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""" Provider that returns vector representation of features in a data source.
This is a provider that does not return an image, but rather queries
a data source for raw features and replies with a vector representation
such as GeoJSON. For example, it's possible to retrieve data for
locations of OpenStreetMap points of interest or street centerlines
contained within a tile's boundary.
Many Polymaps ( examples use GeoJSON vector data tiles,
which can be effectively created using this provider.
Vector functionality is provided by OGR (
Thank you, Frank Warmerdam.
Currently two serializations and three encodings are supported for a total
of six possible kinds of output with these tile name extensions:
GeoJSON (.geojson):
Arc GeoServices JSON (.arcjson):
GeoBSON (.geobson) and Arc GeoServices BSON (.arcbson):
BSON-encoded GeoJSON and Arc JSON, see
GeoAMF (.geoamf) and Arc GeoServices AMF (.arcamf):
AMF0-encoded GeoJSON and Arc JSON, see:
Possible future supported formats might include KML and others. Get in touch
via Github to suggest other formats:
Common parameters:
String used to identify an OGR driver. Currently, "ESRI Shapefile",
"PostgreSQL", "MySQL", Oracle, Spatialite and "GeoJSON" are supported as
data source drivers, with "postgis" and "shapefile" accepted as synonyms.
Not case-sensitive.
OGR's complete list of potential formats can be found here: Feel free to get in touch via
Github to suggest new formats:
Dictionary of parameters for each driver.
"dbname" parameter is required, with name of database.
"host", "user", and "password" are optional connection parameters.
One of "table" or "query" is required, with a table name in the first
case and a complete SQL query in the second.
Shapefile and GeoJSON:
"file" parameter is required, with filesystem path to data file.
Optional list or dictionary of case-sensitive output property names.
If omitted, all fields from the data source will be included in response.
If a list, treated as a whitelist of field names to include in response.
If a dictionary, treated as a whitelist and re-mapping of field names.
Default is true.
Boolean flag for optionally clipping the output geometries to the
bounds of the enclosing tile, or the string value "padded" for clipping
to the bounds of the tile plus 5%. This results in incomplete geometries,
dramatically smaller file sizes, and improves performance and
compatibility with Polymaps (
Default is false.
Boolean flag for optionally returning geometries in projected rather than
geographic coordinates. Typically this means EPSG:900913 a.k.a. spherical
mercator projection. Stylistically a poor fit for GeoJSON, but useful
when returning Arc GeoServices responses.
Default is 6.
Optional number of decimal places to use for floating point values.
Optional number of tile pixels for spacing geometries in responses. Used
to cut down on the number of returned features by ensuring that only those
features at least this many pixels apart are returned. Order of features
in the data source matters: early features beat out later features.
Default is false.
Boolean flag for optionally expanding output with additional whitespace
for readability. Results in larger but more readable GeoJSON responses.
Default is None.
Sets the id of the geojson feature to the specified field of the data source.
This can be used, for example, to identify a unique key field for the feature.
Example TileStache provider configuration:
"provider": {"name": "vector", "driver": "PostgreSQL",
"parameters": {"dbname": "geodata", "user": "geodata",
"table": "planet_osm_point"}}
"provider": {"name": "vector", "driver": "postgis",
"parameters": {"dbname": "geodata", "user": "geodata",
"table": "planet_osm_line"}}
"provider": {"name": "vector", "driver": "ESRI Shapefile",
"parameters": {"file": "oakland-uptown-point.shp"},
"properties": ["NAME", "HIGHWAY"]}
"provider": {"name": "vector", "driver": "shapefile",
"parameters": {"file": "oakland-uptown-line.shp"},
"properties": {"NAME": "name", "HIGHWAY": "highway"}}
"provider": {"name": "vector", "driver": "PostgreSQL",
"parameters": {"dbname": "geodata", "user": "geodata",
"query": "SELECT osm_id, name, highway, way FROM planet_osm_line WHERE SUBSTR(name, 1, 1) = '1'"}}
"provider": {"name": "vector", "driver": "GeoJSON",
"parameters": {"file": "stclines.json"},
"properties": ["STREETNAME"]}
Your data source must have a valid defined projection, or OGR will not know
how to correctly filter and reproject it. Although response tiles are typically
in web (spherical) mercator projection, the actual vector content of responses
is unprojected back to plain WGS84 latitude and longitude.
If you are using PostGIS and spherical mercator a.k.a. SRID 900913,
you can save yourself a world of trouble by using this definition:
from re import compile
from ..py3_compat import urljoin, urlparse
from json import JSONEncoder, loads as json_loads
except ImportError:
from simplejson import JSONEncoder, loads as json_loads
from osgeo import ogr, osr
from ..Core import KnownUnknown
from ..Geography import getProjectionByName
from .Arc import reserialize_to_arc, pyamf_classes
class VectorResponse:
""" Wrapper class for Vector response that makes it behave like a PIL.Image object.
TileStache.getTile() expects to be able to save one of these to a buffer.
Constructor arguments:
- content: Vector data to be serialized, typically a dictionary.
- verbose: Boolean flag to expand response for better legibility.
def __init__(self, content, verbose, precision=6):
self.content = content
self.verbose = verbose
self.precision = precision
def save(self, out, format):
# Serialize
if format == 'WKT':
if 'wkt' in self.content['crs']:
if format in ('GeoJSON', 'GeoBSON', 'GeoAMF'):
content = self.content
if 'wkt' in content['crs']:
content['crs'] = {'type': 'link', 'properties': {'href': '0.wkt', 'type': 'ogcwkt'}}
del content['crs']
elif format in ('ArcJSON', 'ArcBSON', 'ArcAMF'):
content = reserialize_to_arc(self.content, format == 'ArcAMF')
raise KnownUnknown('Vector response only saves .geojson, .arcjson, .geobson, .arcbson, .geoamf, .arcamf and .wkt tiles, not "%s"' % format)
# Encode
if format in ('GeoJSON', 'ArcJSON'):
indent = self.verbose and 2 or None
encoded = JSONEncoder(indent=indent).iterencode(content)
float_pat = compile(r'^-?\d+\.\d+$')
for atom in encoded:
if float_pat.match(atom):
piece = ('%%.%if' % self.precision) % float(atom)
piece = atom
elif format in ('GeoBSON', 'ArcBSON'):
import bson
encoded = bson.dumps(content)
elif format in ('GeoAMF', 'ArcAMF'):
import pyamf
for class_name in pyamf_classes.items():
encoded = pyamf.encode(content, 0).read()
def _sref_4326():
sref = osr.SpatialReference()
proj = getProjectionByName('WGS84')
return sref
def _tile_perimeter(coord, projection, padded):
""" Get a tile's outer edge for a coordinate and a projection.
Returns a list of 17 (x, y) coordinates corresponding to a clockwise
circumambulation of a tile boundary in a given projection. Projection
is like those found in TileStache.Geography, used for tile output.
If padded argument is True, pad bbox by 5% on all sides.
if padded:
ul = projection.coordinateProj(coord.left(0.05).up(0.05))
lr = projection.coordinateProj(coord.down(1.05).right(1.05))
ul = projection.coordinateProj(coord)
lr = projection.coordinateProj(coord.right().down())
xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax = ul.x, ul.y, lr.x, lr.y
xspan, yspan = xmax - xmin, ymax - ymin
perimeter = [
(xmin, ymin),
(xmin + 1 * xspan/4, ymin),
(xmin + 2 * xspan/4, ymin),
(xmin + 3 * xspan/4, ymin),
(xmax, ymin),
(xmax, ymin + 1 * yspan/4),
(xmax, ymin + 2 * yspan/4),
(xmax, ymin + 3 * yspan/4),
(xmax, ymax),
(xmax - 1 * xspan/4, ymax),
(xmax - 2 * xspan/4, ymax),
(xmax - 3 * xspan/4, ymax),
(xmin, ymax),
(xmin, ymax - 1 * yspan/4),
(xmin, ymax - 2 * yspan/4),
(xmin, ymax - 3 * yspan/4),
(xmin, ymin)
return perimeter
def _tile_perimeter_width(coord, projection):
""" Get the width in projected coordinates of the coordinate tile polygon.
Uses _tile_perimeter().
perimeter = _tile_perimeter(coord, projection, False)
return perimeter[8][0] - perimeter[0][0]
def _tile_perimeter_geom(coord, projection, padded):
""" Get an OGR Geometry object for a coordinate tile polygon.
Uses _tile_perimeter().
perimeter = _tile_perimeter(coord, projection, padded)
wkt = 'POLYGON((%s))' % ', '.join(['%.7f %.7f' % xy for xy in perimeter])
geom = ogr.CreateGeometryFromWkt(wkt)
ref = osr.SpatialReference()
return geom
def _feature_properties(feature, layer_definition, whitelist=None, skip_empty_fields=False):
""" Returns a dictionary of feature properties for a feature in a layer.
Third argument is an optional list or dictionary of properties to
whitelist by case-sensitive name - leave it None to include everything.
A dictionary will cause property names to be re-mapped.
OGR property types:
OFTInteger (0), OFTIntegerList (1), OFTReal (2), OFTRealList (3),
OFTString (4), OFTStringList (5), OFTWideString (6), OFTWideStringList (7),
OFTBinary (8), OFTDate (9), OFTTime (10), OFTDateTime (11).
Extra OGR types for GDAL 2.x:
OFTInteger64 (12), OFTInteger64List (13)
properties = {}
okay_types = [ogr.OFTInteger, ogr.OFTReal, ogr.OFTString,
ogr.OFTWideString, ogr.OFTDate, ogr.OFTTime, ogr.OFTDateTime]
if hasattr(ogr, 'OFTInteger64'):
okay_types.extend([ogr.OFTInteger64, ogr.OFTInteger64List])
for index in range(layer_definition.GetFieldCount()):
field_definition = layer_definition.GetFieldDefn(index)
field_type = field_definition.GetType()
name = field_definition.GetNameRef()
if type(whitelist) in (list, dict) and name not in whitelist:
if field_type not in okay_types:
name = [oft for oft in dir(ogr) if oft.startswith('OFT') and getattr(ogr, oft) == field_type][0]
except IndexError:
raise KnownUnknown("Found an OGR field type I've never even seen: %d" % field_type)
raise KnownUnknown("Found an OGR field type I don't know what to do with: ogr.%s" % name)
if not skip_empty_fields or feature.IsFieldSet(name):
property = type(whitelist) is dict and whitelist[name] or name
properties[property] = feature.GetField(name)
return properties
def _append_with_delim(s, delim, data, key):
if key in data:
return s + delim + str(data[key])
return s
def _open_layer(driver_name, parameters, dirpath):
""" Open a layer, return it and its datasource.
Dirpath comes from configuration, and is used to locate files.
# Set up the driver
okay_drivers = {'postgis': 'PostgreSQL', 'esri shapefile': 'ESRI Shapefile',
'postgresql': 'PostgreSQL', 'shapefile': 'ESRI Shapefile',
'geojson': 'GeoJSON', 'spatialite': 'SQLite', 'oracle': 'OCI', 'mysql': 'MySQL'}
if driver_name.lower() not in okay_drivers:
raise KnownUnknown('Got a driver type Vector doesn\'t understand: "%s". Need one of %s.' % (driver_name, ', '.join(okay_drivers.keys())))
driver_name = okay_drivers[driver_name.lower()]
driver = ogr.GetDriverByName(str(driver_name))
# Set up the datasource
if driver_name == 'PostgreSQL':
if 'dbname' not in parameters:
raise KnownUnknown('Need at least a "dbname" parameter for postgis')
conn_parts = []
for part in ('dbname', 'user', 'host', 'password', 'port'):
if part in parameters:
conn_parts.append("%s='%s'" % (part, parameters[part]))
source_name = 'PG:' + ' '.join(conn_parts)
elif driver_name == 'MySQL':
if 'dbname' not in parameters:
raise KnownUnknown('Need a "dbname" parameter for MySQL')
if 'table' not in parameters:
raise KnownUnknown('Need a "table" parameter for MySQL')
conn_parts = []
for part in ('host', 'port', 'user', 'password'):
if part in parameters:
conn_parts.append("%s=%s" % (part, parameters[part]))
source_name = 'MySql:' + parameters["dbname"] + "," + ','.join(conn_parts) + ",tables=" + parameters['table']
elif driver_name == 'OCI':
if 'host' not in parameters:
raise KnownUnknown('Need a "host" parameter for oracle')
if 'table' not in parameters:
raise KnownUnknown('Need a "table" parameter for oracle')
source_name = 'OCI:'
source_name = _append_with_delim(source_name, '', parameters, 'user')
source_name = _append_with_delim(source_name, '/', parameters, 'password')
if 'user' in parameters:
source_name = source_name + '@'
source_name = source_name + parameters['host']
source_name = _append_with_delim(source_name, ':', parameters, 'port')
source_name = _append_with_delim(source_name, '/', parameters, 'dbname')
source_name = source_name + ":" + parameters['table']
elif driver_name in ('ESRI Shapefile', 'GeoJSON', 'SQLite'):
if 'file' not in parameters:
raise KnownUnknown('Need a "file" parameter')
file_href = urljoin(dirpath, parameters['file'])
scheme, h, file_path, q, p, f = urlparse(file_href)
if scheme not in ('file', ''):
raise KnownUnknown('Shapefiles need to be local, not %s' % file_href)
source_name = file_path
datasource = driver.Open(str(source_name))
if datasource is None:
raise KnownUnknown('Couldn\'t open datasource %s' % source_name)
# Set up the layer
if driver_name == 'PostgreSQL' or driver_name == 'OCI' or driver_name == 'MySQL':
if 'query' in parameters:
layer = datasource.ExecuteSQL(str(parameters['query']))
elif 'table' in parameters:
layer = datasource.GetLayerByName(str(parameters['table']))
raise KnownUnknown('Need at least a "query" or "table" parameter for postgis or oracle')
elif driver_name == 'SQLite':
layer = datasource.GetLayerByName(str(parameters['layer']))
layer = datasource.GetLayer(0)
if layer.GetSpatialRef() is None and driver_name != 'SQLite':
raise KnownUnknown('The layer has no spatial reference: %s' % source_name)
# Return the layer and the datasource.
# Technically, the datasource is no longer needed
# but layer segfaults when it falls out of scope.
return layer, datasource
def _get_features(coord, properties, projection, layer, clipped, projected, spacing, id_property, skip_empty_fields=False):
""" Return a list of features in an OGR layer with properties in GeoJSON form.
Optionally clip features to coordinate bounding box, and optionally
limit returned features to only those separated by number of pixels
given as spacing.
# Prepare output spatial reference - always WGS84.
if projected:
output_sref = osr.SpatialReference()
output_sref = _sref_4326()
# Load layer information
definition = layer.GetLayerDefn()
layer_sref = layer.GetSpatialRef()
if layer_sref == None:
layer_sref = _sref_4326()
# Spatially filter the layer
bbox = _tile_perimeter_geom(coord, projection, clipped == 'padded')
features = []
mask = None
if spacing is not None:
buffer = spacing * _tile_perimeter_width(coord, projection) / 256.
for feature in layer:
geometry = feature.geometry().Clone()
if not geometry.Intersect(bbox):
if mask and geometry.Intersect(mask):
if clipped:
geometry = geometry.Intersection(bbox)
if geometry is None:
# may indicate a TopologyException
# mask out subsequent features if spacing is defined
if mask and buffer:
mask = geometry.Buffer(buffer, 2).Union(mask)
elif spacing is not None:
mask = geometry.Buffer(buffer, 2)
geom = json_loads(geometry.ExportToJson())
prop = _feature_properties(feature, definition, properties, skip_empty_fields)
geojson_feature = {'type': 'Feature', 'properties': prop, 'geometry': geom}
if id_property != None and id_property in prop:
geojson_feature['id'] = prop[id_property]
return features
class Provider:
""" Vector Provider for OGR datasources.
See module documentation for explanation of constructor arguments.
def __init__(self, layer, driver, parameters, clipped, verbose, projected, spacing, properties, precision, id_property, skip_empty_fields=False):
self.layer = layer
self.driver = driver
self.clipped = clipped
self.verbose = verbose
self.projected = projected
self.spacing = spacing
self.parameters = parameters = properties
self.precision = precision
self.id_property = id_property
self.skip_empty_fields = skip_empty_fields
def prepareKeywordArgs(config_dict):
""" Convert configured parameters to keyword args for __init__().
kwargs = dict()
kwargs['driver'] = config_dict['driver']
kwargs['parameters'] = config_dict['parameters']
kwargs['id_property'] = config_dict.get('id_property', None)
kwargs['properties'] = config_dict.get('properties', None)
kwargs['projected'] = bool(config_dict.get('projected', False))
kwargs['verbose'] = bool(config_dict.get('verbose', False))
kwargs['precision'] = int(config_dict.get('precision', 6))
kwargs['skip_empty_fields'] = bool(config_dict.get('skip_empty_fields', False))
if 'spacing' in config_dict:
kwargs['spacing'] = float(config_dict.get('spacing', 0.0))
kwargs['spacing'] = None
if config_dict.get('clipped', None) == 'padded':
kwargs['clipped'] = 'padded'
kwargs['clipped'] = bool(config_dict.get('clipped', True))
return kwargs
def renderTile(self, width, height, srs, coord):
""" Render a single tile, return a VectorResponse instance.
layer, ds = _open_layer(self.driver, self.parameters, self.layer.config.dirpath)
features = _get_features(coord,, self.layer.projection, layer, self.clipped, self.projected, self.spacing, self.id_property, self.skip_empty_fields)
response = {'type': 'FeatureCollection', 'features': features}
if self.projected:
sref = osr.SpatialReference()
response['crs'] = {'wkt': sref.ExportToWkt()}
if srs == getProjectionByName('spherical mercator').srs:
response['crs']['wkid'] = 102113
response['crs'] = {'srid': 4326, 'wkid': 4326}
return VectorResponse(response, self.verbose, self.precision)
def getTypeByExtension(self, extension):
""" Get mime-type and format by file extension.
This only accepts "geojson" for the time being.
if extension.lower() == 'geojson':
return 'application/json', 'GeoJSON'
elif extension.lower() == 'arcjson':
return 'application/json', 'ArcJSON'
elif extension.lower() == 'geobson':
return 'application/x-bson', 'GeoBSON'
elif extension.lower() == 'arcbson':
return 'application/x-bson', 'ArcBSON'
elif extension.lower() == 'geoamf':
return 'application/x-amf', 'GeoAMF'
elif extension.lower() == 'arcamf':
return 'application/x-amf', 'ArcAMF'
elif extension.lower() == 'wkt':
return 'text/x-wkt', 'WKT'
raise KnownUnknown('Vector Provider only makes .geojson, .arcjson, .geobson, .arcbson, .geoamf, .arcamf and .wkt tiles, not "%s"' % extension)