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Complete Ethereum wallet implementation and library in JavaScript.
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npm version

Complete Ethereum wallet implementation and utilities in JavaScript.


  • Keep your private keys in your browser
  • Import and export JSON wallets (Geth and crowdsale) and brain wallets
  • Meta-classes create JavaScript objects from any contract ABI
  • Connect to Ethereum nodes over RPC, injected Web3 or Etherscan
  • Small (~100kb compressed; 290kb uncompressed)
  • MIT licensed (with one exception, which we are migrating off of; see below)

NOTE: This is still very beta; please only use it on the testnet for now, or with VERY small amounts of ether on the livenet that you are willing to lose due to bugs.


To use in a browser:

<script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>

To use in node.js:

npm install ethers-wallet


Wallet API

An Ethereum wallet wraps a cryptographic private key, which is used to sign transactions and control the ether located at the wallet's address. These transactions can then be broadcast to the Ethereum network.

// A private key can be specified as a 32 byte buffer or hexidecimal string
var privateKey = new Wallet.utils.Buffer([
    0x31, 0x41, 0x59, 0x26, 0x53, 0x58, 0x97, 0x93, 
    0x23, 0x84, 0x62, 0x64, 0x33, 0x83, 0x27, 0x95,
    0x02, 0x88, 0x41, 0x97, 0x16, 0x93, 0x99, 0x37,
    0x51, 0x05, 0x82, 0x09, 0x74, 0x94, 0x45, 0x92

// or equivalently:
var privateKey = '0x3141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592'

// Create a wallet object
var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey)

// Wallet privateKey
/// "0x3141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592"

// Wallet address
/// "0x7357589f8e367c2C31F51242fB77B350A11830F3"

// Sign transactions
    to: "0x06B5955A67D827CDF91823E3bB8F069e6c89c1D6",
    gasLimit: 3000000,
    gasPrice: "0x1000",
    value: "0x1000"

Converting addresses

Addresses come in various forms, and it is often useful to convert between them. You can pass any valid address into any function, and the library will convert it internally as needed. The address types are:

  • hexidecimal - 0xdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeef (all letters must be either lower case or uppercase; no mixed case, as this implies a checksum address)
  • ICAP - XE49Q0EPSW7XTS5PRIE9226HRPOO69XRVU7 (uses the International Bank Account Number format)
  • checksum - 0xDeaDbeefdEAdbeefdEadbEEFdeadbeEFdEaDbeeF (notice the case is adjusted encoding checkum information)
// ICAP Addresses 

// Get checksummed address (from ICAP)
/// "0x7357589f8e367c2C31F51242fB77B350A11830F3"

// Get checksummed addresses (from unchecksumed)
/// "0x7357589f8e367c2C31F51242fB77B350A11830F3"

// Detect address checksum errors (notice the last "f" should be lowercase)
/// throws Error: invalid checksum address

Crowdsale JSON Wallets

During the crowdsale, the Ethereum Project sold ether by generating crowdsale JSON wallet. These functions allow you to decrypt those files and retreive the private key.

// See the test-wallets directory samples (the variable should be a string)
var json = "... see the test-wallets directory for samples ..."; 

// Detect crowdsale JSON wallets

// Get a wallet from a crowdsale JSON wallet
var wallet = Wallet.decryptCrowdsaleWallet(json, password);

Secret Storage JSON Wallet

This API allows you to decrypt and encrypt the Secret Storage format used by Geth and many other wallet platforms (such as

The Secret Storage JSON Wallet format uses an algorithm called scrypt, which is intentionally CPU-intensive, which ensures that an attacker would need to tie up considerable resources to attempt to brute-force guess your password. It aslo means it may take some time (10-30 seconds) to decrypt or encrypt a wallet. So, these API calls use a callback to provide progress feedback as well as the opportunity to cancel the process.

The callback should look like function(progress) where progress is a Number between 0 and 1 (inclusive) and if the function returns true, then the process will be cancelled, calling the callback once more with callback(new Error('cancelled')).

Wallet.decrypt(json, password[, callback]);

// See the test-wallets directory samples (the variable should be a string)
var json = "... see the test-wallets directory for samples ..."; 

// Decrypt a Secret Storage JSON wallet
var shouldCancelDecrypt = false;

function updateInterface(progress) {
    console.log('The wallet is ' + parseInt(100 * progress) + '% decrypted');

    // Optionally return true to stop this decryption; this callback will get
    // called once more with callback(new Error("cancelled"))
    return shouldCancelDecrypt;

Wallet.decrypt(json, password, updateInterface).then(function(wallet) {
    // The wallet was successfully decrypted

}, function(error) {
    if (error.message === 'invalid password') {
        // Wrong password

    } else if (error.message === 'cancelled') {
        // The decryption was cancelled

Wallet.prototype.encrypt(password[, options][, callback]);

// Encrypt a wallet into a Secret Storage JSON Wallet (all options are optional)
var bytes16 = '0xdeadbeef1deadbeef2deadbeef301234';
var options = {
    salt: bytes16,        // hex string or Buffer, any length
    iv:   bytes16,        // hex string or Buffer, 16 bytes
    uuid: bytes16,        // hex string or Buffer, 16 bytes
    scrypt: {
        N: (1 << 17),     // Number, power of 2 greater than 2
        p: 8,             // Number
        r: 1              // Number

var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey);

var shouldCancelEncrypt = false;

function updateInterface(progress) {
    console.log('The wallet is ' + parseInt(100 * progress) + '% encrypted');

    // Optionally return true to stop this encryption; this callback will get
    // called once more with callback(new Error("cancelled"))
    return shouldCancelEncrypt;

wallet.encrypt(password, options, updateInterface).then(function(json) {
    // The wallet was successfully encrypted as a json string

}, function(error) {
    if (error.message === 'cancelled') {
        // Cancelled

Brain Wallets

Brain wallets should not be considered a secure way to store large amounts of ether; anyone who knows your username/password can steal your funds.

// Username and passwords must be buffers; see scrypt-js library for summary
// of UTF-8 gotchas (@TOOD: include a link)
var email = new Wallet.utils.Buffer('', 'utf8');
var password = new Wallet.utils.Buffer('password', 'utf8');

var shouldCancelSummon = false;

function updateInterface(progress) {
    console.log('The wallet is ' + parseInt(100 * progress) + '% generated');

    // Optionally return true to stop this generation; this callback will get
    // called once more with callback(new Error("cancelled"))
    return shouldCancelSummon;

Wallet.summonBrainWallet(email, password, updateInterface).then(function(wallet) {
    // The wallet was successfully generated

}, function(error) {
    if (error.message === 'cancelled') {
        // Cancelled

Provider API

Connect to standard Ethereum nodes via RPC (if you have a local parity or geth instance running), or via Etherscan:

// The Web3 library is NOT required, but if you have one (for example from Metamask)
var web3Provider = new Web3.providers.HttpProvider('http://localhost:8545');
var web3 = new Web3(web3Provider);

// All these are equivalent
var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey, 'http://localhost:8545');
var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey, web3Provider);
var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey, web3);

// Or use Etherscan:
var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey, new Wallet.providers.EtherscanProvider({testnet: true}));

// With a provider attached, you can call additional methods on the wallet

// Get the wallet's balance
wallet.getBalance().then(function(balance) {

// Get the current nonce for this wallet
wallet.getTransactionCount().then(function(transactionCount) {

// Send ether to another account or contract
wallet.send(targetAddress, Wallet.parseEther('1.0')).then(function(txid) {

Contract API

var privateKey = '0x3141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592';

// Create your wallet with any method from the above Provider API
var wallet = new Wallet(privateKey, 'http://localhost:8545')

/// "0x7357589f8e367c2C31F51242fB77B350A11830F3"

// Find an existing contract address and ABI
// See:
var simpleStorageAddress = '0xdfaf84077cF4bCECA4F79d167F47041Ed3006D5b'
var simpleStorageAbi = [
    }, {
    }, {

// Get the contract
var contract = wallet.getContract(simpleStorageAddress, simpleStorageAbi)

// Set up events
contract.onvaluechanged = function(oldValue, newValue) {
    console.log('Value Changed from "' + oldValue + '" to "' + newValue + '".')

// Call constant methods, which don't alter state (free).
// Returns a promise.
contract.getValue().then(function(value) {
    console.log('Value is "' + value + '".')

// Call state-changing methods (which will cost you ether, so use testnet to test!)
// Returns a promise.
contract.setValue("Hello World").then(function(txid) {
    console.log('txid: ' + txid);

// Include custom parameters with a state-changing call
var options = {
    gasPrice: 1000       // in wei (default: from network)
    gasLimit: 3000000,   // is gas (default: 3000000)
    value:    1000       // in wei (default: 0)
contract.setValue("Hello World", options).then(function(txid) {
    console.log('txid: ' + txid);

// Estimate the gas cost of calling a state-changing method (returns a BN.js)
contract.estimate.setValue("Hello World").then(function(gasCost) {


A lot of the test cases are performed by comparing against known working implementations of many of the features of this library. To run the test suite, you must use npm install (without the --production flag, which would skip the development dependencies.)

To run the test suite,

/Users/ethers> npm test

> ethers-wallet@0.0.9 test /Users/ethers/ethers-wallet
> nodeunit test.js

Running test cases... (this can take a long time, please be patient)

+ testPrivateKeyToAddress
+ testChecksumAddress
+ testIcapAddress
+ testEtherFormat
+ testTrasactions
+ testSolidityCoder
+ testContracts
+ testSecretStorage
+ testBrainWallet
+ testContractAddress
+ testProviders

OK: 52178 assertions (147788ms)

There are also some test JSON wallets available in the test-wallets directory.


MIT Licensed, with the exceptions:

  • RLP (MPL-2.0)

We are working on our own implementations and will have the library 100% MIT in the near future.

Stay tuned!

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