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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><html xmlns="" xml:lang="en"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><!--THIS FILE IS GENERATED FROM AN XML MASTER. DO NOT EDIT (5)--><title>Proposal for a TEI Module for Correspondence</title><meta name="author" content="TEI Correspondence SIG" /><meta name="generator" content="Text Encoding Initiative Consortium XSLT stylesheets" /><meta name="DC.Title" content="Proposal for a TEI Module for Correspondence" /><meta name="DC.Type" content="Text" /><meta name="DC.Format" content="text/html" /><link href="" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /><link rel="stylesheet" media="print" type="text/css" href="" /></head><body class="simple" id="TOP"><div class="stdheader autogenerated"><h2 class="institution">(unknown project)</h2><h1 lang="en" class="maintitle">Proposal for a TEI Module for Correspondence</h1></div><div class="tei_toc"><h2>Table of contents</h2><ul class="toc toc_front"><li class="toc"><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-front.1_div.1">About this document</a></li><li class="toc"><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-front.1_div.2">Conventions used</a></li></ul><ul class="toc toc_body"><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">1. </span><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.1">Preceding work</a></li><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">2. </span><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.2">Theoretical Considerations</a><ul class="toc"><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">2.1. </span><a class="toc toc_1" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.2_div.1">What is correspondence-specific information (in terms of the TEI)?</a></li><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">2.2. </span><a class="toc toc_1" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.2_div.2">And what is left out?</a></li></ul></li><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">3. </span><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.3">Implementation of the correspondence description</a><ul class="toc"><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">3.1. </span><a class="toc toc_1" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.3_div.1">Actors, places and dates of correspondence</a></li></ul></li><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">4. </span><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-body.1_div.4">Future Work</a></li></ul><ul class="toc toc_back"><li class="toc"><span class="headingNumber">Appendix A </span><a class="toc toc_0" href="#index.xml-back.1_div.1">Bibliography</a></li></ul></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-front.1_div.1"><h2><span class="head">About this document</span></h2><p>This document proposes the addition of a TEI module for correspondence. It is the product of a Correspondence SIG task force (Marcel Illetschko, Sabine Seifert Peter Stadler) with valuable input from various people.</p><p>The aim of the proposal is to define a common set of correspondence-specific meta data, brought together at one place in the TEI header. The lack of special guidelines for encoding letters, postcards, etc. with TEI P5 has been a recurring topic since well before the formation of the Correspondence SIG in 2008. Additionally, there is a growing demand of correspondence projects for linked data facilities. While some of this correspondence-specific information can already be encoded in various sections of the TEI header we believe it to be of greater value for projects dealing with correspondence material to have this information in one place. For the encoding, we suggest two approaches within this set: </p><ul><li class="item">an elaborate structure for detailed data capture,</li><li class="item">a basic structure for easy data interchange (CIF).<span id="Note1_return"><a class="notelink" title="The CIF format is not part of the official feature request but will be maintained by the SIG. As of November 2014 the …" href="#Note1"><sup>1</sup></a></span></li></ul><p> A guiding idea has been to only tentatively modify the TEI standard by merely adding a few elements, wrapping them in a special purpose element <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspDesc&gt;</span> and injecting the latter into <span class="gi">&lt;profileDesc&gt;</span>. Please note that <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspDesc&gt;</span> is <em>not</em> intended to and can <em>not</em> replace the whole TEI header.</p><p>These efforts are supposed to be just a first step in the Correspondence SIG's strive for a complete model of encoding correspondence material.</p></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-front.1_div.2"><h2><span class="head">Conventions used</span></h2><p>As required for TEI conformance, non-TEI elements are defined in a distinct non-TEI namespace. In the usage examples and throughout this document that namespace is mapped to the prefix <span style="font-weight:bold">ct:</span> (for <span class="q">‘correspondence task force’</span>), while TEI elements are not marked by any namespace prefix.</p></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-body.1_div.1"><h2><span class="headingNumber">1. </span><span class="head">Preceding work</span></h2><p>The development of <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspDesc&gt;</span> was inspired mostly but not exclusively by the work of <a class="link_ref" href="">DALF</a> as well as the <a class="link_ref" href="">WeGA</a>.</p><p>The DALF project, the <em>Digital Archive of Letters by Flemish Authors and Composers from the 19th &amp; 20th century</em>, was launched by the Belgian Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie) and is one of the best documented projects in the area of correspondence encoding. In 2003, specific DTDs and guidelines for the description and encoding of modern correspondence material, both intended for use with TEI P4, were published.<a class="link_ptr" href="#dalf-guidelines" title="DALF guidelines for the description and encoding of modern correspondence material version 1.0">[1]</a> The practical realization as well as the main features for encoding meta data are discussed in <a class="link_ptr" href="#vanhoutte2009" title="Edward Vanhoutte Ron Van den Branden Describing transcribing encoding and editing modern correspondence material a textbase app...">[2]</a>. In August 2013 the DALF guidelines were reworked for the new requirements in TEI P5 as a ‘<a class="link_ref" href="">Preliminary P5 Proposal</a>’; that version served as an important inspiration for this proposal.</p><p>Before DALF updated its customization from P4 to P5, the <span class="name">Carl-Maria-von-Weber-Gesamtausgabe</span> (WeGA, Carl Maria von Weber – Collected Works) had developed project-specific guidelines for encoding correspondence material in TEI P5<a class="link_ptr" href="#wega-guidelines" title="Editionsrichtlinien zur Ausgabe der Briefe Tagebücher und Dokumente Webers">[3]</a> and published <a class="link_ref" href="">recommendations</a> in June 2011.</p><p>Both projects define a special wrapper element for correspondence meta data while the depth of its structure and its child elements differ slightly. In each case this wrapper element (<span class="gi">&lt;dalf:letDesc&gt;</span> and <span class="gi">&lt;wega:correspDesc&gt;</span>, respectively) is part of the <span class="gi">&lt;sourceDesc&gt;</span> element. DALF introduces the child element <span class="gi">&lt;dalf:letHeading&gt;</span> in which they encode the author and addressee of the letter as well as place and date when it was written, and next to that some other child elements that contain additional information, e.g. the formal classification of the letter, or the presence of an envelope or illustrations. The WEGA, however, groups this information directly within the wrapper element: sender<span id="Note2_return"><a class="notelink" title="In regard to the person who wrote the letter or other piece of correspondence, there is a conceptual difference. Thus, it is author in DAL…" href="#Note2"><sup>1</sup></a></span> and addressee, the place where and the date when the letter was not only written but also received, incipit and position within the thread of correspondence (<span lang="de" class="term">korrespondenzstelle</span>). Both projects decided to leave all other information on providence, physical appearance, history, etc. in <span class="gi">&lt;msDesc&gt;</span> where there are already sufficient TEI elements with which to encode them.</p><p>In this proposal, we mainly considered the overlapping of these two projects’ encoding guidelines and merged them into one.</p></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-body.1_div.2"><h2><span class="headingNumber">2. </span><span class="head">Theoretical Considerations</span></h2><p>Usually, letters (or any other pieces of correspondence) are considered as having a double nature as object and event.</p><p>The aspect of objecthood predominantly, but not exclusively, is tied to materiality. The facets of this materiality are manifold, but they do not differ much between letters and other manuscripts and therfore need not to be discussed here because the TEI Guidelines have elaborated instruments for describing them, especially within the manuscript description <span class="gi">&lt;msDesc&gt;</span>.</p><p>More important than questions of objecthood and materiality is the aspect of eventness (in a wide ontological sense): Correspondence does not mean merely written messages. Very often the surrounding circumstances - sent works, presents, works of art, other oral messages - show that the letter is embedded within an ensemble of communication media, which enriches the importance of the letter in itself. Sometimes there may be no actual letter at all - still ‘correspondence’ happens.</p><p>Hence, the basic assumption in this document is the understanding of correspondence in general as an <em>event</em> - namely an <em>of communication</em> - connected to a <em>document</em> and/or an (electronical) text. The topos of correspondence being a <span class="q">‘half dialogue’</span>, a <span class="q">‘conversation amongst absentees’</span> is very often found in theoretical considerations about epistolography, also <span class="quote">‘the letter’s function as a connector between two distant points, as a bridge between sender and receiver’</span> (Janet Gurkin Altman). This concept of communication (sender, transmission, receiver) can not yet be expressed with existing TEI elements though. To answer the questions WHO WRITES? - TO WHOM? - WHERE FROM? - WHERE TO? - ANSWERING WHAT? - AT WHAT DATE? - and (very often unknown) AT WHAT DATE IS THE LETTER BEING RECEIVED? a correspondence module needs to provide information about persons (or organisations) as sender, receiver or messenger as well as about the respective dates and places. Additionally, one needs mechanisms for pointing at (or: referencing) preceding and subsequent messages.</p><div class="teidiv1" id="index.xml-body.1_div.2_div.1"><h3><span class="headingNumber">2.1. </span><span class="head">What is correspondence-specific information (in terms of the TEI)?</span></h3><p>With this concept of correspondence = communication in mind a letter (or any other piece of correspondence) has different participants:</p><ul><li class="item">a sender of the message, who is not necessarily identical to the author of the text of the message (imagine sending a Shakespeare poem instead of writing an original love letter). He sends the piece of correspondence generally at a certain <em>time</em> (though it may be unknown or indeterminate) from a certain <em>place</em> (which may or may not be the same as the place of writing). If author and sender are the same person - which in most letters will be the case - one can use a pointer to another part of the TEI-header to indicate this: <div id="index.xml-egXML-d28e338" class="pre egXML_valid"><span class="element">&lt;correspAction&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;name <span class="attribute">sameAs</span>="<span class="attributevalue">#author</span>"/&gt;</span>
<span class="element">&lt;/correspAction&gt;</span></div></li><li class="item">one or more (intended, perhaps fictional) addressees, <span class="q">‘spoken’</span> to by the piece of correspondence (and generally no unknown audience/unspecified recipient), who receives the piece of correspondence at a certain <em>time</em> at a certain <em>place</em> (though it may be unknown or indeterminate).</li></ul><p>Very often these bits of information are evident in the text of the message, in address lines, postmarks, electronically generated sending meta data, etc.</p><p>Furthermore a particular message usually is sent in order to trigger an answer (in form of one or more pieces of correspondence). A single piece of correspondence therefore is normally not a secluded entity but a (written) act of communication in a communication continuum, in which it is defined by its relative position between messages sent <span class="q">‘before’</span> and <span class="q">‘after’</span>. Dates can be helpful – but finding out the correct chronology is part of the editing process, and should be given in a specific element.</p></div><div class="teidiv1" id="index.xml-body.1_div.2_div.2"><h3><span class="headingNumber">2.2. </span><span class="head">And what is left out?</span></h3><p>Information concerning the manuscript description, e.g. (postage) stamps, seals, water marks, form fields, letter heads, and incipits, are not considered part of the proposed correspondence description. These aspects are not necessarily correspondence-specific but rather characteristic for manuscripts in general and are thus best encoded within <span class="gi">&lt;msDesc&gt;</span>.</p><p>As this proposal deals with the <em>meta data</em> of correspondence, aspects relating to correspondence-specific transcriptional encoding within <span class="gi">&lt;text&gt;</span>, e.g. with <span class="gi">&lt;postscript&gt;</span>, <span class="gi">&lt;opener&gt;</span>, <span class="gi">&lt;closer&gt;</span>, or <span class="gi">&lt;signed&gt;</span>, are not considered.</p></div></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-body.1_div.3"><h2><span class="headingNumber">3. </span><span class="head">Implementation of the correspondence description</span></h2><p>The <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspDesc&gt;</span> element provides a detailed description of correspondence-specific metadata. The <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspDesc&gt;</span> element focuses on the communicative function of correspondence, i.e. sender, addressee, and transmission. It is provided as a supplement to the physical description of a correspondence object which is to be encoded within the <span class="gi">&lt;sourceDesc&gt;</span>. The description is organized by the following elements </p><p>These elements are members of a model class called model.correspDescPart; additional features may be defined by defining new elements and adding them to that class.</p><div class="p">A simple example might be encoded as follows:<span id="Note3_return"><a class="notelink" title="The namesdates module needs to be included to support this encoding." href="#Note3"><sup>2</sup></a></span> <div id="index.xml-egXML-d28e418" class="pre egXML_valid"><span class="element">&lt;ct:correspDesc
 <span class="element">&lt;ct:correspAction <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">sending</span>"&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;persName&gt;</span>Adelbert von Chamisso<span class="element">&lt;/persName&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;settlement&gt;</span>Vertus<span class="element">&lt;/settlement&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;date <span class="attribute">when</span>="<span class="attributevalue">1807-01-29</span>"&gt;</span>29 January 1807<span class="element">&lt;/date&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspAction&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;ct:correspAction <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">receiving</span>"&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;persName&gt;</span>Louis de La Foye<span class="element">&lt;/persName&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;settlement&gt;</span>Caen<span class="element">&lt;/settlement&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspAction&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;ct:correspContext&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;ref <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">prev</span>"
   <span class="attribute">target</span>="<span class="attributevalue"></span>"&gt;</span>Previous letter of Adelbert von Chamisso to Louis de La Foye:
     16 January 1807<span class="element">&lt;/ref&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;ref <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">next</span>"
   <span class="attribute">target</span>="<span class="attributevalue"></span>"&gt;</span>Next letter of Adelbert von Chamisso to Louis de La Foye: 07
     May 1810<span class="element">&lt;/ref&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspContext&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspDesc&gt;</span></div></div><div class="teidiv1" id="index.xml-body.1_div.3_div.1"><h3><span class="headingNumber">3.1. </span><span class="head">Actors, places and dates of correspondence</span></h3><div class="p">The very basic information about correspondence consists of the participating actors, their respective locations and dates (of writing/sending and reception). While there is a semantic difference between the sender of a message and the author of the corresponding text, in most cases those two will be identical. To reduce the redundancy of markup and error-proneness, <a class="link_ref" href="">standard linking mechanisms</a> can be applied to connect the <span class="gi">&lt;author&gt;</span> element within <span class="gi">&lt;titleStmt&gt;</span> to the appropriate name within the <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspAction&gt;</span> element. <div id="index.xml-egXML-d28e471" class="pre egXML_valid"><span class="element">&lt;fileDesc
 <span class="element">&lt;titleStmt&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;title&gt;</span>Letter of Weber to his wife. Dresden, January 1,
     1817<span class="element">&lt;/title&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;author <span class="attribute">xml:id</span>="<span class="attributevalue">author1</span>"&gt;</span>Carl Maria von Weber<span class="element">&lt;/author&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;/titleStmt&gt;</span>
<span class="comment">&lt;!-- … --&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;profileDesc&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;ct:correspAction <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">sending</span>"&gt;</span>
   <span class="element">&lt;name <span class="attribute">role</span>="<span class="attributevalue">sender</span>" <span class="attribute">sameAs</span>="<span class="attributevalue">#author1</span>"/&gt;</span>
<span class="comment">&lt;!-- … --&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspAction&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;/profileDesc&gt;</span>
<span class="element">&lt;/fileDesc&gt;</span></div> In other cases, there might as well be a clear distinction of the intellectual author of the text and the sender of the message, be it in disguise or frankly. Examples include pre-formulated greeting cards, forced dictated messages, or copied love letters. </div><div class="p">The detailed information about names, places and dates of each participant are to be encoded with the standard TEI elements provided by the <span class="ident-module">namesdates</span> module described in <a class="link_ref" href="">13 Names, Dates, People, and Places</a> under the respective <span class="gi">&lt;correspAction&gt;</span> element. It is possible to differentiate those declarations further with the <span class="att">@type</span> attribute, e.g. to distinguish the intended place of the addressee (as noted on the address) from the actual place of reception; or to capture several places of writing when the letter was produced over several days at several places. If an (external) placeography or personography is present or authority files are available it is also highly recommended to identify those names via unique URIs. <div id="index.xml-egXML-d28e509" class="pre egXML_valid"><span class="element">&lt;ct:correspDesc
 <span class="element">&lt;ct:correspAction <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">sending</span>"&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;persName <span class="attribute">ref</span>="<span class="attributevalue"></span>"&gt;</span>Adelbert von Chamisso<span class="element">&lt;/persName&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;placeName <span class="attribute">ref</span>="<span class="attributevalue"></span>"&gt;</span>Vertus<span class="element">&lt;/placeName&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;date <span class="attribute">when</span>="<span class="attributevalue">1807-01-29</span>"&gt;</span>29 January 1807<span class="element">&lt;/date&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspAction&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;ct:correspAction <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">receiving</span>"&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;persName <span class="attribute">ref</span>="<span class="attributevalue"></span>"&gt;</span>Louis de La Foye<span class="element">&lt;/persName&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;placeName <span class="attribute">ref</span>="<span class="attributevalue"></span>"&gt;</span>Caen<span class="element">&lt;/placeName&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspAction&gt;</span>
<span class="comment">&lt;!-- … --&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspDesc&gt;</span></div></div><div class="p">As with other information compiled within <span class="gi">&lt;ct:correspDesc&gt;</span>, the spatial information is supposed to be editorial, normalised data, not necessarily the exact reproduction of the original address which should rather be encoded within <span class="gi">&lt;text&gt;</span>. However, it is possible to provide more address-like detail: <div id="index.xml-egXML-d28e544" class="pre egXML_valid"><span class="element">&lt;ct:correspAction
 <span class="element">&lt;address&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;orgName <span class="attribute">type</span>="<span class="attributevalue">Company</span>"&gt;</span>SubMarine Telegraph Company<span class="element">&lt;/orgName&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;street&gt;</span>58 Threadneedle Street<span class="element">&lt;/street&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;settlement&gt;</span>London<span class="element">&lt;/settlement&gt;</span>
  <span class="element">&lt;postCode&gt;</span>EC<span class="element">&lt;/postCode&gt;</span>
 <span class="element">&lt;/address&gt;</span><span class="element">&lt;/ct:correspAction&gt;</span></div></div></div></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-body.1_div.4"><h2><span class="headingNumber">4. </span><span class="head">Future Work</span></h2><p>After dealing with correspondence-specific meta data, the next steps are: </p><ul><li class="item">restructuring correspondence-related transcriptional elements, as there are several problems with elements like <span class="gi">&lt;postscript&gt;</span>, <span class="gi">&lt;opener&gt;</span>, <span class="gi">&lt;closer&gt;</span>, etc.</li><li class="item">developing best practice recommendations, with examples, for the encoding of correspondence material.</li></ul></div><div class="teidiv0" id="index.xml-back.1_div.1"><h2><span class="headingNumber">Appendix A </span><span class="head">Bibliography</span></h2><ol class="listBibl"><li id="dalf-guidelines"><div class="biblfree" id="dalf-guidelines"><a class="link_ref" href="">DALF guidelines for the description and encoding of modern correspondence material, version 1.0</a></div></li><li id="vanhoutte2009"><div class="biblfree" id="vanhoutte2009">Edward Vanhoutte, Ron Van den Branden: Describing, transcribing, encoding and editing modern correspondence material: a textbase approach. In: Literary and Linguistic Computing 24,1 (2009), pp. 77-98.</div></li><li id="wega-guidelines"><div class="biblfree" id="wega-guidelines"><a class="link_ref" href="">Editionsrichtlinien zur Ausgabe der Briefe, Tagebücher und Dokumente Webers</a></div></li><li id="bohnenkamp2013"><div class="biblfree" id="bohnenkamp2013">Anne Bohnenkamp, Elke Richter (Ed): Brief-Edition im digitalen Zeitalter. Berlin:DeGruyter 2009</div></li><li id="index.xml-bibl-d28e605"><div class="biblfree">Klaus Hurlebusch: Divergenzen des Schreibens vom Lesen. Besonderheiten der Tagebuch- und Briefedition. In: editio 9 (1995), pp.18-36.</div></li><li id="index.xml-bibl-d28e607"><div class="biblfree">Hans-Gert Roloff (Ed.): Wissenschaftliche Briefeditionen und ihre Probleme. Berlin: Weidler 1998</div></li><li id="index.xml-bibl-d28e609"><div class="biblfree">Winfried Woesler: Vorschläge für eine Normierung von Briefeditionen. In: editio 2 (1988), pp. 8-18.</div></li></ol></div><!--Notes in [TEI]--><div class="notes"><div class="noteHeading">Notes</div><div class="note" id="Note1"><span class="noteLabel">1 </span><div class="noteBody">The CIF format is <em>not</em> part of the <a class="link_ref" href="">official feature request</a> but will be maintained by the SIG. As of November 2014 the work on CIF has been postponed until the official request is in a more stable state.</div></div><div class="note" id="Note2"><span class="noteLabel">1 </span><div class="noteBody">In regard to the person who wrote the letter or other piece of correspondence, there is a conceptual difference. Thus, it is <em>author</em> in DALF and <em>sender</em> in WeGA.</div></div><div class="note" id="Note3"><span class="noteLabel">2 </span><div class="noteBody">The namesdates module needs to be included to support this encoding.</div></div></div><div class="stdfooter autogenerated"><div class="footer"><!--standard links to project, instiution etc--><a class="plain" href="/">Home</a> </div><address>TEI Correspondence SIG.
Date: 2014-11-19<br /><!--
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