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A framework for some experimental features I'd like to see maybe make it into Elgg core
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README.md
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README.md

Evan's Elgg Development Framework

This plugin gives me the freedom to experiment with some features that I think would be useful in Elgg core.

Requirements

  • PHP 5.3
  • Elgg 1.8.3

Setup

Just install this plugin like any other Elgg plugin. You can declare dependency on this plugin by adding the following to your plugin's manifest.xml:

<requires>
    <type>plugin</type>
    <name>evan</name>
    <version>1.11</version>
</requires>
<requires>
    <type>priority</type>
    <plugin>evan</plugin>
    <priority>after</priority>
</requires>

Features

Viewing entities with evan_view_entity()

This function allows you to handle various visualizations of entities very easily.

For example, evan_view_entity('link', $blog) will look for views in the following order:

  1. object/blog/link
  2. object/default/link
  3. entity/link

This allows you to avoid filling your views with so many if/else statements like this: https://github.com/Elgg/Elgg/blob/f122c12ab35f26d5b77a18cc263fc199eb2a7b01/mod/blog/views/default/object/blog.php

Convention-based hook + event registration

This plugin makes it possible to register for hooks using directory structure conventions rather than explicit function registration. In order to register for the "register", "menu:site" hook, put a file at my_plugin/hooks/register/menu/site.php.

A similar feature is also available for events. In order to register for the "init", "system" event, for example, put the behavior of the event at my_plugin/events/init/system.php. Return false from the file in order to cancel further events, just like normal event handler functions.

Limitations

It is not possible to register for all types of a certain hook with this method. I.e., a file at my_plugin/hooks/register/all.php will not be run on all 'register' hooks.

There is no way to unregister hooks when using this method. Best you can do is add a hook that undoes the the effect of the hook you want to "unregister" and make sure the plugin that defines this hook is loaded later.

Warning!!!

You MUST include an explicit return value in hook handlers in order to avoid clobbering the results. If you don't want to change the return value, return $return will work, as will return NULL. If you fail to do this, the return value will be forced to true, which is often not what you want.

Simplified routing system

Using this plugin for routing is much different and much simpler than core Elgg.

Basic configuration

To declare routes, add a routes.php file to your plugin's root that returns a map of routes to handlers like so:

return array(
    '/blog' => 'blog/index',
);

It's important that all your routes begin with a slash (/) character, otherwise they will not be matched. This also makes it obvious which side is the url and which side is the handler.

On the left side we have the route to look for -- this is compared against the url. If a match is found, we look for a handler file in pages/$handler.php, so in this case it would be pages/blog/index.php. These page handlers are expected to behave like standard Elgg 1.8 handlers. Plugins are checked for page handlers from last loaded to first loaded, so page handlers can now essentially be overridden just like views -- super handy.

Named inputs

In addition to exact matches, you can define routes that pass named parameters as input to the handlers.

return array(
    '/blog/:guid' => 'blog/view',
)

This will pass the input "guid" to the "blog/view" handler. You can use arbitrary names after the colon to define inputs (e.g., :my_cool_input), but the framework recognizes some as special:

  • guid and anything that ends in _guid will only match integers.
  • More to come... any suggestions?

CSS-based icon insertion

Instead of:

echo elgg_view('output/url', array(
    'text' => elgg_view_icon('home') . htmlspecialchars($text),
));

Which produces output like this:

<a href="..."><span class="elgg-icon elgg-icon-home"></span>Text</a>

You can do:

echo elgg_view('output/url', array(
    'text' => $text, 
    'encode_text' => true, 
    'data-icon' => 'home',
));

Which produces output like this:

<a href="..." data-icon="home">Text</a>

And has the same visual effect. The hope is that this will make menu configuration more plugin-friendly -- for example, if you just want to change the icon, not the text of the menu item, your plugin doesn't have to conflict with another plugin that wants to change the text but not the icon.

See http://trac.elgg.org/ticket/3547 for the official progress.

EvanMenu: Easier menu-configuration in plugin hooks

In Elgg right now, tweaking the menu items registered for a menu is tough work. All you get in the plugin hook is an array of items without any API for manipulating the contents. EvanMenu solves this problem.

You can use EvanMenu like so within your plugin hooks.

$menu = new EvanMenu($items);

$menu->registerItem(...); // similar API to elgg_register_menu_item
$menu->unregisterItem($name); // Remove items by name.

return $menu->getItems();

Gutters for grids

Elgg 1.8 introduced a grids system, but there was no gutter support. This plugin takes advantage of the fact that the css is generated with PHP and emits a grid system based on the gutter width you choose. See css/elements/grid.php -- just edit the $gutterWidthPercent value to change gutters.

evan_user_can($verb, $object, $target)

This is an experimental implementation of http://trac.elgg.org/ticket/4888.

Elgg comes with various permissions-related functions such as can_edit and can_write_to_container. In addition, there are several permissions hooks for controlling what users can and cannot do. This function unifies the interface to Elgg's permissions system and also broadens the scope of what Elgg's permission system can handle. For example, there has never been a standard way to ask Elgg, "Can the current user invite user X to event Y?" Now, that question is easy to ask:

elgg_user_can('invite', $user, $event);

An additional benefit of requesting permissions this way is that it is not dependent on data-model. If, for example, we were tracking event invites with annotations and we decided to switch to using relationships at some point, the permissions code wouldn't have to change at all. That makes everything a lot more maintainable than before.

Example Usage

Here are a few examples along with the old way of checking permissions to highlight the improved readability and maintainability of the new system.

Checking if the current user can post a blog to their own wall:

elgg_user_can('post', new ElggBlog(), $user);

Checking if the current user can invite another user to an event:

elgg_user_can('invite', $user, $event);

Checking if the current user can join a group:

elgg_user_can('join', $group);

Checking if the current user can follow another user:

elgg_user_can('follow', $user);

Checking if the current user can delete something:

elgg_user_can('delete', $entity);

Checking if the current user can tag another user in a photo:

elgg_user_can('tag', $user, $photo);

Customizing permissions via hooks

To control the results, simply register for the plugin hook "permission,verb" like so:

elgg_register_plugin_hook_handler('permission', 'post', 'handler');

Or if you prefer the file-system-based method that the evan-framework provides:

/mod/myplugin/hooks/permission/post.php

Your handler will be passed four values: actor, verb, object, and target. Plugin developers are encouraged to use the activitystreams verbs whenever one is available that fits their needs.

Backwards compatibility

Of course, in order for this to be useful, it needs to be backwards compatible with the permissions models from before. I've hardcoded the translations from the new code to the old code where appropriate. If you find anything missing, submit a bug/pull request and we'll get that fixed.

Limitations

This function does not accept non-entities as the object or target of the permissions check. For example, as of 1.8, you cannot ask using this function whether the user has permission to comment on a blog, since comments are modeled as annotations. The appropriate way to do that would have been:

elgg_user_can('post', new ElggComment(), $blog);

But the object must be an ElggEntity. It may be tempting to instead do:

elgg_user_can('comment', $blog);

But that is discouraged since this is not consistent with the activitystreams spec and it is best to align with that spec as much as possible. I hope that this new permissions interface will help clarify for people what should be an ElggEntity and what should be an ElggAnnotation so that we don't have this situation again in the future.

EvanDatabase

This factory class provides some useful tools for querying entities. For example, to fetch 10 banned users:

$db = new EvanDatabase();
$db->getUsers()->where('banned', true)->getItems(10, 0); // The array of users

To count the number of banned users:

$db = new EvanDatabase();
$db->getUsers()->where('banned', true)->getCount(); // The number of banned users

The power comes from having a dedicated EvanUsersQuery object that understands user-specific fields. For example, we can now easily query for admins:

$db = new EvanDatabase();
$db->getUsers()->where('admin', true)->getItem(0); // A single admin user

It also makes some very handy admin-relevant queries easy:

$db = new EvanDatabase();
$db->getUsers()->where('validated', false)->getItems(); // 10 unvalidated users

Limitations

As of right now, only getEntities() and getUsers() are supported. getObjects() and getGroups() seem like logical next steps.

It's not yet possible to query on metadata with this API. You can still use elgg_get_entities_from_metadata() for that.

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