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Mocking dates and times
=======================
.. currentmodule:: testfixtures
Testing code that involves dates and times or which has behaviour
dependent on the date or time it is executed at has historically been
tricky. Mocking lets you perform tests on this type of code and
TestFixtures provides three specialised mock objects to help with
this.
Dates
~~~~~
TestFixtures provides the :func:`~testfixtures.test_date` function
that returns a subclass of :class:`datetime.date` with a
:meth:`~datetime.date.today` method that will return a
consistent sequence of dates each time it is called.
This enables you to write tests for code such as the following, from
the ``testfixtures.tests.sample1`` package:
.. literalinclude:: ../testfixtures/tests/sample1.py
:lines: 8-10,21-22
:class:`~testfixtures.Replace` can be used to apply the mock as
shown in the following example, which could appear in either a unit
test or a doc test:
>>> from testfixtures import Replace, test_date
>>> from testfixtures.tests.sample1 import str_today_1
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.date', test_date()):
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
'2001-01-01'
'2001-01-02'
If you need a specific date to be returned, you can specify it:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.date', test_date(1978,6,13)):
... str_today_1()
'1978-06-13'
If you need to test with a whole sequence of specific dates, this
can be done as follows:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.date', test_date(None)) as d:
... d.add(1978,6,13)
... d.add(2009,11,12)
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
'1978-06-13'
'2009-11-12'
Another way to test with a specific sequence of dates is to use the
``delta_type`` and ``delta`` parameters to
:func:`~testfixtures.test_date`. These parameters control the type and
size, respectively, of the difference between each date returned.
For example, where 2 days elapse between each returned value:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.date',
... test_date(1978, 6, 13, delta=2, delta_type='days')) as d:
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
'1978-06-13'
'1978-06-15'
'1978-06-17'
The ``delta_type`` can be any keyword parameter accepted by the
:class:`~datetime.timedelta` constructor. Specifying a ``delta`` of
zero can be an effective way of ensuring that all calls to the
:meth:`~testfixtures.test_date.today` method return the same value:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.date',
... test_date(1978, 6, 13, delta=0)) as d:
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
'1978-06-13'
'1978-06-13'
'1978-06-13'
When using :func:`~testfixtures.test_date`, you can, at any time, set
the next date to be returned using the
:meth:`~testfixtures.test_date.set` method. The date returned after
this will be the set date plus the ``delta`` in effect:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.date', test_date(delta=2)) as d:
... str_today_1()
... d.set(1978,8,1)
... str_today_1()
... str_today_1()
'2001-01-01'
'1978-08-01'
'1978-08-03'
Datetimes
~~~~~~~~~
TextFixtures provides the :func:`~testfixtures.test_datetime`
function that returns a subclass of :class:`datetime.datetime` with
a :meth:`~datetime.datetime.now` method that will return a
consistent sequence of :obj:`~datetime.datetime` objects each time
it is called.
This enables you to write tests for code such as the following, from
the ``testfixtures.tests.sample1`` package:
.. literalinclude:: ../testfixtures/tests/sample1.py
:lines: 8-10,11-12
We use the a :class:`~testfixtures.Replacer` as follows, which could
appear in either a unit test or a doc test:
>>> from testfixtures import Replacer, test_datetime
>>> from testfixtures.tests.sample1 import str_now_1
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.datetime', test_datetime()):
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
'2001-01-01 00:00:00'
'2001-01-01 00:00:10'
If you need a specific datetime to be returned, you can specify it:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.datetime',
... test_datetime(1978,6,13,1,2,3)):
... str_now_1()
'1978-06-13 01:02:03'
If you need to test with a whole sequence of specific datetimes,
this can be done as follows:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.datetime',
... test_datetime(None)) as d:
... d.add(1978,6,13,16,0,1)
... d.add(2009,11,12,11,41,20)
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
'1978-06-13 16:00:01'
'2009-11-12 11:41:20'
Another way to test with a specific sequence of datetimes is to use the
``delta_type`` and ``delta`` parameters to
:func:`~testfixtures.test_datetime`. These parameters control the type and
size, respectively, of the difference between each datetime returned.
For example, where 2 hours elapse between each returned value:
>>> with Replace(
... 'testfixtures.tests.sample1.datetime',
... test_datetime(1978, 6, 13, 16, 0, 1, delta=2, delta_type='hours')
... ) as d:
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
'1978-06-13 16:00:01'
'1978-06-13 18:00:01'
'1978-06-13 20:00:01'
The ``delta_type`` can be any keyword parameter accepted by the
:class:`~datetime.timedelta` constructor. Specifying a ``delta`` of
zero can be an effective way of ensuring that all calls to the
:meth:`~testfixtures.test_datetime.now` method return the same value:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.datetime',
... test_datetime(1978, 6, 13, 16, 0, 1, delta=0)) as d:
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
'1978-06-13 16:00:01'
'1978-06-13 16:00:01'
'1978-06-13 16:00:01'
When using :func:`~testfixtures.test_datetime`, you can, at any time, set
the next datetime to be returned using the
:meth:`~testfixtures.test_datetime.set` method. The value returned after
this will be the set value plus the ``delta`` in effect:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.datetime',
... test_datetime(delta=2)) as d:
... str_now_1()
... d.set(1978,8,1)
... str_now_1()
... str_now_1()
'2001-01-01 00:00:00'
'1978-08-01 00:00:00'
'1978-08-01 00:00:02'
Timezones
-----------------------------
In many situations where you're mocking out
:meth:`~datetime.datetime.now` or :meth:`~datetime.datetime.utcnow`
you're not concerned about timezones, especially given that both
methods will usually return :class:`~datetime.datetime` objects that
have a `tzinfo` of ``None``.
However, in some applications it is important that
:meth:`~datetime.datetime.now` and :meth:`~datetime.datetime.utcnow`
return different times, as they would normally if the application is
run anywhere other than the UTC timezone.
The best way to understand how to use
:func:`~testfixtures.test_datetime` in these situations is to think of
the internal queue as being a queue of :class:`~datetime.datetime`
objects at the current local time with a `tzinfo` of None, much as
would be returned by :meth:`~datetime.datetime.now`.
If you pass in a `tz` parameter to
:meth:`~tdatetime.now` it will be applied to the value
before it is returned in the same way as it would by
:meth:`datetime.datetime.now`.
If you pass in a `tzinfo` to :func:`~testfixtures.test_datetime`, this
will be taken to indicate the timezone you intend for the local times
that :meth:`~tdatetime.now` simulates.
As such, that timezone will be used to compute values returned from
:meth:`~tdatetime.utcnow` such that they would be :class:`test_datetime`
objects in the UTC timezone with the `tzinfo` set to ``None``, as
would be the case for a normal call to
:meth:`datetime.datetime.utcnow`.
For example, lets take a timezone as defined by the following class:
.. code-block:: python
from datetime import tzinfo, timedelta
class ATZInfo(tzinfo):
def tzname(self, dt):
return 'A TimeZone'
def utcoffset(self, dt):
# In general, this timezone is 5 hours behind UTC
offset = timedelta(hours=-5)
return offset+self.dst(dt)
def dst(self, dt):
# However, between March and September, it is only
# 4 hours behind UTC
if 3 < dt.month < 9:
return timedelta(hours=1)
return timedelta()
If we create a :class:`~testfixtures.test_datetime` with this
timezone and a delta of zero, so we can see affect of the timezone
over multiple calls, the values returned by
:meth:`~tdatetime.now` will be affected:
>>> datetime = test_datetime(2001, 1, 1, delta=0, tzinfo=ATZInfo())
A normal call to :meth:`~tdatetime.now` will return the values passed
to the constructor:
>>> print(datetime.now())
2001-01-01 00:00:00
If we now ask for this time but in the timezone we passed to
:class:`~testfixtures.test_datetime`, we will get the same hours,
minutes and seconds but with a ``tzinfo`` attribute set:
>>> print(datetime.now(ATZInfo()))
2001-01-01 00:00:00-05:00
If we call :meth:`~tdatetime.utcnow`, we will get the time equivalent
to the values passed to the constructor, but in the UTC timezone:
>>> print(datetime.utcnow())
2001-01-01 05:00:00
The timezone passed in when the :class:`~testfixtures.test_datetime`
is created has a similar effect on any items set:
>>> datetime.set(2011,5,1,10)
>>> print(datetime.now())
2011-05-01 10:00:00
>>> print(datetime.utcnow())
2011-05-01 14:00:00
Likewise, :meth:`~tdatetime.add` behaves the same way:
>>> datetime = test_datetime(None, delta=0, tzinfo=ATZInfo())
>>> datetime.add(2011,1,1,10)
>>> datetime.add(2011,5,1,10)
>>> datetime.add(2011,10,1,10)
>>> print(datetime.now())
2011-01-01 10:00:00
>>> print(datetime.utcnow())
2011-05-01 14:00:00
>>> print(datetime.now())
2011-10-01 10:00:00
Times
~~~~~
TextFixtures provides the :func:`~testfixtures.test_time`
function that, when called, returns a replacement for the
:func:`time.time` function.
This enables you to write tests for code such as the following, from
the ``testfixtures.tests.sample1`` package:
.. literalinclude:: ../testfixtures/tests/sample1.py
:lines: 30-34
We use the a :class:`~testfixtures.Replacer` as follows, which could
appear in either a unit test or a doc test:
>>> from testfixtures import Replacer, test_time
>>> from testfixtures.tests.sample1 import str_time
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.time', test_time()):
... str_time()
... str_time()
'978307200.0'
'978307201.0'
If you need an integer representing a specific time to be returned,
you can specify it:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.time',
... test_time(1978, 6, 13, 1, 2, 3)):
... str_time()
'266547723.0'
If you need to test with a whole sequence of specific timestamps,
this can be done as follows:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.time', test_time(None)) as t:
... t.add(1978,6,13,16,0,1)
... t.add(2009,11,12,11,41,20)
... str_time()
... str_time()
'266601601.0'
'1258026080.0'
Another way to test with a specific sequence of timestamps is to use the
``delta_type`` and ``delta`` parameters to
:func:`~testfixtures.test_time`. These parameters control the type and
size, respectively, of the difference between each timestamp returned.
For example, where 2 hours elapse between each returned value:
>>> with Replace(
... 'testfixtures.tests.sample1.time',
... test_time(1978, 6, 13, 16, 0, 1, delta=2, delta_type='hours')
... ) as d:
... str_time()
... str_time()
... str_time()
'266601601.0'
'266608801.0'
'266616001.0'
The ``delta_type`` can be any keyword parameter accepted by the
:class:`~datetime.timedelta` constructor. Specifying a ``delta`` of
zero can be an effective way of ensuring that all calls to the
:meth:`~time.time` function return the same value:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.time',
... test_time(1978, 6, 13, 16, 0, 1, delta=0)) as d:
... str_time()
... str_time()
... str_time()
'266601601.0'
'266601601.0'
'266601601.0'
When using :func:`~testfixtures.test_time`, you can, at any time, set
the next timestamp to be returned using the
:meth:`~testfixtures.test_time.set` method. The value returned after
this will be the set value plus the ``delta`` in effect:
>>> with Replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.time', test_time(delta=2)) as d:
... str_time()
... d.set(1978,8,1)
... str_time()
... str_time()
'978307200.0'
'270777600.0'
'270777602.0'
Gotchas with dates and times
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Using these specialised mock objects can have some intricacies as
described below:
Local references to functions
-----------------------------
There are situations where people may have obtained a local
reference to the :meth:`~datetime.date.today` or
:meth:`~datetime.datetime.now` methods, such
as the following code from the ``testfixtures.tests.sample1`` package:
.. literalinclude:: ../testfixtures/tests/sample1.py
:lines: 8-10,14-18,24-28
In these cases, you need to be careful with the replacement:
>>> from testfixtures import Replacer, test_datetime
>>> from testfixtures.tests.sample1 import str_now_2, str_today_2
>>> with Replacer() as replace:
... today = replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.today', test_date().today)
... now = replace('testfixtures.tests.sample1.now', test_datetime().now)
... str_today_2()
... str_now_2()
'2001-01-01'
'2001-01-01 00:00:00'
.. _strict-dates-and-times:
Use with code that checks class types
-------------------------------------
When using the above specialist mocks, you may find code that checks
the type of parameters passed may get confused. This is because, by
default, :class:`test_datetime` and :class:`test_date` return
instances of the real :class:`~datetime.datetime` and
:class:`~datetime.date` classes:
>>> from testfixtures import test_datetime
>>> from datetime import datetime
>>> tdatetime = test_datetime()
>>> issubclass(tdatetime, datetime)
True
>>> tdatetime.now().__class__
<...'datetime.datetime'>
The above behaviour, however, is generally what you want as other code
in your application and, more importantly, in other code such as
database adapters, may handle instances of the real
:class:`~datetime.datetime` and :class:`~datetime.date` classes, but
not instances of the :class:`test_datetime` and :class:`test_date`
mocks.
That said, this behaviour can cause problems if you check the type of
an instance against one of the mock classes. Most people might expect
the following to return ``True``:
>>> isinstance(tdatetime(2011, 1, 1), tdatetime)
False
>>> isinstance(tdatetime.now(), tdatetime)
False
If this causes a problem for you, then both
:class:`~datetime.datetime` and :class:`~datetime.date` take a
`strict` keyword parameter that can be used as follows:
>>> tdatetime = test_datetime(strict=True)
>>> tdatetime.now().__class__
<class 'testfixtures.tdatetime.tdatetime'>
>>> isinstance(tdatetime.now(), tdatetime)
True
You will need to take care that you have replaced occurrences of the
class where type checking is done with the correct
:class:`test_datetime` or :class:`test_date`.
Also, be aware that the :meth:`~tdatetime.date` method of
:class:`test_datetime` instances will still return a normal
:class:`~datetime.date` instance. If type checking related to this is causing
problems, the type the :meth:`~tdatetime.date` method returns can
be controlled as shown in the following example:
.. code-block:: python
from testfixtures import test_date, test_datetime
date_type = test_date(strict=True)
datetime_type = test_datetime(strict=True, date_type=date_type)
With things set up like this, the :meth:`~tdatetime.date` method
will return an instance of the :class:`date_type` mock:
>>> somewhen = datetime_type.now()
>>> somewhen.date()
tdate(2001, 1, 1)
>>> _.__class__ is date_type
True