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readme.md

Spencer's Rails Guide

Reference:

  • Geocoding - page 272
  • Calculation AR methods - page 279
  • Enum (used for draft, published, archived) - page 291
  • hstore with Postgres - page 304
  • Passing partials variables - pg 326

Table of Contents

Config

Changes to config files require a server restart

DB Settings

It's best practice to put the database.yml file in .gitignore since different developers will have different db settings

Routing

  • The routing system maps URLs to actions
  • Two purposes: maps requests to controller action methods, and it enables the dynamic generation of URLs for use as arugments to methods like link_to and redirect_to
  • home page: root 'welcome#index'
  • routes are called based on priority, first created = first called.
  • just like sinatra, the first route to succeed will get executed. Order does matter

Two ways to make a route:

get 'products/:id', to: 'products#show'
get 'products/:id' => 'products#show'

Params such as :id are known as segment keys

Explicit call to link_to:

link_to 'Products',
controller: 'products',
action: 'show'
id: 1

The explicit version isn't used anymore but it's useful to see for understanding of the named paths.

It's vital to understand link_to doesn't know whether its supplying hard-coded segment values. It just hopes that given what it has it will hit a correct route.

You can redirect routes directly in the routes file:

get '/foo', to: redirect('/bar')

How to use the .:format

def show
  @product = Product.find(params[:id])
  respond_to do |format|
    format.html
    format.json { render json: @product.to_json }
  end
end

If it's a normal request the html view will be rendered, if the request has .json at the end of it then the .json block will be called.

When using routes that have very long paths like: /items/wood/year/1939 Use something called Route Globbing:

get 'items/list/*specs', controller: 'items', action: 'list'

def list
  specs = params[:specs]
end

Lets say you have a query for specific items:

get 'items/q/*specs', controller: 'items', action: 'query'

def query
  @items = Item.where(Hash[*params[:specs].split('/')])
  if @items.empty?
    flash[:error] = "Can't find items with those properties"
  end
  render :index
end

# To show what this is doing:
spec = "base/books/fiction/dickens"
Hash[*spec.split('/')] # will return: { "base" => "books", "fiction" => "dickens" }

The square brackets class method on Hash will convert a one-dimensional array of key/value pairs into a hash! Super useful to know. Ruby knowledge is vital to becoming great rails developer.

Named Routes

Named routes are only to make your life easier as a programmer. Initially it does make things more confusing until you get the hang of it.

Whenever you name a route in routes.rb a new method called name_url gets created for you. Calling the method with passing in the correct parameters will generate the proper path. Additionally, name_path method gets created as well which will just generate the relative path without the protocol and host components

You can name a route using the option :as

# routes
get 'help' => 'help#index', as: 'help'

# in view
link_to 'Help', help_path # path will go to /help

TIP: You can test named routes in the console direction using the special app object

rails c
app.help_path
=> "/help"

app.help_url
=> "http://www.example.com/help"

When to use _url:

Use _url when using the redirect_to method. The HTTP spec states: you should provide full URI. However, _path will also work just fine.

You can hardcode your link_to but then you will be avoiding the rails routing system which will hurt you in the future becaues you will have to find and replace all instances of that route. For example:

link_to 'Help', '/main/help'

That will work but won't be very sustainable.

Rails Syntactic Sugar for paths:

# routes.rb
get "item/:id" => "items#show", as: "item"

# views
link_to "Auction of #{item.name} ", item_path(id: item.id)

# Can be reduced to:
link_to "Auction of #{item.name} ", item_path(item.id)

# Can be reduced to:
link_to "Auction of #{item.name} ", item_path(item)

This same pattern can extend to multiple segment keys. Its important they are in the correct order though. Example:

# routes
get "auction/:auction_id/item/:id" => "items#show", as: "item"

# views
link_to "Auction of #{item.name}", item_path(auction, item) # important these
are in the correct order)

# Depending on the item and auction ids you would get something like this:
"/auction/4/item/11"

Overriding the necessity for the ID in params:

# in model
def to_param
  description.parameterize
end

parameterize will created a munged version of the params for that object Munged: stripped of punctuation and joined with hyphens

In order to get that item out of the database properly you would want to create a munged_description column to ensure uniqueness.

Item.where(munged_description: params[:id]).first!

Scoping Routing Rules

Turn this:

get 'auctions/new' => 'auctions#new'
get 'auctions/edit/:id' => 'auctions#edit'
get 'auctions/pause/:id' => 'auctions#pause'

Into:

scope controller: :auctions do
  get 'auctions/new' => :new
  get 'auctions/edit/:id' => :edit
  get 'auctions/pause/:id' => :pause
end

Dry it up even more:

scope path: '/auctions', controller: :auctions do
  get 'new' => :new
  get 'edit/:id' => :edit
  get 'pause/:id' => :pause
end

Even more syntactic sugar:

scope controller: :auctions do
# becomes
scope :auctions do
# becomes
controller :auctions do

Path Prefix

scope path: '/auctions' do
scope '/auctions/ do

# nested implied prefixed paths
scope :auctions, :archived do

# would scope all routes nested to "/auctions/archived"

Namespaces

Will bundle module, name prefix, and path prefix settings into one declaration

namespace :auctions, :controller => :auctions do
  get 'new' => :new
  get 'edit/:id' => :edit
  post 'pause/:id' => :pause
end

TIP Search for a custom controllers routes: rake routes CONTROLLER=products Alternatevely go to '/rails/info/routes' when server is running to see all available routes for your Rails project.

REST

A resource is a high-level description of the thing you're trying to get hold of when you submit a request.

Advantages of REST:

  • Convenience and automatic best practices for you
  • A RESTful interface to your applications services for everyone else

Rest allows you to define routes with the same name but with intelligence about their HTTP verbs.

Making sure to use correct HTTP Verb:

  1. The default request method is GET
  2. In a form_tag or form_for call, the POST method will be used
  3. When you need to, you can specify a request method along with the URL generated by the named route for.

You would need to specify method: :delete to trigger a destroy action in a controller

Singular vs. Plural

Why some rest routes are singular and some are plural:

  • Routes for show, new, edit, and destroy are singular b/c they are being performed on a particular resource.
  • The rest of the routes are plural b/c they deal with collections of related resources

TIP: All singular routes require an argument because they need to be able to figure out the id of the member of the collection referenced.

TIP: new and edit are really assistant actions. All they are suppose to do is show the user a form as part of the process of creating or updating a resource.

Editing A resource

You can add except: and only: to customize a resources calls in your routes to just have the exact paths you need.

Singular resources (resource) are used when you will only have one of something your app, for example: resource :profile.

TIP: When using singular resources make sure to remember all _paths will be singular as well.

Nesting Routes

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids
end

When nesting resouces you are making a promise that you will now give any link_to's and forms the correct number of paramters.

It's generally a good idea to not nest routes more than 1 layer deep. This is a topic that is widely debated in the rails community. Example of getting around double nested is to use the shallow block.

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids do
    resources :comments
  end
end

# could be changed to:

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids
end

resources :bids do
  resources :comments
end

resources :comments

# OR it can be dried up to simply be:

resources :auctions, shallow: true do
  resources :bids do
    resources :comments
  end
end

Concerns can be used when multiple resources share the same associations like being able to have comments. For example:

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids
  resources :comments
  resources :image_attachment, only: :index
end

resources :bids do
  resources :comments
end

# This can be dried up and use Concerns like this:

concern :commentable do
  resources :comments
end

concern :image_attachable do
  resources :image_attachments, only: :index
end

resources :auctions, concerns: [:commentable, :image_attachmentable] do
  resources :bids
end

resources :bids, conerns: :commentable

In this example it appears to be more code but now you can reuse the concerns in future routes that will need that feature.

Customizing Resource Routes

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids do
    member do
      get :retract
    end
  end
end

This will add a /auctions/3/bids/4/retract path that can be used to do something special.

It will also create a link_to helper like so:
link_to 'Retract', retract_bid_path(auction, bid)

This will show us the bid that needs to be retracted but in order to actually retract it we will need a POST not a GET. To add a POST as well we add it under the member section like so:

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids do
    member do
      get :retract
      post :retract
    end
  end
end

However, if you have more than one member you will want to switch to match like this:

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids do
    member do
      match :retract, via: [:get, :post]
    end
  end
end

This can be even further optimized by passing in :member as a parameter

resources :auctions do
  resources :bids do
    match :retract, via: [:get, :post], on: :member
  end
end

Customizing the action names in the route for a different language:

resources :projects, path_names: { new: 'nuevo', edit: 'cambiar' }

The URL's will change but the names of the generated helper methods do not.
/projects/nuevo(.:format) projects#new

Mapping to a different controller

resources :photos, controller: 'images'

Routes for New Resources

Rails has a neat syntax for creating routes for new resources:

resources :reports do
  new do
    post :preview
  end
end

This would give you:
preview_new_report POST /reports/new/preview(.:format) reports#preview

In order to make it work we would change the form_for to:

form_for(report, url: preview_new_report_path) do |f|
...
f.submit "Preview"

Respond_to method

Instead of specifiying in each action what it can respond to you can do this:

class AuctionsController < ApplicationController
  respond_to :html, :xml, :json

  def index
    @auctions = Auction.all
    respond_with(@auctions)
  end
end

This will dry up the code for each action.

Controllers

Rack: abstracts away the handling of HTTP requests and responses into a single, simple call method that can be used by anything from a plain Ruby script all the way to Rails itself.

The call method should return an array with the status code, a hash of all headers, and an array of the body.

Much of Action Controller is implemented as Rack middleware modules.

TIP use rake middleware to see which Rack filters are enabled for your application.

Action Dispatch - dispatches requests, example:

get 'foo', to: 'foo#index'

# Has a dispatcher instance associated with it whose call method ends up
executing
FooController.action(:index).call

When in doubt, Render. If Rails can't find an action for a controller it will assume the action was empty and try to render the view with the appropriate name before throwing an error.

This means: every action has an implied render command in it like this:

def index
  render 'demo/index'
end

Great example of convention over configuration. Rails does this to make the developers life easier, as long as the developer knows it is going to be happening

Rendering Non-Default Templates

When calling render template: is implied

render template: '/products/index.html.haml'

# is equivalent to:
render '/products/index.html.haml'
render 'products/index.html.haml'
render 'products/index.html'
render 'index'
render :index

All of those renders will show the index view when called within the products controller.

You can add a flash to a redirect_to method by:

redirect_to post_url(@post), alert: "Post created"

TIP in Rails 4 you can add custom flash types by doing this:

class ApplicationController
  add_flash_types :error
end

When you add a flash type a special accessor becomes available to redirect_to just like :alert and :notice

Sharing of instance variables between controllers and views: Rails loops through the controller objects variables and for each one, it creates an instance variable for the view object with the same name and the same data.

Callbacks

Callbacks should be made private or protected so they won't get called as public actions on your controller

You can setup callbacks with this macro style in top of file:

before_action :require_authentication

If you want to add callback that called no matter what, the Application Controller would be the place to put them since all other controllers inherit from there.

Callbacks can be used on specific actions with the :only or :except options.

Active Record

  • AR will expect an id column to use as the primary key.

Instead of using :default in migrations it makes more sense to set defaults in the actual models. You can override the attributes like this:

Reading:

class TimesheetEntry < ActiveRecord::Base
  def category
   read_attribute(:category) || 'n/a'
  end
end

Writing:

class TimesheetEntry < ActiveRecord::Base
  def message=(txt)
    write_attribute(:message, txt + ' in bed')
  end
end

Shortcuts:

class TimesheetEntry < ActiveRecord::Base
  def message=(txt)
    self[:message] = txt + ' in bed'
  end

  def category
   self[:category] || 'n/a'
  end
end

#save will insert a record in db if necessary or update an existing record with the same primary key.

#delete uses SQL directly and does not load the AR object. Thus it is faster. #destroy loads the object first and then destroys it, it will trigger before_destroy callbacks and dependant associations will be destroyed as well. There is a difference between the two!

Locking: a term for techniques that prevent concurrent users of an pp from overwriting each others work.

How to pass in multiple parameters to a where clause:

Product.where("name = :name AND sku = :sku AND created_at > :date", 
              name: "Space Toilet", sku: 80808, date: '2009-01-01')

Order is defaulted to ascending:

Timesheet.order(:created_at) # will be ascending

# Rails 4 added feature to do desending:
Timesheet.order(created_at: :desc)

Pagination can be implemented with #limit and #offest

Timesheet.limit(10).offset(10) # will return the second set of 10 rows

Extending a module into all Models:

module Pagination
  def page(number)
  end
end

scope = Model.all.extending(Pagination)
scope.page(params[:page])

Preventing N + 1 Queries:

# First degree associations
users = Users.where(login: "mack").includes(:billable_weeks)

# Second degree associations
users = Users.where(login: "mack").includes(:billable_weeks)

Awesome Custom Validators:

class EmailValidator < ActiveRecord::Validator
  def validate()
    email_field = options[:attr]
    record.errors[email_field] << 'is not valid' unless
      record.send(email_field) =~ /\A(^@\s]+)@((?:[-a-z0-9]+\.)+[a-z]{2,})\z/
  end
end

class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
  validates_with EmailValidator, attr: :email
end

Overriding custom validation messages:

class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
  validates_uniqueness_of :uesrname, message: "is already taken"
end

Using Scopes:

class Timesheet < ActiveRecord::Base
  scope :submitted, -> { where(submitted: true) }
end

Timesheet.submitted
# Will return array of all submitted timesheets

Instead of using scope you can also create a class method instead:

def self.delinquent
  where('timesheets_updated_at < ?', 1.week.ago)
end

User.delinquent
# returns delinquent users

Passing a scope a parameter:

scope :newer_than, ->(date) { where('start_date > >', date) }

Scopes can be chained together for reuse within scope definitions themselves:

class Timesheet < ActiveRecord::Base
  scope :submitted, -> { where(submitted: true) }
  scope :underutilized, -> { submitted.where('total_hours < 40') }

Scopes are automatically available in has_many relationships

Callbacks

If you return false (not nil) from a callback method then AR halts the execution chain.

Preventing records from being deleted:

class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
  before_destroy do
    self.update_attribute(:deleted_at, Time.current)
    false # this will halt the execution chain
  end

  ...
end

Open-Closed Principle: Write code that is open for extension but closed for modification.

Single Table Inheritance

In order to activate STI all you need to do is include a type:string column in the parent class.

Polymorphic Associations

class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :commentable, polymorphic: true
end

NOTE: There is no Commentable class in our application. It's named that way to describe the interface of objects that will be associated with comments.

class Timesheet < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_many :comments, as: :commentable
end

class BillableWeek < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_many :comments, as: :commentable
end

We specifiy the polymorphism with the as:

Migration for comments:

create table :comments do |t|
  t.text :body
  t.integer :commentable
  t.string :commentable_type
end

There is a shortcut for your migrations to make it even easier given by AR API

t.references :commentable, polymorphic: true

Enum can be used as a state machine inside rails.

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  enum status: %i(draft published archived)
  ...
end

create_table :posts do |t|
  t.integer :status, default: 0
end

Post.new.status
#  => "draft"

post.published!
post.published?
# => true

# See page 291 for more example

Refactoring into Modules for common behavior:

module Commentable
  extend ActiveSupport::Concern
  included do
    has_many :comments, as: :commentable
  end
end

class Timesheet < ActiveRecord::Base
  include Commentable
end

# The include will now work since we extended activesupport concern.  If we
hadn't dont that the has_many class method would of been called in the incorrect
scope.  It would of been called in the scope of module Commentable and not the
class Timesheet

TIP ActiveModel::Conversion and ActiveModel::Naming should be extended into non AR::Base models so that the view helpers can still determine paths, routes, and naming.

UUID: universally unique identifier - a 128-bit value that is unlikely to be generated twice.

To set a column as a UUID:

add_column :table_name, :unique_identifier, :uuid

Views

Folders after app/views/ are linked up to specific controllers, the files inside those folders are linked to specific actions inside that controller

Additional Yields

# in applicaiton.html.haml

%body
  .left.sidebar
    = yield :left
  .content
    = yield 
  .right.sidebar
    = yield :right

Then to add content to one of the other yields you simply call content_for in the view passing in the proper symbol.

- content_for :left do
  %h2 Navigation
  ....

- content_for :right do
  %h2 Help
  ....

In addition to sidebars it's a good idea to yield :head in case you have any page specific head data you want in, ex: Facebook Open Graph.

Conditional output:

- if show_subtitle?
  %h2= article.subtitle

Shorter one-liner version:

%h2= article.subtitle if show_subtitle?

Problem is if it returns nil then there will be empty h2 tags on the page

Taking advantage of controller and action names in your CSS:

%body{ class: "#{controller.controller_name} #{controller.action_name}" }

# Body will look like:
<body class="timesheets index">

Haml has a helper method to do the above:

%body{ class: page_class }

With that added CSS you can customize things like background images per page using some sass fun:

body {
  .timesheets .header {
    background: image1
  }

  .expense_reports .header {
    background: image2
  }
}

Flashes

Because flashes are used so commonly you can add them to the redirect_to method to save time:

redirect_to root_path, notice: "Welcome, you are signed in"

There are also special accessors for notice and alert since they are used so much:

def create
  if @user.save
    flash.notice = "Welcome"
  else
    flash.alert = "Login invalid"
  end
end

Knowing that we can display flash messages in our layouts like so:

%body
  - if flash.notice
    .notice= flash.notice
  - if flash.alert
    .notice.alert= flash.alert

  = yield

Partials

In older versions of rails render :partial was the syntax. Now you can pass in a string to render the correct partials. render 'partial'

Partial template names must begin with an underscore. Leave the underscore OUT when referring to them.

Generally best practice to encapsulate a partial inside a well-defined div or semantically significant container. Will help with understanding how it will render and with CSS later on.

When creating partials that will be used in multiple views, stick them in a shared folder and render like this:

# app/views/shared/_captcha.html.haml

# app/views/users/new.html.haml
 ...
 = render 'shared/captcha'
 ...

Rendering Collections

TIP: Providing fallback to prevent nil iteration:

= render(entries) || "No entries exist"

Ordering a rendered collection with the _counter method:

= div_for(entry) do
  "#{entry_counter}: #{entry.description} 
#{distance_of_time_in_words_to_now entry.created_at} ago"

Helpers

AssetTagHelper

Methods for generating HTML that links views to assets such as images, js, stylesheets, and feeds.

Custom Favicon:

favicon_link_tag '/myicon.ico'

Setting up path to javascript files:

javascript_include_tag 'xml1hr'
# => src="/assets/xmlhr.js"

# Setting explicit pathes:
javascript_include_tag 'common', '/elsewhere/cools'
# => src="/assets/common.js"
# => src="/elswhere/cools.js"

These rules all also apply to stylessheet_link_tag

Image Paths:

image_path("edit.png") # => /assets/edit.png
image_path("icons/edit.png") # => /images/icons/edit.png
image_path("/icons/edit.png") # => /icons/edit.png

Image Tags:

image_tag('icon.png') # => src="/assets/icon.png"
image_tag('/photos/icon.gif') # => src="/photos/icon.gif"

See page 341 for more asset tag/path helper methods

Dynamically decide whether layout will have columns:

%body{class: content_for?(:right_col) ? 'one-column' : 'two-column'
  = yield
  = yield :right_col

DateHelper

TIP: distance_of_time_in_words_to_now has been aliased to time_ago_in_words

One use case:

%strong= comment.user.name
%br
%small= "#{time_ago_in_words(review.created)at)} ago"

FormHelper

Can be used with classes other than Active Record models, again in order to do that you would want to mixin ActiveModel::Model to your class.

= f.text_field :first_name

# gets expanded to:

= text_field :person, :first_name

If you want resulting params hash posted to your controller to be named based on something other than the class name of the object you pass to form_for, you can pass an symbol in:

= form_for person, as: :client do |F|

= f.text_field :first_name

# gets expanded to:
= text_field :client, :first_name, object: person

Options: :url: The url the form is submitted to. May pass a named route directly
:namespace: A namspace that will be prefixed with an underscore on the generated HTML id of the form.
:html: Optional HTML attributes for the form tag.
:builder: Optional form builder class

TIP: The preferred way to use form_for is to rely on automated resource identification, which will use conventions and named routes instead of manually configuring the :url option.

Creating nested forms - see page 363 All other helpers can be found after nested forms

FormOptionsHelper

Select:

= select(:post, :person_id, Person.all.collect { |p| [ p.name, p.id ] },
  { include_blank: true }

That will create a drop down with all the People's names and id's, the first dropdown will be blank because of include_blank: true

NumberHelper

number_to_percentage(number, options = {}) number_to_phone

TextHelpers

excerpt(text, phrase, options={})
highlight(text, phrases, options={})
pluralize(count, singular, plural=nil)
truncate(text, options={}, &block) if text is longer than the length option the text will be truncated to the length specified and the last three characters will be replaced with :omission (default: ...)
word_wrap(text, options={}) wraps text into lines no longer than the :line_width option.

UrlHelper

button_to(name, options, html_options, &block): If no :method is given it will default to a post.

Example:

button_to "Delete Image", { action: "delete", id: @image.id },
  method: :delete, data: { confirm: "Are you sure?" }

# => <form method="post" action="/images/delete/1" class="button_to">

current_page?(options): returns true if the current request URI was generated by the given options.

Example: (assuming we're currently rendering /shop/checkout)

current_page?(action: 'process')
# => false

current_page?(action: 'checkout') # controller is implied
# => true

current_page?(controller: 'shop', action: 'checkout')
# => true

link_to(name, options, html_options, &block): Creates a link tag of the given name using a URL created by the set of options.

Options:
method: symbol specify an alternative HTTP verb other than GET. remote: true allows unobtrusive JS driver to make an Ajax request to the URL instead of following a link. confirm: 'Question?' JS

link_to_if: creates a link tag using the same options as link_to but the first parameter is a condition.

link_to_unless: creates a link tag using the same options as link_to but the first parameter is a condition.

Linking back unless current:

link_to_unless_current("Comment", { controller: 'comments', action: 'new' }) do
  link_to("Go back", posts_path)
end

mail_to(email_address, name = nil, html_options = {}, &block)

TIP: If you pass the magic symbol, :back, to any method that uses url_for under the covers, the user will be returned back to the last requested page.

Writing Custom Helpers

As you develop your app when you start to see a lot of duplication in the views, that is a great opportunity to extract it out into helper methods. Helper methods are basically custom, app-level, API for your view code.

def page_title(name)
  content_for(:title) { name }
  content_tag('h1', name)
end

# application layout
%html
  %head
    %title= yield :title

Default photo view helper

def photo_for(user, size=:thumb)
  if user.profile_photo
    src = user.profile_photo.public_filename(size)
  else
    src = 'user_placeholder.png'
  end
  link_to(image_tag(src), user_path(user))
end

TIP: In order to create custom view helpers you need to create a directory called helpers inside the app directory. The universal helper will be called ``application_helper.rb''

Here is an example of a generic helper:

module ApplicationHelper
  def some_method
    ...
  end
end

Adding strong params to devise:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  before_action :devise_permitted_paramters, if: :devise_controller?

  protected

  def devise_permitted_paramters
    devise_paramter_sanitizer.for(:sign_up) << :phone_number
  end
end

Adding multiple paramters:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  before_action :devise_permitted_paramters, if: :devise_controller?

  protected

  def devise_permitted_paramters
    devise_paramter_sanitizer.for(:sign_in) { |user| user.permit(:email,
:password, :remember_me, :username) }
  end
end

Faster testing with Devise:

# spec/support/devise.rb
RSpec.configure do |config|
  config.include Devise::TestHelpers, type: :controller
end

# this will create some helper methods like sign_in and sign_out

Displaying errors in HAML:

= form_for [@assignment, @submission] do |f|
  - if @submission.errors.any?
    .errors
      %p The solution couldn't be submitted.
      %ul
        - @submission.errors.full_messages.each do |message|
          %li= message

  = f.label :body, "Solution"
  = f.text_area :body

  = f.submit "Submit"

Difference between AR#update and #update_attributes

When you use #update you can change multiple objects by passing in an array of object ids and corresponding hashes of what to update. #update_attribute is used to just update a single attribute on a single object and finally update_attributes is used to update multiple attributes of a single object.