        Request that a user mail certificate be generated with the indicated
        common name and the optional(recommended) email address. You may use
        quotes to send empty/complex/multiword identifiers (and if you have
        other command line options after this one, you must specify an email
        address, though it may be empty.

        The generated certificate, key, and various alternate forms of that
        data will be available in the work directory's archive subdirectory,
        in a further subdirectory named by the CN. Distribution of this
        material is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --newcoder *CN [Email]*
        Request that a code signing certificate be generated with the
        indicated common name and the optional(recommended) email address.
        You may use quotes to send empty/complex/multiword identifiers (and
        if you have other command line options after this one, you must
        specify an email address, though it may be empty.

        The generated certificate, key, and various alternate forms of that
        data will be available in the work directory's archive subdirectory,
        in a further subdirectory named by the CN. Distribution of this
        material is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --altnames *TYPE:value*
        Request that the certificate being generated on this execution be
        given the listed subject alternate name (SAN). You may only generate
        one certificate per execution if you have "--altnames" specified.
        This can be used to provide, eg, alternate hostnames for HTTPS
        server certificates (for multisite hosted domains) or alternate
        email address for mail certificates.

        Valid TYPEs are "email", "URI", "DNS", and "IP". Typically "DNS" and
        "IP" are used for server certificates, and "email" is used for mail
        certificates.

        When using "--altnames" you must specify the data (CN, email) you
        might have expected to be authories as part of the primary subject
        name as an alternate. So if you set the CN to host1.example.com, you
        must also provide DNS:host1.example.com as an SAN).

        You must specify this argument multiple times, one per SAN you are
        attempting provide.

    --constraints *METHOD;TYPE:value*
        Request that the certificate being generated on this execution be
        given the listed name constraints. This is typically done for CA and
        sub-CA certificates to limit the scope of what damage a compromised
        certificate might do.

        Valid METHODs are "permitted" and "excluded".

        Valid TYPEs are "email", "URI", "DNS", and "IP". Typically "DNS" and
        "IP" are used for server certificates, and "email" is used for mail
        certificates.

        Name contraints are not fully supported by all ssl implementations,
        and indeed OpenSSL seems to only really support it if there is a
        subject alternative name in the nominally constrainted certificate
        absent specific investigation by the client app. You should test
        your clients and servers with nameConstraints before you put them in
        production.

        You must specify this argument multiple times, one per constraint
        you are attempting provide.

        permitted;URL:http://.example.com permitted;IP:127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0
        permitted;DNS:.example.com permitted;email:.example.com
        excluded;email:.com

    --revoke *CN*
        Specify a desire to revoke a currently valid certificate. The
        existing certificate directory will be moved away to an alternate
        name and the certificate revocation list (CRL) will be regenerated.
        Distribution of said CRL is left as an exercise to the reader.

    --days *number*
        Override the default number of days a certificate will be valid for.
        By default, normal certificates are valid for 365 days (1 year) and
        CA and CRL certificates are valid for 1825 days (5 years). Note that
        the start date of the certificate will be yesterday, to allow for
        poorly set clocks.

        Note that issued certificates cannot by default have an expiration
        date greater than the certifying authority's certificate expiration
        date (you can use --force to bypass this check, but it is a bad idea
        to do so, since after that date the issued certificate will no
        longer validate). The corollary is that Certificate Authority
        Certificates should probably have a fairly long lifetime. The
        corollary's corollary is that your should protect your CA key well.

    --md *hash algorthms*
        Override the default hash algorithm for a certificate. The default
        algorithm is currently sha256. See `openssl dgst -h` to see a list
        of supported hash algorithms.

    --pk *public key algorthm*
        Override the default public key algorithm for a certificate. The
        default algorithm is currently RSA. Use `CA-baka --pk list` to see a
        list of supported public key algorithms.

    --keylen *bitlen*|*curvename*
        Override the default key length of a certificate. The default key
        length for RSA and DSA is 2048 bits, for ECC the default curve is
        secp224k1, secp384r1 (in order of preference, not that I am ecstatic
        with either curve). For ecc pk algorithms, the key length is used to
        communicate the curvename.

        `openssl ecparam -list_curves` shows you what curves are available.

    --renew
        Normally you are forbidden to generate a certificate for a CN you
        have generated a certificate for previously. However, as a special
        case, you may pass in the --renew option which will cause the
        existing certificate to be revoked, so that a fresh certificate can
        be generated.

        You use this option with the option(s) to generate a "new"
        certificate with an existing name.

        Doing this for your CA certificate (eg revoking your CA certificate)
        is a very bad idea, nothing good will come from it. You should
        instead just rotate/archive/rename/delete your CA working directory
        and start over, this time perhaps with a longer validity range and
        perhaps a rotating sub-CA system (which you can --renew, but should
        also just rotate/archive/rename/delete the sub-CA's working
        directory).

    --verify *filename|CN*
        Attempt to verify a certificate given a file to the certificate or
        the CN of the certificate (the latter using the saved certificate
        material). The CRL is checked to verify whether the certificate was
        revoked or not. The purposes the certificates are valid for are
        displayed.

    --force
        Bypass certain sanity checks (eg maximum certificate lifetime)

    --version
        Print the version of this program.

    --verbose|v
        Print more information when generating certificates.

    --quiet
        Print less information when generating certificates.

EXAMPLES
    A typical usage goes something like:

      # Create certificate authority
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA -C US --ST NY -L "New York" -O "Mythical NY Company" --newca ca.example.com ""

      # Create web server certificate
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --newserver www.example.com webmaster\@example.com

      # Create mail certificate plus all common aliases
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --newserver mail.example.com postmaster\@example.com --altnames DNS:mail.example.com --altnames DNS:pop.example.com --altnames DNS:imap.example.com --altnames:smtp.example.com

      # Create VPN server certificate
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --newserver vpn.example.com ""

      # Create specific user certificate for VPN
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --OU VPN --newclient "Joe Luser" joe\@example.com
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --OU VPN --newclient "Bob 6pack" bob\@example.com
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --OU VPN --newclient "Martha Stewardess" mstew\@example.com

      # Revoke bad certificate
      CA-baka --workdir /etc/CA --OU VPN --revoke "Martha Stewardess"

      # Issue a certificate with non-default hash and longer rsa key
      CA-baka --md sha512 --keylen 8192 --workdir /etc/CA --OU VPN --newclient "Paranoid Pete" pete\@example.com

      # Issue a certificate with a different public key algorithms
      CA-baka --md sha512 --pk ecc --workdir /etc/CA --OU VPN --newclient "Eccentric Eliptical Chuck" chuck\@example.com

FILES/DIRECTORIES
    Within the workdirectory, you will see

    ca.crl Certificate revocation list
    ca.crt Certificate Authority Certificate
    ca.key Certificate Authority Key
    archive/ Archive of all files generated
    tmp/ Junk used in the production of certificates
    trusted-certs/ Directory of trusted certificates ala "CApath" for
    verification purposes.

    Under "archive" you will have a bunch of directories, one per common
    name. Under those directories you will see files like "ca.crt"
    "server.crt" "client.crt" "mail.crt" or "subca.crt" for the various
    forms of certificates, plus ".key" variants of these files which contain
    the private key. There will typically also be several other files with
    names like ".der" ".jks" ".p12" and ".pem" which provide variants of
    these same certificates or keys and certificates. If you need those
    variants, feel free to take them. The ".p12" has a required password,
    which is "mypass".

BUGS
    This Certificate Authority is designed for use by a skilled, trusted
    human who is generating or validating the inputs to the script. The
    remaining items are specific instances of this.

  Separation of key/csr generation from crt signing
    The key and csr is generated by the CA-baka instants before the signed
    crt is generated. There is no prevision to accept CSRs from the outside
    world and sign them. This probably wouldn't be too difficult.

  CRL
    The CRL is not a rotating window of short-lived valid CRLs, and there is
    no particular method to attempt to publish the CRL when it is generated.
    The CRLs are generally valid as long (or longer!!) as the certificates
    which it purports to revoke, and this means attacks trying to prevent a
    client from ever getting an updated CRL might be very successful.

  Unsanitized input
    The script does not attempt to deal with "IDN Homograph Attacks" or "CN
    attacks against system tools". For example, the system uses a Cyrillic
    "а" (← I typed the right character which looks identical to an "a". Your
    processing may vary.) instead of an ASCII "a", well that is just too
    bad. Likewise, you might experience problems if the user attempts to use
    a CN which contains ";" or "&" or "$" or perhaps certain characters
    which attack the terminal by stuffing characters if you `ls` the wrong
    directory.

    The system does attempt to do some sanitization, specifically forbidding
    "'" or ^A-^Z control characters, and passing CN around in single quotes.
    It has not been carefully audited to be free from defects.

  Key Encryption
    Basically none of the keys or other files generated have encrypted keys,
    except in cases where the format/tool (I'm looking at you pkcs12) forces
    a key. Even then the key is static and stupid ("mypass").

  Ability to generate multipurpose certificates
    You cannot generate a certificate for being both an SSL server and a SSL
    client.

  Ability to generate multiple certificates per CA
    Even though would be no filename conflict (so this could be added) you
    cannot generate a server certificate for CN:hosta.example.com and a
    client certificate for the same CN.

  Other CA best practices
    Most likely there are other best practices by CAs which are not being
    followed.

  Crypto modification caching
    The public key algorithm, hash length, and key length/curvename is not
    cached when you create the CA and it should be. Any crypto changes will
    only apply to whatever certificate you set them on and all furture certs
    will be back to default crypto.

COPYRIGHT
    Copyright ⓒ 2012-2015 BAKA - See LICENSE.TXT

    If you think of it as a GPL2 without the ability to upgrade or the
    linkage restriction, you will not go far wrong.

  Disclaimer
    This is covered in stronger and more binding detail in the license, but
    the copyright holders make no representation about the suitability of
    this program for any purpose. It is provided “as is” without expressed
    or implied warranty.

AUTHORS
    Seth Robertson <mailto:projectbaka@baka.org>

    CA-baka home: <http://github.com/SethRobertson/CA-baka>

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