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README.md

Tilla

This is Version 2 Docs

If you're looking for version 1 docs. Check out the v1 branch

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Tilla transforms objects, based on the rules you specify. It has a fluid, composable API, and non-blocking transformations. It also comes packaged with sensible default permission levels, and a registry to keep track of all of your Transformers that can easily be tied into other parts of your app.

Table of Contents

Installation

$ npm install --save tilla

Goals

I wanted to have a fluid, easy to read, chainable API to build Transformers with sensible defaults. I wanted permissions to be incorporated in the Transformer API itself and allow the user to provide their own domain specific permissions and permission ranking that would cascade down to sub-transformations. All transformations should be completely asynchronous, down to the field level. Looking at the Transformer code should give an idea as to the shape of the resultant object produced by that Transformer. It should also be easy to transform fields on an object using other Transformers, in other words Sub-transformations, and these would be lazy loaded at runtime.

Features

  • Chainable, fluid Transformer API
  • Asynchronous transformations at the field level
  • Built-in Transformer registry
  • Field Permission-Masking
  • Cascading permissions (for sub-transformations)

Usage

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  always, atOrAbove, passthrough, buildWith, subTransform
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

const addressTransformer = new Transformer({
  street: fd('street', always(passthrough())),
  city: fd('city', always(passthrough())),
  state: fd('state', always(passthrough()))
  otherThing: fd('otherThing', atOrAbove(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough()))
})

const personTransformer = new Transformer({
  // always directly map src.firstName -> dest.firstName
  firstName: fd('firstName',
    always(passthrough())
  ),
  // computed field using a custom builder
  name: fd(always(
    buildWith(src => `${src.firstName} ${src.lastName}`
  )),
  // multiple mapping strategies, based on permission
  age: fd('age',
    when(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough()),
    when(Permissions.PUBLIC, buildWith(
      (src, key) => src[key] - 10
    ))
  ),
  // Use another Transformer to map the field
  address: fd('address', always(
    subTransform(addressTransformer)
  ),
  // only mapped if permission level is >=PRIVATE
  ssn: fd('ssn', atOrAbove(Permission.PRIVATE, passthrough())),
  // only mapped if permission level === PRIVATE
  phoneNumber: fd('phoneNumber', restrictTo(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough()))
})

let person = {
  age: 32,
  firstName: 'John',
  lastName: 'Doe',
  height: 60,
  address: {
    state: 'IL'
  }
  ssn: '123-45-6789',
  phoneNumber: '867-5309'
}

// Transformers.transform() always returns a Promise
personTransformer.transform(Permissions.PUBLIC, person).then((personDto) => {
  /*
  {
    firstName: 'John'
    age: 22,
    name: 'John Doe'
    address: {
      state: 'IL'
    }
  }
  */
})

Tilla is used to transform objects. It's great for building DTOs and controlling access to certain fields on those DTOs. The core of Tilla is Transformers, Rules, and FieldMappers. Transformers describe the shape of the result object, Rules tell the Transformer when to map each field, and FieldMappers tell the Rule how to map each field.

FieldMappers are grouped into Rules which are grouped together in a FieldMapperDelegate which are further grouped together in a Transformer.

Transformer {
  [
    fieldMapperDelegate(
      [
        rule(fieldMapper?)
      ]
    )
  ]
}

Call transform() on a Transformer and provide the permission lvl and object to transform. This will return a Promise that will resolve with the transformed object.

Field Masking & Permissions

By default Tilla ships with 4 permission levels: PUBLIC, PRIVILEGED, PRIVATE, and ADMIN and the ranking of these fields, from least sensitive to most sensitive is [PUBLIC, PRIVILEGED, PRIVATE, ADMIN]

FieldMapperDelegates can set multiple masking levels for each field, based on permissions, and their chainable API makes it easy to set up complex mappings for each field on a Transformer. In the example above, always() was used for each field, which indicates a single builder for all permission levels -- "'Always' use this method to transform the value provided". We can specify multiple methods like so:

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  when, atOrAbove, passthrough, buildWith
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

let oldPersonTransformer = new Transformer({
  // different transformations for PUBLIC and PRIVATE permission levels.
  age: fd('age',
    when(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough())
    when(Perissions.PUBLIC, buildWith(
      (src, key) => {
        let age = src[key]
        return age ? age - 10 : null
      }
    ))
  ),
  name: fd(always(buildWith(
    src => `${src.firstName} ${src.lastName}`
  ))),
  // only transformations at PRIVATE and above permission lvls will have this field
  ssn: fd('ssn', atOrAbove(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough()))
})

You can specify your own permission ranking, when instantiating the fieldDelegate. and Tilla will ensure that ranking is enforced throughout the entire FieldDelegate chain.

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  when, atOrAbove, passthrough, buildWith
} from 'tilla'

let ranking = ['USER', 'EMPLOYEE', 'MANAGER']

const fd = fieldDelegate(ranking) // pass your ranking to the util wrapper

let oldPersonTransformer = new Transformer({
  // different transformations for PUBLIC and PRIVATE permission levels.
  age: fd('age',
    when('EMPLOYEE', passthrough()),
    when('USER', buildWith(
      (src, key) => {
        let age = src[key]
        return age ? age - 10 : null
      }
    ))
  ),
  name: fd(always(buildWith(
    src => `${src.firstName} ${src.lastName}`
  ))),
  // only transformations at PRIVATE and above permission lvls will have this field
  ssn: fd('ssn', atOrAbove('MANAGER', passthrough())),
  // Will throw an ERROR because this permission lvl does not exist in the provided ranking
  broken: fd('broken', atOrAbove('BOGUS_LEVEL', passthrough()))
})

Can I Use a Transformer to Map a field?

Yes! This is called a 'subTransform'. You may want to do this for an attached association. For example, a Person may have an eagerly loaded Address. With Tilla you can specify each of these Transformers and then specify a SubTransformation in the Person Transformer for the key, address. You can specify a string which will search the built in Transformer registry, a Transformer, or a function that returns a Promise that resolves to a Transformer.

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  always, atOrAbove, passthrough, subTransform
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

let addressTransformer = new Transformer({
  street: fd('street', always(passthrough())),
  city: fd('city', always(passthrough())),
  state: fd('state', always(passthrough())),
  otherThing: fd('otherThing', atOrAbove(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough()))
})

let personTransformer = new Transformer({
  age: fd('age', always(passthrough())),
  /*...*/
  // Subtransform from the registry
  address: fd('address', always(subTransform('address')))
  // OR directly provide the transformer
  address: fd('address', always(subTransform(addressTransformer)))
  // OR a Thunk that returns a Transformer
  address: fd('address', always(subTransform(async () => addressTransformer)))
})

let person = {
  age: 22,
  firstName: 'John',
  lastName: 'Doe',
  ssn: '123-45-6789',
  address: {
    street: '123 Street',
    city: 'Chicago',
    state: 'IL',
    otherThing: 'other'
  }
}

personTransformer.transform(Permissions.PUBLIC, person).then((publicPersonDto) => { // public permission lvl
  /*
  {
    age: 22,
    name: 'John Doe',
    address: {
      street: '123 Street',
      city: 'Chicago',
      state: 'IL'
    }
  }
  */
})

personTransformer.transform(Permissions.PRIVATE, person).then((privatePersonDto) => { // private permission lvl
  /*
  {
    age: 22,
    name: 'John Doe',
    ssn: '123-45-6789',
    address: {
      street: '123 Street',
      city: 'Chicago',
      state: 'IL'
      otherThing: 'other'
    }
  }
  */
})

Transformer has another constructor that accepts a string, the registry string, and an object, the field mapping. This will automatically add that Transformer instance to the internal registry at the key. However, you can also use your own registry system separate from tilla.

All the permission APIs work the same with SubTransform. The permission provided to the parent propogates down to the subTransform. This is the default behavior. To override this, you can specify a permission lvl to use for the SubTransformation when defining the transformer.

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  always, atOrAbove, passthrough, subTransform
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

let addressTransformer = new Transformer({
  street: fd('street', always(passthrough())),
  city: fd('city', always(passthrough())),
  state: fd('state', always(passthrough())),
  otherThing: fd('otherThing', atOrAbove(Permissions.PRIVATE, passthrough()))
})

let personTransformer = new Transformer({
  age: fd('age', always(passthrough())),
  /*...*/
  // transform with PUBLIC permission lvl, regardless of the parents permission lvl
  address: fd('address', always(subTransform(addressTransformer, Permissions.PUBLIC)))
})

let person = {
  age: 22,
  firstName: 'John',
  lastName: 'Doe',
  ssn: '123-45-6789',
  address: {
    street: '123 Street',
    city: 'Chicago',
    state: 'IL',
    otherThing: 'other'
  }
}

// public permission lvl
personTransformer.transform(Permissions.PUBLIC, person).then((publicPersonDto) => {
  /*
  {
    age: 22,
    name: 'John Doe',
    address: {
      street: '123 Street',
      city: 'Chicago',
      state: 'IL'
    }
  }
  */
})

// private permission lvl
personTransformer.transform(Permissions.PRIVATE, person).then((privatePersonDto) => {
  /*
  {
    age: 22,
    name: 'John Doe',
    ssn: '123-45-6789',
    address: {
      street: '123 Street',
      city: 'Chicago',
      state: 'IL'
      // Still no otherThing value because address was transformed using the PUBLIC permission lvl
    }
  }
  */
})

Can a Transformer be used to transform a list of object?

Yes! It is common to have a list of objects to transform using a specified Transformer. For example, a Person could have multiple Cars that are eagerly loaded. To specify a list of objects to transform with a common Transformer, simply add asList() Rule on the chain provided to the FieldMapperDelegate.

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  always, passthrough, subTransform, asList
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

let personTransformer = new Transformer({
  age: fd('age', always(passthrough())),
  /*...*/
  // will transform each object in the list with the Transformer registerd at 'car' in the registry
  cars: fd('cars', always(
    subTransform('car'),
    asList()
  ))
})

Can I specify a default for a set of fields?

Yes! Transformers have a method byDefault() that will accept an Array of string attributes. You can then specify how all of those attributes will be transformed. A common case is just mark all those fields as passthrough.

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  always, passthrough, buildWith
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

let personTransformer = new Transformer({
  // Special transformation cases here
  name: fd(always(buildWith(
    src => `${src.firstName} ${src.lastName}`
  ))),
  city: fd('homeCity', always(passthrough())),
  state: fd('address', always(buildWith(
    (src, key) => {
      let address = src[key]
      return address ? address.state : address
    }
  )))
  // .BUILD_WITH() can also be used and follows the same builder API as customer field builders
}).byDefault(['age', 'height']).PASSTHROUGH()

Can I build a Transformer based off of another?

Yes! You can extend an exisiting Transformer by calling extend() and passing a map just like you would a normal Transformer. This will merge the two mappings and return a new Transformer instance.

import {
  fieldDelegate, Transformer, Permissions,
  always, passthrough, buildWith
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

let personTransformer = new Transformer({
  // Special transformation cases here
  name: fd(always(buildWith(
    src => `${src.firstName} ${src.lastName}`
  ))),
  city: fd('homeCity', always(passthrough()))
}).byDefault(['age', 'height']).PASSTHROUGH()

// childTransformer will have all attributes of personTransformer, add a favoriteToy fieldDelegate, and override the name transformer
let childTransformer = personTransformer.extend({
  favoriteToy: fd('favoriteToy', always(passthrough())),
  name: fd('name', always(buildWith(
    src => `Lil' ${src.firstName}`
  )))
})

Can I write my own custom rules and mappers?

Yes you can! Most use cases are covered by the Rules and FieldMappers provided by tilla, but you might want to write your own. A Rule and a FieldMapper are nothing more than functions. Here are their APIs:

type Rule = (fieldMapperDelegate: FieldMapperDelegate) => FieldMapperDelegate

type FieldMapper = (fieldMapperDelegate: FieldMapperDelegate) =>
  (instance: any, key: string, isList: boolean, permission: string) =>
    Promise<returnType>

Notice that both Rule and FieldMapper eventually receive the FieldMapperDelegate instance. This enables both Rule or FieldMapper to access and/or mutate the state maintained by the delegate that is used later on when tranform is called.

Any function that implements either of those APIs can be used as a Rule or a FieldMapper, respectively! Let's show an example.

EitherOr Custom Rule Example

Say I want a rule that will only transform a field only if the permission lvl is PUBLIC or ADMIN. You could of course implement this as a list of rules that tilla already provides:

import {
  fieldDelegate, Permissions, when, passthrough
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

fd('name',
  when(Permissions.PUBLIC, passthrough()),
  when(Permissions.ADMIN, passthrough())
)

But, let's write a single Rule that accomplishes this:

import {
  fieldDelegate, Permissions, passthrough
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

// Our custom Rule
const eitherOr = (eitherPermission, orPermission, fieldMapper) => fieldMapperDelegate => {
  const { delegateMap } = fieldMapperDelegate

  delegateMap[eitherPermission] = fieldMapper(fieldDelegateMapper)
  delegateMap[orPermission] = fieldMapper(fieldDelegateMapper)

  return fieldDelegateMapper
}

// using our custom Rule
fd('age', eitherOr(Permissions.PUBLIC, Permissions.ADMIN, passthrough()))

Now whenever we call transform, the fieldDelegate will only map the field, as a passthrough(), only if the provided permission is either PUBLIC or ADMIN

addMapper Custom FieldMapper Example

Let's extend out last example. Say we wanted a FieldMapper that simply adds a provided number to the value that it was mapping. Again, you could implement this using the buildWith mapper tilla already provides:

import {
  fieldDelegate, Permissions, buildWith
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

const addMapper = n => buildWith(async (instance, key) => instance[key] + n)

fd('name',
  when(Permissions.PUBLIC, addMapper(1)),
  when(Permissions.ADMIN, addMapper(2))
)

But let's write our own mapper that accomplishes this:

import {
  fieldDelegate, Permissions
} from 'tilla'

const fd = fieldDelegate() // use the built permission levels

// Our custom Rule
const eitherOr = (eitherPermission, orPermission, fieldMapper) => fieldMapperDelegate => {
  const { delegateMap } = fieldMapperDelegate

  delegateMap[eitherPermission] = fieldMapper(fieldDelegateMapper)
  delegateMap[orPermission] = fieldMapper(fieldDelegateMapper)

  return fieldDelegateMapper
}

const addMapper = n => () => async (instance, key) => instance[key] + n

// using our custom Rule AND custom FieldMapper
fd('age', eitherOr(Permissions.PUBLIC, Permissions.ADMIN, addMapper(1)))

Now whenever we call transform, the fieldDelegate will only map the field, adding 1 to it's value, only if the provided permission is either PUBLIC or ADMIN

Transformer Registry

Tilla exposes an instantiated instance of the TransformRegistry. The registry is a great way to manage all of Transformers and then pass them around your app as needed. For example, you can easily incorporate in Express middleware.

// add some transformers to the registry somewhere
registry.register('person', personTransformer)
registry.register('address', addressTransformer)

import { registry } from 'tilla'

const attachTransformer = (transformerKey) => {
  return (req, res, next) => {
    let transformer = registry.transformer(transformerKey)
    req.transformer = transformer // then use the transformer later on
    next()
  }
}

The registry also provides a subscribe(observer) api that allows you to listen for changes to the registry. The registry emits events on register and clear

import { registry } from 'tilla'

const unsubscribe = registry.subscribe(({ message, registry}) => {
  console.log(message)
})

registry.register('person', personTransformer)

// produces 'Registered transform at key: person' in the logs

// later on
unsubscribe() // unsubscribes the observer from the registry

the observer can be a function with single arity or an object that conforms to the or an object that satisfies this interface:

interface Observer<T> {
  closed?: boolean;
  next: (value: T) => void;
  error: (err: any) => void;
  complete: () => void;
}

TODO

  • Better document API

Contribute

Submit an issue or a PR

License

MIT

Name

I couldn't find any open npm module names that I liked that weren't already taken. As a result, I used a shotened version of my name :p. If you have a better idea, please make a suggestion!