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Pantheon of Congestion Control Build Status

The Pantheon contains wrappers for many popular practical and research congestion control schemes. The Pantheon enables them to run on a common interface, and has tools to benchmark and compare their performances. Pantheon tests can be run locally over emulated links using mahimahi or over the Internet to a remote machine.

Our website is, where you can find more information about Pantheon, including supported schemes, measurement results on a global testbed so far, and our paper at USENIX ATC 2018 (Awarded Best Paper). In case you are interested, the scripts and traces (including "calibrated emulators") for running the testbed can be found in observatory.

To discuss and talk about Pantheon-related topics and issues, feel free to post in the Google Group or send an email to pantheon-stanford <at> googlegroups <dot> com.


This is research software. Our scripts will write to the file system in the pantheon folder. We never run third party programs as root, but we cannot guarantee they will never try to escalate privilege to root.

You might want to install dependencies and run the setup on your own, because our handy scripts will install packages and perform some system-wide settings (e.g., enabling IP forwarding, loading kernel modeuls) as root. Please run at your own risk.


To clone this repository, run:

git clone

Many of the tools and programs run by the Pantheon are git submodules in the third_party folder. To add submodules after cloning, run:

git submodule update --init --recursive  # or tools/


We provide a handy script tools/ to install globally required dependencies; these dependencies are required before testing any scheme and are different from the flag --install-deps below. In particular, we created the Pantheon-tunnel that is required to instrument each scheme.

You might want to inspect the contents of and install these dependencies by yourself in case you want to manage dependencies differently. Please note that Pantheon currently only supports Python 2.7.

Next, for those dependencies required by each congestion control scheme <cc>, run src/wrappers/<cc>.py deps to print a dependency list. You could install them by yourself, or run

src/experiments/ --install-deps (--all | --schemes "<cc1> <cc2> ...")

to install dependencies required by all schemes or a list of schemes separated by spaces.


After installing dependencies, run

src/experiments/ [--setup] [--all | --schemes "<cc1> <cc2> ..."]

to set up supported congestion control schemes. --setup is required to be run only once. In contrast, src/experiments/ is required to be run on every reboot (without --setup).

Running the Pantheon

To test schemes in emulated networks locally, run

src/experiments/ local (--all | --schemes "<cc1> <cc2> ...")

To test schemes over the Internet to remote machine, run

src/experiments/ remote (--all | --schemes "<cc1> <cc2> ...") HOST:PANTHEON-DIR

Run src/experiments/ local -h and src/experiments/ remote -h for detailed usage and additional optional arguments, such as multiple flows, running time, arbitrary set of mahimahi shells for emulation tests, data sender side for real tests; use --data-dir DIR to specify an an output directory to save logs.

Pantheon analysis

To analyze test results, run

src/analysis/ --data-dir DIR

It will analyze the logs saved by src/experiments/, then generate performance figures and a full PDF report pantheon_report.pdf.

Running a single congestion control scheme

All the available schemes can be found in src/config.yml. To run a single congestion control scheme, first follow the Dependencies section to install the required dependencies.

At the first time of running, run src/wrappers/<cc>.py setup to perform the persistent setup across reboots, such as compilation, generating or downloading files to send, etc. Then run src/wrappers/<cc>.py setup_after_reboot, which also has to be run on every reboot. In fact, test/ performs setup_after_reboot by default, and runs setup on schemes when --setup is given.

Next, execute the following command to find the running order for a scheme:

src/wrappers/<cc>.py run_first

Depending on the output of run_first, run

# Receiver first
src/wrappers/<cc>.py receiver port
src/wrappers/<cc>.py sender IP port


# Sender first
src/wrappers/<cc>.py sender port
src/wrappers/<cc>.py receiver IP port

Run src/wrappers/<cc>.py -h for detailed usage.

How to add your own congestion control

Adding your own congestion control to Pantheon is easy! Just follow these steps:

  1. Fork this repository.

  2. Add your congestion control repository as a submodule to pantheon:

    git submodule add <your-cc-repo-url> third_party/<your-cc-repo-name>

    and add ignore = dirty to .gitmodules under your submodule.

  3. In src/wrappers, read and create your own <your-cc-name>.py. Make sure the sender and receiver run longer than 60 seconds; you could also leave them running forever without the need to kill them.

  4. Add your scheme to src/config.yml along with settings of name, color and marker, so that src/experiments/ is able to find your scheme and src/analysis/ is able to plot your scheme with the specified settings.

  5. Add your scheme to SCHEMES in .travis.yml for continuous integration testing.

  6. Send us a pull request and that's it, you're in the Pantheon!