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Tony Hannan
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This tutorial takes you through inserting, updating, and querying documents.

Getting Ready

Start a local MongoDB server in a separate terminal window:

$ mkdir mongoFiles
$ mongod --dbpath mongoFiles

Start a haskell session:

$ ghci
> :set prompt "> "

Import the MongoDB driver library, and set OverloadedStrings so literal strings are converted to UTF-8 automatically.

> :set -XOverloadedStrings
> import Database.MongoDB
> import Data.CompactString ()  -- only needed when using ghci

Connecting

Establish a connection to your local Mongo server on the standard port (27017):

> pipe <- runIOE $ connect $ host "127.0.0.1"

A host with non-standard port would look like Host "127.0.0.1" (PortNumber 27001).

connect h has type ErrorT IOError IO Pipe. runIOE brings this type back down to IO Pipe and throws the IOError in IO if present. One design principle of this driver was to make DB errors explicit, hence the need for runIOE.

A Pipe is a thread-safe, pipelined (a' la HTTP pipelining) TCP connection to a MongoDB server. Multiple threads can use the pipe at the same time. The pipelining feature is used by cursors and not exposed to the user.

Action monad

A DB read or write operation is called a DB Action. A DB Action is a monad so you can sequence them together. To run an Action supply it to the access function with the Pipe to use, the AccessMode for read/write operations, and the Database to access. For example, to list all collections in the "test" database:

> access pipe master "test" allCollections

access return either Left Failure or Right result. Failure means there was a connection failure, or a read/write failure like cursor expired or duplicate key insert.

master is an AccessMode. Access mode indicates how reads and writes will be performed. Its three modes are: ReadStaleOk, UnconfirmedWrites, and ConfirmWrites GetLastErrorParams. master is just short hand for ConfirmWrites []. The first mode may be used against a slave or a master server, the last two must be used against a master server.

Since we are working in ghci, which requires us to start from the IO monad every time, we'll define a convenient run function that takes an action and executes it against our "test" database on the server we just connected to, with master access mode:

> let run act = access pipe master "test" act

Databases and Collections

To see all the databases available on the server:

> run allDatabases

The "test" database in context is ignored in this case because allDatabases is not a query on a specific database but on the server as a whole.

Databases and collections do not need to be created, just start using them and MongoDB will automatically create them for you. In the examples below we'll be using the "test" database (captured in run above) and the "posts" colllection.

Documents

Data in MongoDB is represented (and stored) using JSON-style documents, called BSON documents. A Document is simply a list of Fields, where each field is a label-value pair. A Value is a basic type like Bool, Int, Float, String, Time; a special BSON value like Binary, Javascript, ObjectId; a (embedded) Document; or a list of Values. Here's an example document which could represent a blog post:

> let post = ["author" =: "Mike", "text" =: "My first blog post!", "tags" =: ["mongoDB", "Haskell"]]

Inserting One

To insert a document into a collection we can use the insert function.

> run $ insert "posts" post

When a document is inserted and it does not contain an _id field then it is added with a globally unique value of type ObjectId. The _id value can be any type but must be unique across the collection. insert returns the _id value of the inserted document.

After inserting the first document, the "posts" collection has actually been created on the server. We can verify this by listing all of the collections in our database again:

> run allCollections

Note, the "system.indexes" collection is a special internal collection that was created automatically.

Reading One

The most basic type of query that can be performed in MongoDB is findOne. This function returns a single document matching the selection, or Nothing if there are no matches. It is useful when you know there is only one matching document, or are only interested in the first match. Here we use findOne to get the first document from the posts collection:

> run $ findOne $ select [] "posts"

The result is a document matching the one that we inserted previously. Note, the returned document contains the _id field, which was automatically added on insert.

findOne also supports querying on specific elements that the resulting document must match. For example, to limit our results to a document with author "Mike" we do:

> run $ findOne $ select ["author" =: "Mike"] "posts"

If we try with a different author, like "Eliot", we'll get no result:

> run $ findOne $ select ["author" =: "Eliot"] "posts"

fetch is the same as findOne except it fails if no document matches.

Inserting Many

In order to make querying a little more interesting, let's insert a few more documents. In addition to inserting a single document, we can also perform bulk insert operations, by using the insertMany function which accepts a list of documents to be inserted. It sends only a single write operation to the server.

> let post1 = ["author" =: "Mike", "text" =: "Another post!", "tags" =: ["bulk", "insert"]]
> let post2 = ["author" =: "Eliot", "title" =: "MongoDB is fun", "text" =: "and pretty easy too!"]
> run $ insertMany "posts" [post1, post2]

Note that post2 has a different shape than the other posts; it has no "tags" field and a new "title" field. Documents in the same collection can have different schemas.

Reading Many

To retrieve more than a single document we use the find function. find returns a Cursor, which allows us to iterate over the matching documents. There are few ways in which we can iterate: next gets the documents one at a time, and rest gets all (remaining) documents in the query result.

> run $ find (select ["author" =: "Mike"] "posts") >>= rest

next automatically closes the cursor when the last document has been read out of it, similarly for rest. Otherwise, you should close a cursor if you don't exhaust it via closeCursor.

Counting

You can count how many documents are in an entire collection:

> run $ count $ select [] "posts"

Or count how many documents match a query:

> run $ count $ select ["title" =: ["$exists" =: True]] "posts"

Sorting

sort takes the fields to sort by and whether ascending (1) or descending (-1)

> run $ find (select [] "posts") {sort = ["author" =: 1, "text" =: 1]} >>= rest

If you don't sort, documents are returned in natural order, which is the order found on disk. Natural order is not particularly useful because, although the order is often close to insertion order, it is not guaranteed.

Projecting

project returns partial documents containing only the fields you include (1). However, _id is always included unless you exclude it (0).

> run $ find (select [] "posts") {project = ["author" =: 1, "_id" =: 0]} >>= rest

Updating

save updates an existing document

> run $ fetch (select ["author" =: "Eliot"] "posts") >>= save "posts" . merge ["tags" =: ["hello"]]

or inserts a new document if its _id is new or missing

> run $ save "posts" ["author" =: "Tony", "text" =: "hello world"]

modify updates every document matching selection using supplied modifier. For example:

> run $ modify (select [] "posts") ["$push" =: ["tags" =: "new"]]

Deleting

delete deletes all documents matching selection. deleteOne deletes one document matching selection (the first one in natural order), if any

> run $ delete $ select ["author" =: "Homer"] "posts"  -- none deleted in this case

Documentation

Documentation on the Mongo query language (i.e. the selector document, modifier document, etc.) can be found at the MongoDB Developer Zone.

Haddock generated documentation of this Haskell driver can be found on Hackage.

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