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Implementing a command bus

The classes and interfaces from this package can be used to set up a command bus. The characteristics of a command bus are:

  • It handles commands, i.e. imperative messages
  • Commands are handled by exactly one command handler
  • The behavior of the command bus is extensible: middlewares are allowed to do things before or after handling a command

Setting up the command bus

At least we need an instance of MessageBusSupportingMiddleware:

use SimpleBus\Message\Bus\Middleware\MessageBusSupportingMiddleware;

$commandBus = new MessageBusSupportingMiddleware();

Finish handling a command, before handling the next

We want to make sure that commands are always fully handled before other commands will be handled, so we add a specialized middleware for that:

use SimpleBus\Message\Bus\Middleware\FinishesHandlingMessageBeforeHandlingNext;

$commandBus->appendMiddleware(new FinishesHandlingMessageBeforeHandlingNext());

Defining the command handler map

Now we also want commands to be handled by exactly one command handler (which can be any callable). We first need to define the collection of handlers that are available in the application. We should make this command handler map lazy-loading, or every command handler will be fully loaded, even though it is not going to be used:

use SimpleBus\Message\CallableResolver\CallableMap;
use SimpleBus\Message\CallableResolver\ServiceLocatorAwareCallableResolver;

// Provide a map of command names to callables. You can provide actual callables, or lazy-loading ones.
$commandHandlersByCommandName = [
    'Fully\Qualified\Class\Name\Of\Command' => ... // a "callable"

Each of the provided "callables" can be one of the following things:

  • An actual PHP callable,
  • A service id (string) which the service locator (see below) can resolve to a PHP callable,
  • An array of which the first value is a service id (string), which the service locator can resolve to a regular object, and the second value is a method name.

For backwards compatibility an object with a handle() method also counts as a "callable".

// Provide a service locator callable. It will be used to instantiate a handler service whenever requested.
$serviceLocator = function ($serviceId) {
    $handler = ...;

    return $handler;

$commandHandlerMap = new CallableMap(
    new ServiceLocatorAwareCallableResolver($serviceLocator)

Resolving the command handler for a command

The name of a command

First we need a way to resolve the name of a command. You can use the fully-qualified class name (FQCN) of a command object as its name:

use SimpleBus\Message\Name\ClassBasedNameResolver;

$commandNameResolver = new ClassBasedNameResolver();

Or you can ask command objects what their name is:

use SimpleBus\Message\Name\NamedMessageNameResolver;

$commandNameResolver = new NamedMessageNameResolver();

In that case your commands have to implement NamedMessage:

use SimpleBus\Message\Name\NamedMessage;

class YourCommand implements NamedMessage
    public static function messageName()
        return 'your_command';

.. rubric:: Implementing your own ``MessageNameResolver``
   :name: implementing-your-own-messagenameresolver

If you want to use another rule to determine the name of a command,
create a class that implements

Resolving the command handler based on the name of the command

Using the MessageNameResolver of your choice, you can now let the command handler resolver find the right command handler for a given command.

use SimpleBus\Message\Handler\Resolver\NameBasedMessageHandlerResolver;

$commandHandlerResolver = new NameBasedMessageHandlerResolver(

Finally, we should add some middleware to the command bus that calls the resolved command handler:

use SimpleBus\Message\Handler\DelegatesToMessageHandlerMiddleware;

    new DelegatesToMessageHandlerMiddleware(

Using the command bus: an example

Consider the following command:

class RegisterUser
    private $emailAddress;
    private $plainTextPassword;

    public function __construct($emailAddress, $plainTextPassword)
        $this->emailAddress = $emailAddress;
        $this->plainTextPassword = $plainTextPassword;

    public function emailAddress()
        return $this->emailAddress;

    public function plainTextPassword()
        return $this->plainTextPassword;

This command communicates the intention to "register a new user". The message data consists of an email address and a password in plain text. This information is required to execute the desired behavior.

The handler for this command looks like this:

class RegisterUserCommandHandler

    public function handle(RegisterUser $command)
        $user = User::register(


We should register this handler as a service and add the service id to the command handler map. Since we have already fully configured the command bus, we can just start creating a new command object and let the command bus handle it. Eventually the command will be passed as a message to the RegisterUserCommandHandler:

$command = new RegisterUser(


.. rubric:: Implementing your own command bus middleware
   :name: implementing-your-own-command-bus-middleware

It's very easy to extend the behavior of the command bus. You can create a class that implements MessageBusMiddleware:

use SimpleBus\Message\Bus\Middleware\MessageBusMiddleware;

 * Marker interface for commands that should be handled asynchronously
interface IsHandledAsynchronously

class HandleCommandsAsynchronously implements MessageBusMiddleware

    public function handle($message, callable $next)
        if ($message instanceof IsHandledAsynchronously) {
            // handle the message asynchronously using a message queue
        } else {
            // handle the message synchronously, i.e. right-away

You should add an instance of that class as middleware to any MessageBusSupportingMiddleware instance (like the command bus we created earlier):

$commandBus->appendMiddleware(new HandleCommandsAsynchronously());

Make sure that you do this at the right place, before or after you add the other middlewares.

Calling $next($message) will make sure that the next middleware in line is able to handle the message.

Logging messages

To log every message that passes through the command bus, add the LoggingMiddleware right before the DelegatesToMessageHandlerMiddleware. Make sure to set up a PSR-3 compliant logger first:

use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface;
use Psr\Log\LogLevel;

// $logger is an instance of LoggerInterface
$logger = ...;
$loggingMiddleware = new LoggingMiddleware($logger, LogLevel::DEBUG);

Continue to read about the perfect complement to the command bus: the event bus.