This page provides reference information on publishing to the 360Giving Data Standard.
It assumes some technical knowledge.
If you are just getting started with the 360Giving data standard, consult the Publish Your Data pages.
There are two main formats available for representing 360Giving data.
Data placed in a spreadsheet can make use of easy to read, user-friendly column titles, and is ideal for recording one grant per row. This is the most common format that publishers choose. More complex representations of data can also be reported if required.
Data in JSON format is ideal for direct use by developers building visualisations and web apps. The JSON should conform to the 360Giving JSON Schema. Anyone automating the publication of their data from their internal databases or via an API may favour this format. The column titles used in spreadsheet representations of data are derived directly from the 360Giving JSON Schema.
The 360Giving Data Quality Tool can be used to convert data between these formats, providing structured data for developers, and spreadsheet simplicity if you want to browse, sort and filter data on your desktop.
To produce 360Giving data in a spreadsheet, it is possible to start with an empty spreadsheet and construct the column titles (and any additional sheets), using the information given below. However, for many people, the starting point is the spreadsheet template described below.
For convenience we provide a 360Giving Spreadsheet Template that can be used directly, or adapted to your needs.
The template is a multi-sheet spreadsheet, and each sheet is described below.
Many data producers will be able to fit all the information about a single grant on one row of a spreadsheet. In fact most data producers do exactly that, and provide a single sheet with many individual grants.
Where data producers have more complex information, for example where a grant has many beneficiary locations, we call this a One to many relationship. Information about how to create data with One to many relationships is described below.
The 360Giving Spreadsheet template consists of a 'grants' sheet which contains the most common data fields.
The main 'grants' sheet includes sections for:
- Basic information about the grant;
- Planned dates for the grant;
- Planned dates of the activity;
- Details of the recipient organisation;
- Details of the funding organisation;
- The location of beneficiaries;
- Details of the grant programme funding is from;
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json
The main 'grants' sheet only includes the most common information used by most data publishers. For many people this is enough.
The other sheets in the 360Giving Spreadsheet Template provide the details of all the possible fields that can be reported. These sheets serve a dual purpose:
As a way to add more information to our 'grants' sheet
The column titles in the extra sheets provide a handy mapping from the JSON Schema to a more human readable form, showing us all of the possible fields available in the 360Giving Data Standard.
You can use any of these column titles on your main 'grants' sheet if you wish.
As a way of providing information about One to many relationships
If, when creating your data, you only need a few additional fields from the additional sheets, you can simply copy them from one sheet to another.
If you have additional data to report that does not fit any of the columns provided in the spreadsheet, it is okay to create your own column titles in order to report it.
.. hint:: **Naming your own columns.** If you are adding your own column titles it is best to use simple titles and to avoid special characters which could cause problems in data reuse. Using only lowercase and uppercase alphabetical characters (``a-z`` and ``A-Z``), numerical digits (``0-9``), colons (``:``), parentheses (``(`` and ``)``) and single spaces will help to avoid problems. Full-stops (``.``) are known to cause issues and should be avoided. Other characters could be used, but haven't been fully tested in all possible situations.
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: actualDates
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: plannedDates
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: fundingOrganization
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: recipientOrganization
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: beneficiaryLocation
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: fundingOrganization/0/location
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: recipientOrganization/0/location
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: relatedDocument
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: classifications
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: fundingType
.. jsonschema-titles:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json :child: grantProgramme
The 360Giving Data Standard also allows for the reporting of three types of transactions:
These do not currently have nice human readable titles, but can still be added as spreadsheet columns if needed.
To create the column titles, refer to the 360Giving JSON Schema and use the JSON pointer paths as column titles. e.g. commitmentTransaction/0/id
One to many relationships
Each of the sections of additional fields above can have multiple occurrences for one grant. There are three ways of describing this in a spreadsheet.
Use the other sheets in the 360Giving Spreadsheet Template. These have the columns described above, plus an extra column at the start for the Identifier of the relevant grant.
For the Funding Org: Location and Recipient Org: Location there is also an extra column for the Identifier of the relevant Funding/Recipient Org.
You can describe multiple occurrences within the Grants sheet by having multiple columns. Use
:<num>: instead of a
:. This imitates JSON Pointer's approach.
e.g. to have two related documents with their own title and web address:
+------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------------------+ |Related Document:0:Title|Related Document:0:Web Address|Related Document:1:Title|Related Document:1:Web Address | +------------------------+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------------------------+ |A Document |https://example.com/adocument |Another Document |https://example.com/anotherdocument| +------------------------+-------------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------------------+
You can place the additional information about a grant in an additional row. Use the same Identifier for the grant, and place the additional information in the relevant columns. Consuming applications will then be able to try to merge the information into a single record, so be careful not to place contradictory information in fields that cannot have more than one value (e.g. a title or description)
Dates and times
360Giving requires you to provide information on when a grant was awarded, and allows you to add details of when a project is taking place, and when you last updated information about aspects of the grant.
There are three different rules for validating dates:
Full dates (Award Dates and Transaction Dates)
Award Date must provide a full date, including year, month and day in YYYY-MM-DD format (e.g. 2017-04-02 for the 2nd April 2017).
In some cases, award date data exported from grant systems includes the time of the grant, using a date-time format (e.g. 2017-04-02T16:45:00Z - a grant made at 4.45pm).
Note - The time component is never significant in Award Dates or Transaction Dates. Applications should ignore the time component when processing grants data.
.. hint:: You can set Excel to present a date column in YYYY-MM-DD format using a custom format `as described here`_. .. _as described here: https://superuser.com/questions/409896/how-do-i-enter-dates-in-iso-8601-date-format-yyyy-mm-dd-in-excel-and-have-exc/409899#409899
Uncertain dates (Planned Dates and Actual Dates)
Other events in the lifetime of a grant, such as for when the funded activity will take place, may include less specific date information. Funders should aim to be as specific as they can be, but do not need to guess at the particular day or month when an activity will take place if they are not certain or do not yet know.
Dates in the
Planned Dates and
Actual Dates groups should be provided in YYYY-MM-DD format, but the day or the day can be dropped or on the year provided (e.g. YYYY-MM or YYYY).
For example, if an application only indicates that a project will start in May 2019, then the
Planned Dates:Start Date value may be '2019-05'.
It is up to users of the data to judge how to interpret dates which only include a year, or year and month. Different applications and analysis may require different judgements.
Date-time (Last Modified dates)
All rows in a 360Giving spreadsheet, and all objects in the JSON structure, can have a
Last Modified date.
If used, this must always be in full date-time format so that if multiple updates take place on a single day, consuming applications can work out which version to use.
.. hint:: You can set Excel to present a date column as a full date-time using the custom format of "yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ssZ". If you also set the formula for the entire column to ```=Now()``` then this value will be refreshed automatically every time you save the file.
In order to conform with the spreadsheet standard:
- Read the column definitions carefully and follow the format they request - for example, formatting identifiers and dates according to the standard. Full reference information is provided below.
- Provide an Identifier for each grant
- Update the Last Modified date whenever the status of a grant changes
- Remove or hide non-required columns that you are not using - although make sure you check for any hidden columns before publishing your data, and always remove rather than hide sensitive information.
- Re-order the columns so that information is arranged in the way you want
- Add extra columns to include information you want to share, but that is not covered by the standard. (See additional fields).
- Move columns in the 360Giving Spreadsheet Template between sheets.
You must not:
- Add extra rows at the top of the table
- Change the field names provided by the standard
The 360Giving standard is defined by a JSON Schema, which details the entities that can be described using the standard, and the properties it recognises.
At the root of the data model is a 'grant'. Grants have a number of direct properties (e.g. Title, Description, Currency, Amount Awarded etc.) and then a number of related entities, including Organisations (Funder and Recipient), Locations (Recipient, Beneficiary), Classifications, Grant Programmes, and Transactions.
360Giving JSON Schemas
The 360Giving JSON Schemas are the authoritative source of information about the standard, and it should always be possible to transform 360Giving data into structured JSON data according to these schema.
When exchanging data about a single grant or any number of grants, those grants need to be packaged into a single JSON file. The 360Giving Package Schema describes how grants are packaged into one file.
In general, most publishers will initially only use a sub-set of the possible features of the standard, but it is designed to accommodate comprehensive data about all stages of a grant process: for a full 360-degree view.
Field names and titles
Each entity, property and relationship in the schema has both a machine-readable field name and an English language title (apart from Transactions).
The English language titles are important for humans working to make sense of the data in everyday desktop software, and so the Spreadsheet Template and the documentation above makes use of titles as opposed to field names.
The field names are important for computers reading the data, and even if other language titles are provided in future, the underlying field names will remain constant.
A mapping between column titles and field names is given below:
.. jsonschema-title-fieldname-map:: ../schema/360-giving-schema.json
When data is being generated directly out of a database system, publishers should consider using the JSON schema to provide a JSON file.
Developers may also wish to build their applications of JSON versions of the data.
The 360Giving Data Quality Tool supports round-tripping of data between the Spreadsheet Template and JSON representations.