A simple tool to help apply changes across many GitHub repositories simultaneously.
Anyone who has had to manually make changes to many GitHub repositories knows that it's hard to beat the simplicity of just cloning the repositories and updating them locally. You can use any tools necessary to make the change, and there's a degree of immediacy in having local files to inspect, tweak or run validation.
It's dumb but it works. It doesn't scale well, though. Manually cloning and raising PRs against tens/hundreds of repositories is painful and boring.
Turbolift essentially automates the boring parts and stays out of the way when it comes to actually making the changes. It automates cloning, committing, and raising PRs en-masse, so that you can focus on the substance of the change.
Historical note: Turbolift supersedes an internal system at Skyscanner named Codelift. Codelift was a centralised batch system, requiring changes to be scripted upfront and run overnight. While Codelift was useful, we have found that a decentralised, interactive tool is far easier and quicker for people to use in practice.
This blog post gives a longer background for the thinking behind Turbolift.
This demo shows Turbolift in action, creating a simple PR in two repositories:
Using brew (recommended)Install turbolift using brew from Skyscanner's tap, as follows:
brew install skyscanner/tools/turbolift
Note that the GitHub CLI,
gh is a dependency of Turbolift and will be installed automatically.
Pre-built binary archives can be downloaded from the Releases page.
- Download, extract the archive, and move it onto your
- Note that the binaries are not currently notarized for MacOS Gatekeeper. If errors are displayed, use
xattr -c PATH_TO_TURBOLIFT_BINARYto un-quarantine the binary, or right-click on the binary in Finder and choose 'Open' once to allow future execution. Distribution will be improved under #43.
You must also have the GitHub CLI,
- Install using
brew install gh
Before using Turbolift, run
gh auth loginonce and follow the prompts, to authenticate against github.com and/or your GitHub Enterprise server.
Making changes with turbolift is split into six main phases:
init- getting set up
- Identifying the repos to operate upon
- Running a mass
cloneof the repos (by default, it will create a fork in your user space)
- Making changes to every repo
- Committing changes to every repo
- Creating a PR for every repo
It is expected that you'll go through these phases in series.
The turbolift tool automates as much of the Git/GitHub heavy lifting as possible, but leaves you to use whichever tools are appropriate for making the actual changes.
With great power comes great responsibility. We encourage Turbolift users to consider the following guidelines:
- Don't use Turbolift to raise pointless PRs. If a reviewer might think the change is trivial or unimportant, think about whether it's actually needed.
- If you need to make a change to a large number of repositories, we've found that it's generally better to raise PRs to a small subset at first and collect feedback. Simply comment out repositories in
repos.txtto make Turbolift temporarily ignore them.
- For complicated or potentially contentious changes, think about ways to validate them before raising PRs. This could range from working in a pair, through writing a peer-reviewed script, all the way to preparing a design document for the planned changes.
- If you can run automated tests locally, then do (e.g.
turbolift foreachto run linting and tests for each repository).
- Raising draft PRs can be a good way to collect feedback, especially CI test results, with less pressure on reviewers. Use
turbolift create-prs --draft
- In an organisation with shared infrastructure (e.g. CI), raising many PRs in a short timeframe can cause a lot of load. Consider spacing out PR creation using the
--sleepoption or by commenting out chunks of repositories in
init - getting set up
As per the installation instructions above, make sure
gh is installed and authenticated before starting.
If working with repositories on a GitHub Enterprise server, ensure that you have the environment variable
GH_HOST set to point to that server.
To begin working with Turbolift and create a 'campaign' to hold settings and working copies of repositories:
turbolift init --name CAMPAIGN_NAME
This creates a new turbolift 'campaign' directory ready for you to work in.
CAMPAIGN_NAME will be used as the branch name for any changes that are created
Next, please run:
Identifying the repos to operate upon
Update repos.txt with the names of the repos that need changing (either manually or using a tool to identify the repos).
gh-search is an excellent tool for performing GitHub code searches, and can output a list of repositories in a format that
$ gh-search --repos-with-matches YOUR_GITHUB_CODE_SEARCH_QUERY > repos.txt
Working on multiple repo files
Occasionally you may need to work on different repo files. For instance the repos can be divided in sub categories and the same change don't apply to them the same way.
The default repo file is called
repos.txt but you can override this with the
turbolift foreach --repos repoFile1.txt sed 's/pattern1/replacement1/g' turbolift foreach --repos repoFile2.txt sed 's/pattern2/replacement2/g'
Running a mass
This creates a fork and clones all repositories listed in the
repos.txt file into the
You may wish to skip the fork and work on the upstream repository branch directly with the flag
NTLD: if one of the repositories in the list requires a fork to create a PR, omit the
--no-forkflag and let all the repositories be forked. For now it's a all-or-nothing scenario.
You are free to use any tools that help get the job done.
If you wish to, you can run the same command against every repo using
turbolift foreach ... (where
... is the shell command you want to run).
For example, you might choose to:
turbolift foreach rm somefile- to delete a particular file
turbolift foreach sed -i '' 's/foo/bar/g' somefile- to find/replace in a common file
turbolift foreach make test- for example, to run tests (using any appropriate command to invoke the tests)
turbolift foreach git add somefile- to stage a file that you have created
At any time, if you need to update your working copy branches from the upstream, you can run
turbolift foreach git pull upstream master.
It is highly recommended that you run tests against affected repos, if it will help validate the changes you have made.
When ready to commit changes across all repos, run:
turbolift commit --message "Your commit message"
This command is a no-op on any repos that do not have any changes.
Note that the commit will be run with the
--all flag set, meaning that it is not necessary to stage changes using
git add/rm for changed files.
Newly created files will still need to be staged using
Repeat if you want to make multiple commits.
Edit the PR title and description in
Next, to push and raise PRs against changed repos, run:
turbolift create-prs --sleep 30s to, for example, force a 30s pause between creation of each PR. This can be helpful in reducing load on shared infrastructure.
Important: if raising many PRs, you may generate load on shared infrastucture such as CI. It is highly recommended that you:
- slow the rate of PR creation by making Turbolift sleep in between PRs
- create PRs in batches, for example by commenting out repositories in
- Use the
--draftflag to create the PRs as Draft
If you need to mass-close PRs, it is easy to do using
turbolift foreach and the
gh GitHub CLI (docs):
turbolift foreach gh pr close --delete-branch YOUR_USERNAME:CAMPAIGN_NAME
After creating PRs
While it's simple to search for PRs in GitHub search,
turbolift pr-status can be used to view PR status in the terminal. For example:
Viewing a summary of PRs:
$ turbolift pr-status ... State Count Merged 139 Open 53 Closed 29 Skipped 0 No PR Found 1
Viewing a detailed list of status per repo:
$ turbolift pr-status --list ... Repository State Reviews URL redacted/redacted OPEN REVIEW_REQUIRED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/262 redacted/redacted OPEN REVIEW_REQUIRED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/515 redacted/redacted OPEN REVIEW_REQUIRED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/342 redacted/redacted MERGED APPROVED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/407 redacted/redacted MERGED REVIEW_REQUIRED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/220 redacted/redacted OPEN REVIEW_REQUIRED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/105 redacted/redacted MERGED APPROVED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/532 redacted/redacted MERGED APPROVED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/268 redacted/redacted OPEN REVIEW_REQUIRED https://github.redacted/redacted/redacted/pull/438 ...
Closing all PRs
To close all PRs currently opened under the campaign, there is a
turbolift update-prs --close [--yes]
If the flag
--yes is not present, a confirmation prompt will be presented to the user.
This tool is fully functional, but we have improvements that we'd like to make, and would appreciate feedback.
To build locally:
To run tests locally: