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README.md

VotableOwner Contract

This contract implements an easy to use voting system which can easily be verified and understood as opposed to something like ethereum.org's dao implementation where transaction payloads are being used.

This implementation ensures that the voters know more clearly what they are voting on.

pros

  • a more clear voting system
  • users with minimal technical knowledge can see what they are voting on
  • inexperience voters simply need to call an easily understandable contract function
  • no need for creating a tx payload to vote on/verify
  • easy to extend for additional functionality
    • simply add another function with intended logic
    • wrap intended action logic in an if statement using hasVotePassed()
    • done!

cons

  • not as dynamic and flexible as ethereum.org's dao implementation
    • this can still be somewhat mitigated through an upgradeable proxy
      • voters vote on upgrading to new master implementation which contains new voting options
      • vote passes and the contract is upgraded allowing for new voting options
      • rinse and repeat as needed
  • no way to easily check vote counts
    • this can be remedied through DApp where correct hashes can be calculated for vote counts, then retrieved from actionVotes
    • this could also be done with a special view function for each vote possibility...
    • this could also be remedied through events, though it would still require an event for each action.

Use Cases

This contract would be meant for a rather close knit group who can agree on performing an action previous to casting votes. An example of this would be perhaps management of a company which controls owner permissions of a a smart contract ecosystem. This contract (once audited) could the serve as a replacement for a secure single owner account system.

This contract might also be quite useful for upgradeable proxies where too much trust is put into an owner. Rather than having an owner who can completely change the proxy implementation, it can be voted on through this contract.

Example of Use

  1. Company X has mostly finished development of their ecosystem. They will need an owner who can do special permissioned actions such as pausing or unpausing a token.
  2. They have decided that keeping a single account safe is too much of a risk and would rather have 5 different accounts which could vote together in order to perform owner actions.
  3. Company X uses VotableOwner contract as the owner.
  4. They deploy the contract and set 5 different managers as voters.
  5. They set minimum votes to 3 for performing an action.
    • This allows for up to two of the private keys being lost.
    • These accounts can be removed by vote of the remaining 3 voters.
    • Other accounts can be added as replacements.
  6. Company X sets the owner of the their token to the VotableOwner contract.
  7. Later down the road, Company X decides they need to pause the token for some reason.
  8. Company X decides on the 3 people needed to vote.
  9. All 3 of the voters run pauseToken()
  10. The token is paused & voting is reset.

As stated in the previous section... a DApp could be built in house for this contract which could at least check on vote counts. This would allow for this contract to work with a less closely knit team or group.

How it Works

This contract uses hashes to ensure that there is a particular actionId for each action (function) with different arguments.

The actionId is a hash of:

  1. msg.data
    • this includes the first 4 bytes of the function signature & call data (function arguments)
    • function signature ensures that the vote is for the associated function/action
    • call data ensures calling the same function with different arguments does not count for the same vote
  2. actionNonce
    • when incremented upon vote being passed, all other votes are effectively reset

Any function which implements voteHasPassed() logic can be called by a voter. When a voter calls the function, the vote count for that particular action is incremented. Calling a function acts as a vote for doing the associated action. When the last voter to call the function which meets minimumVotes requirement triggers the action to be performed.

Triggering an action to be performed through a vote also increments the actionNonce. When this is incremented, it ensures that a new hash is created as an actionId for every voteable action. This effectively resets all voting logic. This is done due to the difficulty in getting vote counts for actions. If vote counts were kept after a new vote, leftover votes for an action might trigger unexpected actions to be performed. If vote visibility were more beginner friendly, this would be less of a problem.

Details on Extending

Usage for developers is also meant to be rather simple. A new function which would be votable would look something like this:

function doThing(
    uint256 _newVal // some example value
)
    external
    returns (bool) // optional... i just like adding returns :)
{
    if(voteHasPassed()) {
        // set some theoretical value on the contract
        val = _newVal;
    }

    // again optional...
    return true;
}

Possible Future work

There is definitely a problem here where it is rather difficult to track vote counts currently. Perhaps in the future a DApp will be developed to go along with the contract as an aid for less experienced voters.

Gas Usage

·----------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------·
|                                 Gas                                  ·  Block limit: 6721975 gas  │
········································|······························|·····························
|  Methods                              ·          9 gwei/gas          ·       187.43 eur/eth       │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  Contract      ·  Method              ·  Min    ·  Max     ·  Avg    ·  # calls    ·  eur (avg)   │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  approve             ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  decreaseApproval    ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  finishMinting       ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  increaseApproval    ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  mint                ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  pause               ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  renounceOwnership   ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  transfer            ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  transferFrom        ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  transferOwnership   ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  ExampleToken  ·  unpause             ·      -  ·       -  ·      -  ·          0  ·           -  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  addVoter            ·  66580  ·   83494  ·  75037  ·          2  ·        0.13  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  pauseToken          ·  49402  ·   78521  ·  65217  ·         13  ·        0.11  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  removeVoter         ·  53822  ·   68822  ·  65584  ·          7  ·        0.11  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  transferEther       ·  66636  ·   80736  ·  73686  ·          2  ·        0.12  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  transferTokens      ·  67084  ·  104803  ·  85944  ·          2  ·        0.14  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  unpauseToken        ·  63430  ·   64468  ·  63949  ·          4  ·        0.11  │
·················|······················|·········|··········|·········|·············|···············
|  VotableOwner  ·  updateMinimumVotes  ·  65416  ·   77222  ·  71319  ·          4  ·        0.12  │
·----------------|----------------------|---------|----------|---------|-------------|--------------·

Important Notes

This boilerplate uses the latest truffle (v5.0.0-beta.0 – Chocolate Sushi)!

This means that there are some significant differences which need to be considered when using this boilerplate. The most notable is the use of web3 version v1.0!

Due to the use of web3 v1.0, events need to be used through websockets which means that ganache-cli must be used (this may not be true... PRs are welcome!). Use yarn start:blockchain to use start ganache-cli before testing.

With the new version of web3 also comes a new big number library, bn.js (rather than bignumber.js)

This boilerplate uses yarn rather than npm. Change fork and change this locally if you want...

Installing Dependencies

Everything can be installed through yarn.

yarn

Using with your Code editor

For the best experience, make sure to install the following packages for the editor you are using:

  • solium/solidity syntax
  • eslint
  • prettier

In Visual Studio Code this is:

Testing

First start the local blockchain:

yarn start:blockchain

Then start the tests:

yarn test

Testing with Gas Reporting

First start the local blockchain:

yarn start:blockchain

Then start the tests:

yarn test:gas-reporter

You will get a nice summary table at the end of testing indicating gas costs of deployment and state changing functions:

·----------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------·
|                              Gas                               ·  Block limit: 6721975 gas  │
·································································|·····························
|  Methods                                                                                    │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  Contract     ·  Method            ·  Min  ·  Max  ·  Avg      ·  # calls     ·  eur (avg)  │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  ExampleCoin  ·  approve           ·    -  ·    -  ·        -  ·           0  ·          -  │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  ExampleCoin  ·  decreaseApproval  ·    -  ·    -  ·        -  ·           0  ·          -  │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  ExampleCoin  ·  increaseApproval  ·    -  ·    -  ·        -  ·           0  ·          -  │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  ExampleCoin  ·  transfer          ·    -  ·    -  ·    51867  ·           1  ·          -  │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  ExampleCoin  ·  transferFrom      ·    -  ·    -  ·        -  ·           0  ·          -  │
················|····················|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  Deployments                       ·                           ·  % of limit  ·             │
·····································|·······|·······|···········|··············|··············
|  ExampleCoin                       ·    -  ·    -  ·  1480604  ·        22 %  ·          -  │
·------------------------------------|-------|-------|-----------|--------------|-------------·

Deploying Contracts

The migrations files are setup to use async/await in order to make extending the migrations into something more complicated quite simple. The new version of truffle has updated the way it handles migrations so this is less problematic now.

The boilerplate comes with truffle-hdwallet-provider already setup. You just need to set a mnemonic in your .env file (not included. See .env.example for an example). All of the testnet deployments use the same mnemonic. Mainnet uses a different one.

After you have set a mnemonic, you can use the appropriate script in package.json:

Kovan Deployment

yarn migrate:kovan

Ropsten Deployment

yarn migrate:ropsten

Rinkeby Deployment

yarn migrate:rinkeby

Mainnet Deployment

yarn migrate:mainnet

Legal

This contract has not been audited by any party. Use at your own risk.