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cred (Connected Reactive Electronic Devices), enables you to connect your electronic devices, in a way so that they can communicate with each other and react on events happening in the network.

An example application cred would be to connect the devices in a living room. If the light switch is connected, and then turned on it would transmit an event like,

    "device": "Light",
    "location": "Living Room",
    "action": "Toggled",
    "value": "On"

which the thermostat would have subscribe to. The server will then transmit this event to the thermostat when it occurs, and the thermostat could act accordingly, like say turning up the temperature in the room since it's most likely going to be occupied now.


Simply install with pip, add a configuration and run it.

  1. $ pip install cred-server
  2. $ cred-server

and test out the API with curl :)

Generating API keys

You can generate API keys with the command line utility cred-gen. Make sure it is using the same configuration as your server. There are three different permission levels,

Permission Access
admin All resources
write All POST and GET except for API keys
read All GET except for API keys

see cred-gen --help for more information on how to use the program.


If you don't supply the configuration location via --config=/path/to/config, then the configuration files are searched for in the following order: 1. Local directory 2. Users home directory 3. Users app directory 4. System app directory

The file searched for is called credrc for 1., 3. and 4. and.credrc and 2. If none are found, it will use the default configuration.

Example configuration for a local setup with a SQLite3 database:

SSL: False
approot: ''
host: '*'
port: 5000
scheduler: False
schedulerPeriod: 30
pingtimeout: 240
  type: 'sqlite3'
  user: ''
  password: ''
  host: ''
  port: ''
  database: 'cred-server.db'

or using PostgreSQL,

SSL: False
approot: ''
host: '*'
port: 5000
scheduler: False
schedulerPeriod: 30
pingtimeout: 240
  type: 'postgresql'
  user: 'scott'
  password: 'tiger'
  host: 'localhost'
  port: '5432'
  database: 'mydatabase'


The URL endpoints and their functionality are described below,

Resource Method Function
/auth GET Authenticate the client and return a session key
/events GET Return IDs of all events, ordered by ID descending
/events POST Create a new event associated with the client POSTing it
/events/<int> GET Return full information for a specific event
/clients GET Return IDs of all clients that are active
/clients/me GET Return information about the client itself
/clients/<int> GET Return information about a specific client
/clients/<int>/events GET Return IDs of all events from the client
/clients/<int>/subscribedevents GET Return IDs of all events the client has subscribed to

The above resources are accessible with read permissions for all GETs and write for all POSTs and GETs.

Resource Method Function
/apikeys GET Return IDs of all API keys
/apikeys POST Generate a new API key
/apikeys/<int> GET Return information about a specific API key

These resources are special, and require admin permissions.


Additionally the following query parameters can also be appended to the resource, for extra fine-tuning. The parameters below work when using GET requests on the following resources: /events and /clients, /clients//events, /clients//subscribedevents and /apikeys.

Parameter Function
full=<bool> Return the full information instead of just IDs
before=<int>  Returns IDs lower than
after=<int>  Returns IDs higher than
limit=<int> Limit the number of items to items
offset=<int> Skip number of items before fetching

Example API Call

An example call with multiple parameters /events?full=true&limit=10&offset=10, which will pull the full information for 10 events, starting from after the 10 newest ones. This can be useful if you want to be able to pull all events and paginate them, or something like that. To get the next page, you would then add the &from= parameter, with the first ID you got back, and increment the offset with 10 more.

Alternatively, something like /clients/<int>/events?full=true can be used to pull the full information for new events that the client has subscribed to.

With the after=<int> parameter, the server now doesn't need to keep track of when the client last pulled, since the client can control that itself. To give an example, a client with ID=145 is doing its first series of requests:

  1. The client requests /clients/145/subscribedevents?full=true&limit=10
  2. A response with a list of events comes back, the newest being ID=288
  3. The client requests /clients/145/subscribedevents?from=true&after=288
  4. A response with all events with ID > 288 comes back

And so on. The minimizes the state kept on the server. If step 2. produced no results, the client would set after=0, which would still give new events only.


cred uses SQLAlchemy, so it supports the same database that SQLAlchemy does. The type setting in the configuration file takes any value that you can find at SQLAlchemy engines (like sqlite3, postgresql, postgresql+psycopg2, etc.).


You can check out cred-web for a pure javascript frontend to the API server. It shows the active clients and all the events that are coming in.


To easily create clients that connect to the API server, you can check out the client library at cred-client.


The following should get you running:

  1. $ git clone && cd cred-server
  2. $ virtualenv env && source env/bin/activate
  3. $ pip install -r requirements.txt
  4. Run tests with nosetests and alternatively with --with-watch (detects file changes)

or a one-liner,

$ git clone && cd cred-server && virtualenv env && source env/bin/activate && pip install -r requirements.txt


[University] Connected Reactive Electronic Devices







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