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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Magic functions for InteractiveShell.
# Copyright (C) 2001 Janko Hauser <> and
# Copyright (C) 2001-2006 Fernando Perez <>
# Distributed under the terms of the BSD License. The full license is in
# the file COPYING, distributed as part of this software.
# Modules and globals
# Python standard modules
import __builtin__
import __future__
import bdb
import inspect
import os
import pdb
import pydoc
import sys
import re
import tempfile
import time
import cPickle as pickle
import textwrap
from cStringIO import StringIO
from getopt import getopt,GetoptError
from pprint import pprint, pformat
# cProfile was added in Python2.5
import cProfile as profile
import pstats
except ImportError:
# profile isn't bundled by default in Debian for license reasons
import profile,pstats
except ImportError:
profile = pstats = None
# print_function was added to __future__ in Python2.6, remove this when we drop
# 2.5 compatibility
if not hasattr(__future__,'CO_FUTURE_PRINT_FUNCTION'):
__future__.CO_FUTURE_PRINT_FUNCTION = 65536
# Homebrewed
import IPython
from IPython import Debugger, OInspect, wildcard
from IPython.FakeModule import FakeModule
from IPython.Itpl import Itpl, itpl, printpl,itplns
from IPython.PyColorize import Parser
from IPython.ipstruct import Struct
from IPython.macro import Macro
from IPython.genutils import *
from IPython import platutils
import IPython.generics
import IPython.ipapi
from IPython.ipapi import UsageError
from IPython.testing import decorators as testdec
# Utility functions
def on_off(tag):
"""Return an ON/OFF string for a 1/0 input. Simple utility function."""
return ['OFF','ON'][tag]
class Bunch: pass
def compress_dhist(dh):
head, tail = dh[:-10], dh[-10:]
newhead = []
done = set()
for h in head:
if h in done:
return newhead + tail
# Main class implementing Magic functionality
class Magic:
"""Magic functions for InteractiveShell.
Shell functions which can be reached as %function_name. All magic
functions should accept a string, which they can parse for their own
needs. This can make some functions easier to type, eg `%cd ../`
vs. `%cd("../")`
ALL definitions MUST begin with the prefix magic_. The user won't need it
at the command line, but it is is needed in the definition. """
# class globals
auto_status = ['Automagic is OFF, % prefix IS needed for magic functions.',
'Automagic is ON, % prefix NOT needed for magic functions.']
# some utility functions
def __init__(self,shell):
self.options_table = {}
if profile is None:
self.magic_prun = self.profile_missing_notice = shell
# namespace for holding state we may need
self._magic_state = Bunch()
def profile_missing_notice(self, *args, **kwargs):
The profile module could not be found. It has been removed from the standard
python packages because of its non-free license. To use profiling, install the
python-profiler package from non-free.""")
def default_option(self,fn,optstr):
"""Make an entry in the options_table for fn, with value optstr"""
if fn not in self.lsmagic():
error("%s is not a magic function" % fn)
self.options_table[fn] = optstr
def lsmagic(self):
"""Return a list of currently available magic functions.
Gives a list of the bare names after mangling (['ls','cd', ...], not
# FIXME. This needs a cleanup, in the way the magics list is built.
# magics in class definition
class_magic = lambda fn: fn.startswith('magic_') and \
# in instance namespace (run-time user additions)
inst_magic = lambda fn: fn.startswith('magic_') and \
# and bound magics by user (so they can access self):
inst_bound_magic = lambda fn: fn.startswith('magic_') and \
magics = filter(class_magic,Magic.__dict__.keys()) + \
filter(inst_magic,self.__dict__.keys()) + \
out = []
for fn in set(magics):
return out
def extract_input_slices(self,slices,raw=False):
"""Return as a string a set of input history slices.
- slices: the set of slices is given as a list of strings (like
['1','4:8','9'], since this function is for use by magic functions
which get their arguments as strings.
Optional inputs:
- raw(False): by default, the processed input is used. If this is
true, the raw input history is used instead.
Note that slices can be called with two notations:
N:M -> standard python form, means including items N...(M-1).
N-M -> include items N..M (closed endpoint)."""
if raw:
hist =
hist =
cmds = []
for chunk in slices:
if ':' in chunk:
ini,fin = map(int,chunk.split(':'))
elif '-' in chunk:
ini,fin = map(int,chunk.split('-'))
fin += 1
ini = int(chunk)
fin = ini+1
return cmds
def _ofind(self, oname, namespaces=None):
"""Find an object in the available namespaces.
self._ofind(oname) -> dict with keys: found,obj,ospace,ismagic
Has special code to detect magic functions.
oname = oname.strip()
alias_ns = None
if namespaces is None:
# Namespaces to search in:
# Put them in a list. The order is important so that we
# find things in the same order that Python finds them.
namespaces = [ ('Interactive',,
('IPython internal',,
('Python builtin', __builtin__.__dict__),
alias_ns =
# initialize results to 'null'
found = False; obj = None; ospace = None; ds = None;
ismagic = False; isalias = False; parent = None
# We need to special-case 'print', which as of python2.6 registers as a
# function but should only be treated as one if print_function was
# loaded with a future import. In this case, just bail.
if (oname == 'print' and not ( &
return {'found':found, 'obj':obj, 'namespace':ospace,
'ismagic':ismagic, 'isalias':isalias, 'parent':parent}
# Look for the given name by splitting it in parts. If the head is
# found, then we look for all the remaining parts as members, and only
# declare success if we can find them all.
oname_parts = oname.split('.')
oname_head, oname_rest = oname_parts[0],oname_parts[1:]
for nsname,ns in namespaces:
obj = ns[oname_head]
except KeyError:
#print 'oname_rest:', oname_rest # dbg
for part in oname_rest:
parent = obj
obj = getattr(obj,part)
# Blanket except b/c some badly implemented objects
# allow __getattr__ to raise exceptions other than
# AttributeError, which then crashes IPython.
# If we finish the for loop (no break), we got all members
found = True
ospace = nsname
if ns == alias_ns:
isalias = True
break # namespace loop
# Try to see if it's magic
if not found:
if oname.startswith(
oname = oname[1:]
obj = getattr(self,'magic_'+oname,None)
if obj is not None:
found = True
ospace = 'IPython internal'
ismagic = True
# Last try: special-case some literals like '', [], {}, etc:
if not found and oname_head in ["''",'""','[]','{}','()']:
obj = eval(oname_head)
found = True
ospace = 'Interactive'
return {'found':found, 'obj':obj, 'namespace':ospace,
'ismagic':ismagic, 'isalias':isalias, 'parent':parent}
def arg_err(self,func):
"""Print docstring if incorrect arguments were passed"""
print 'Error in arguments:'
print OInspect.getdoc(func)
def format_latex(self,strng):
"""Format a string for latex inclusion."""
# Characters that need to be escaped for latex:
escape_re = re.compile(r'(%|_|\$|#|&)',re.MULTILINE)
# Magic command names as headers:
cmd_name_re = re.compile(r'^(%s.*?):' %,
# Magic commands
cmd_re = re.compile(r'(?P<cmd>%s.+?\b)(?!\}\}:)' %,
# Paragraph continue
par_re = re.compile(r'\\$',re.MULTILINE)
# The "\n" symbol
newline_re = re.compile(r'\\n')
# Now build the string for output:
#strng = cmd_name_re.sub(r'\n\\texttt{\\textsl{\\large \1}}:',strng)
strng = cmd_name_re.sub(r'\n\\bigskip\n\\texttt{\\textbf{ \1}}:',
strng = cmd_re.sub(r'\\texttt{\g<cmd>}',strng)
strng = par_re.sub(r'\\\\',strng)
strng = escape_re.sub(r'\\\1',strng)
strng = newline_re.sub(r'\\textbackslash{}n',strng)
return strng
def format_screen(self,strng):
"""Format a string for screen printing.
This removes some latex-type format codes."""
# Paragraph continue
par_re = re.compile(r'\\$',re.MULTILINE)
strng = par_re.sub('',strng)
return strng
def parse_options(self,arg_str,opt_str,*long_opts,**kw):
"""Parse options passed to an argument string.
The interface is similar to that of getopt(), but it returns back a
Struct with the options as keys and the stripped argument string still
as a string.
arg_str is quoted as a true sys.argv vector by using shlex.split.
This allows us to easily expand variables, glob files, quote
arguments, etc.
-mode: default 'string'. If given as 'list', the argument string is
returned as a list (split on whitespace) instead of a string.
-list_all: put all option values in lists. Normally only options
appearing more than once are put in a list.
-posix (True): whether to split the input line in POSIX mode or not,
as per the conventions outlined in the shlex module from the
standard library."""
# inject default options at the beginning of the input line
caller = sys._getframe(1).f_code.co_name.replace('magic_','')
arg_str = '%s %s' % (self.options_table.get(caller,''),arg_str)
mode = kw.get('mode','string')
if mode not in ['string','list']:
raise ValueError,'incorrect mode given: %s' % mode
# Get options
list_all = kw.get('list_all',0)
posix = kw.get('posix',True)
# Check if we have more than one argument to warrant extra processing:
odict = {} # Dictionary with options
args = arg_str.split()
if len(args) >= 1:
# If the list of inputs only has 0 or 1 thing in it, there's no
# need to look for options
argv = arg_split(arg_str,posix)
# Do regular option processing
opts,args = getopt(argv,opt_str,*long_opts)
except GetoptError,e:
raise UsageError('%s ( allowed: "%s" %s)' % (e.msg,opt_str,
" ".join(long_opts)))
for o,a in opts:
if o.startswith('--'):
o = o[2:]
o = o[1:]
except AttributeError:
odict[o] = [odict[o],a]
except KeyError:
if list_all:
odict[o] = [a]
odict[o] = a
# Prepare opts,args for return
opts = Struct(odict)
if mode == 'string':
args = ' '.join(args)
return opts,args
# And now the actual magic functions
# Functions for IPython shell work (vars,funcs, config, etc)
def magic_lsmagic(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""List currently available magic functions."""
mesc =
print 'Available magic functions:\n'+mesc+\
(' '+mesc).join(self.lsmagic())
print '\n' + Magic.auto_status[]
return None
def magic_magic(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Print information about the magic function system.
Supported formats: -latex, -brief, -rest
mode = ''
if parameter_s.split()[0] == '-latex':
mode = 'latex'
if parameter_s.split()[0] == '-brief':
mode = 'brief'
if parameter_s.split()[0] == '-rest':
mode = 'rest'
rest_docs = []
magic_docs = []
for fname in self.lsmagic():
mname = 'magic_' + fname
for space in (Magic,self,self.__class__):
fn = space.__dict__[mname]
except KeyError:
if mode == 'brief':
# only first line
if fn.__doc__:
fndoc = fn.__doc__.split('\n',1)[0]
fndoc = 'No documentation'
if fn.__doc__:
fndoc = fn.__doc__.rstrip()
fndoc = 'No documentation'
if mode == 'rest':
rest_docs.append('**%s%s**::\n\n\t%s\n\n' %(,
magic_docs.append('%s%s:\n\t%s\n' %(,
magic_docs = ''.join(magic_docs)
if mode == 'rest':
return "".join(rest_docs)
if mode == 'latex':
print self.format_latex(magic_docs)
magic_docs = self.format_screen(magic_docs)
if mode == 'brief':
return magic_docs
outmsg = """
IPython's 'magic' functions
The magic function system provides a series of functions which allow you to
control the behavior of IPython itself, plus a lot of system-type
features. All these functions are prefixed with a % character, but parameters
are given without parentheses or quotes.
NOTE: If you have 'automagic' enabled (via the command line option or with the
%automagic function), you don't need to type in the % explicitly. By default,
IPython ships with automagic on, so you should only rarely need the % escape.
Example: typing '%cd mydir' (without the quotes) changes you working directory
to 'mydir', if it exists.
You can define your own magic functions to extend the system. See the supplied
ipythonrc and files for details (in your ipython
configuration directory, typically $HOME/.ipython/).
You can also define your own aliased names for magic functions. In your
ipythonrc file, placing a line like:
execute __IPYTHON__.magic_pf = __IPYTHON__.magic_profile
will define %pf as a new name for %profile.
You can also call magics in code using the ipmagic() function, which IPython
automatically adds to the builtin namespace. Type 'ipmagic?' for details.
For a list of the available magic functions, use %lsmagic. For a description
of any of them, type %magic_name?, e.g. '%cd?'.
Currently the magic system has the following functions:\n"""
mesc =
outmsg = ("%s\n%s\n\nSummary of magic functions (from %slsmagic):"
"\n\n%s%s\n\n%s" % (outmsg,
(' '+mesc).join(self.lsmagic()),
Magic.auto_status[] ) )
def magic_autoindent(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Toggle autoindent on/off (if available)."""
print "Automatic indentation is:",['OFF','ON'][]
def magic_automagic(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Make magic functions callable without having to type the initial %.
Without argumentsl toggles on/off (when off, you must call it as
%automagic, of course). With arguments it sets the value, and you can
use any of (case insensitive):
- on,1,True: to activate
- off,0,False: to deactivate.
Note that magic functions have lowest priority, so if there's a
variable whose name collides with that of a magic fn, automagic won't
work for that function (you get the variable instead). However, if you
delete the variable (del var), the previously shadowed magic function
becomes visible to automagic again."""
rc =
arg = parameter_s.lower()
if parameter_s in ('on','1','true'):
rc.automagic = True
elif parameter_s in ('off','0','false'):
rc.automagic = False
rc.automagic = not rc.automagic
print '\n' + Magic.auto_status[rc.automagic]
def magic_autocall(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Make functions callable without having to type parentheses.
%autocall [mode]
The mode can be one of: 0->Off, 1->Smart, 2->Full. If not given, the
value is toggled on and off (remembering the previous state).
In more detail, these values mean:
0 -> fully disabled
1 -> active, but do not apply if there are no arguments on the line.
In this mode, you get:
In [1]: callable
Out[1]: <built-in function callable>
In [2]: callable 'hello'
------> callable('hello')
Out[2]: False
2 -> Active always. Even if no arguments are present, the callable
object is called:
In [2]: float
------> float()
Out[2]: 0.0
Note that even with autocall off, you can still use '/' at the start of
a line to treat the first argument on the command line as a function
and add parentheses to it:
In [8]: /str 43
------> str(43)
Out[8]: '43'
# all-random (note for auto-testing)
rc =
if parameter_s:
arg = int(parameter_s)
arg = 'toggle'
if not arg in (0,1,2,'toggle'):
error('Valid modes: (0->Off, 1->Smart, 2->Full')
if arg in (0,1,2):
rc.autocall = arg
else: # toggle
if rc.autocall:
self._magic_state.autocall_save = rc.autocall
rc.autocall = 0
rc.autocall = self._magic_state.autocall_save
except AttributeError:
rc.autocall = self._magic_state.autocall_save = 1
print "Automatic calling is:",['OFF','Smart','Full'][rc.autocall]
def magic_system_verbose(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Set verbose printing of system calls.
If called without an argument, act as a toggle"""
if parameter_s:
val = bool(eval(parameter_s))
val = None'system_verbose',val)
print "System verbose printing is:",\
def magic_page(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Pretty print the object and display it through a pager.
%page [options] OBJECT
If no object is given, use _ (last output).
-r: page str(object), don't pretty-print it."""
# After a function contributed by Olivier Aubert, slightly modified.
# Process options/args
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'r')
raw = 'r' in opts
oname = args and args or '_'
info = self._ofind(oname)
if info['found']:
txt = (raw and str or pformat)( info['obj'] )
print 'Object `%s` not found' % oname
def magic_profile(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Print your currently active IPyhton profile."""
printpl('Current IPython profile: $')
print 'No profile active.'
def magic_pinfo(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Provide detailed information about an object.
'%pinfo object' is just a synonym for object? or ?object."""
#print 'pinfo par: <%s>' % parameter_s # dbg
# detail_level: 0 -> obj? , 1 -> obj??
detail_level = 0
# We need to detect if we got called as 'pinfo pinfo foo', which can
# happen if the user types 'pinfo foo?' at the cmd line.
pinfo,qmark1,oname,qmark2 = \
re.match('(pinfo )?(\?*)(.*?)(\??$)',parameter_s).groups()
if pinfo or qmark1 or qmark2:
detail_level = 1
if "*" in oname:
self._inspect('pinfo', oname, detail_level=detail_level,
def magic_pdef(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print the definition header for any callable object.
If the object is a class, print the constructor information."""
self._inspect('pdef',parameter_s, namespaces)
def magic_pdoc(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print the docstring for an object.
If the given object is a class, it will print both the class and the
constructor docstrings."""
self._inspect('pdoc',parameter_s, namespaces)
def magic_psource(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print (or run through pager) the source code for an object."""
self._inspect('psource',parameter_s, namespaces)
def magic_pfile(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Print (or run through pager) the file where an object is defined.
The file opens at the line where the object definition begins. IPython
will honor the environment variable PAGER if set, and otherwise will
do its best to print the file in a convenient form.
If the given argument is not an object currently defined, IPython will
try to interpret it as a filename (automatically adding a .py extension
if needed). You can thus use %pfile as a syntax highlighting code
# first interpret argument as an object name
out = self._inspect('pfile',parameter_s)
# if not, try the input as a filename
if out == 'not found':
filename = get_py_filename(parameter_s)
except IOError,msg:
print msg
def _inspect(self,meth,oname,namespaces=None,**kw):
"""Generic interface to the inspector system.
This function is meant to be called by pdef, pdoc & friends."""
#oname = oname.strip()
#print '1- oname: <%r>' % oname # dbg
oname = oname.strip().encode('ascii')
#print '2- oname: <%r>' % oname # dbg
except UnicodeEncodeError:
print 'Python identifiers can only contain ascii characters.'
return 'not found'
info = Struct(self._ofind(oname, namespaces))
if info.found:
except IPython.ipapi.TryNext:
# Get the docstring of the class property if it exists.
path = oname.split('.')
root = '.'.join(path[:-1])
if info.parent is not None:
target = getattr(info.parent, '__class__')
# The object belongs to a class instance.
target = getattr(target, path[-1])
# The class defines the object.
if isinstance(target, property):
oname = root + '.__class__.' + path[-1]
info = Struct(self._ofind(oname))
except AttributeError: pass
except AttributeError: pass
pmethod = getattr(,meth)
formatter = info.ismagic and self.format_screen or None
if meth == 'pdoc':
elif meth == 'pinfo':
print 'Object `%s` not found.' % oname
return 'not found' # so callers can take other action
def magic_psearch(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Search for object in namespaces by wildcard.
%psearch [options] PATTERN [OBJECT TYPE]
Note: ? can be used as a synonym for %psearch, at the beginning or at
the end: both a*? and ?a* are equivalent to '%psearch a*'. Still, the
rest of the command line must be unchanged (options come first), so
for example the following forms are equivalent
%psearch -i a* function
-i a* function?
?-i a* function
where PATTERN is a string containing * as a wildcard similar to its
use in a shell. The pattern is matched in all namespaces on the
search path. By default objects starting with a single _ are not
matched, many IPython generated objects have a single
underscore. The default is case insensitive matching. Matching is
also done on the attributes of objects and not only on the objects
in a module.
Is the name of a python type from the types module. The name is
given in lowercase without the ending type, ex. StringType is
written string. By adding a type here only objects matching the
given type are matched. Using all here makes the pattern match all
types (this is the default).
-a: makes the pattern match even objects whose names start with a
single underscore. These names are normally ommitted from the
-i/-c: make the pattern case insensitive/sensitive. If neither of
these options is given, the default is read from your ipythonrc
file. The option name which sets this value is
'wildcards_case_sensitive'. If this option is not specified in your
ipythonrc file, IPython's internal default is to do a case sensitive
-e/-s NAMESPACE: exclude/search a given namespace. The pattern you
specifiy can be searched in any of the following namespaces:
'builtin', 'user', 'user_global','internal', 'alias', where
'builtin' and 'user' are the search defaults. Note that you should
not use quotes when specifying namespaces.
'Builtin' contains the python module builtin, 'user' contains all
user data, 'alias' only contain the shell aliases and no python
objects, 'internal' contains objects used by IPython. The
'user_global' namespace is only used by embedded IPython instances,
and it contains module-level globals. You can add namespaces to the
search with -s or exclude them with -e (these options can be given
more than once).
%psearch a* -> objects beginning with an a
%psearch -e builtin a* -> objects NOT in the builtin space starting in a
%psearch a* function -> all functions beginning with an a
%psearch re.e* -> objects beginning with an e in module re
%psearch r*.e* -> objects that start with e in modules starting in r
%psearch r*.* string -> all strings in modules beginning with r
Case sensitve search:
%psearch -c a* list all object beginning with lower case a
Show objects beginning with a single _:
%psearch -a _* list objects beginning with a single underscore"""
parameter_s = parameter_s.encode('ascii')
except UnicodeEncodeError:
print 'Python identifiers can only contain ascii characters.'
# default namespaces to be searched
def_search = ['user','builtin']
# Process options/args
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'cias:e:',list_all=True)
opt = opts.get
shell =
psearch = shell.inspector.psearch
# select case options
if opts.has_key('i'):
ignore_case = True
elif opts.has_key('c'):
ignore_case = False
ignore_case = not shell.rc.wildcards_case_sensitive
# Build list of namespaces to search from user options
ns_exclude = ns_exclude=opt('e',[])
ns_search = [nm for nm in def_search if nm not in ns_exclude]
# Call the actual search
def magic_who_ls(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Return a sorted list of all interactive variables.
If arguments are given, only variables of types matching these
arguments are returned."""
user_ns =
internal_ns =
user_config_ns =
out = []
typelist = parameter_s.split()
for i in user_ns:
if not (i.startswith('_') or i.startswith('_i')) \
and not (i in internal_ns or i in user_config_ns):
if typelist:
if type(user_ns[i]).__name__ in typelist:
return out
def magic_who(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Print all interactive variables, with some minimal formatting.
If any arguments are given, only variables whose type matches one of
these are printed. For example:
%who function str
will only list functions and strings, excluding all other types of
variables. To find the proper type names, simply use type(var) at a
command line to see how python prints type names. For example:
In [1]: type('hello')\\
Out[1]: <type 'str'>
indicates that the type name for strings is 'str'.
%who always excludes executed names loaded through your configuration
file and things which are internal to IPython.
This is deliberate, as typically you may load many modules and the
purpose of %who is to show you only what you've manually defined."""
varlist = self.magic_who_ls(parameter_s)
if not varlist:
if parameter_s:
print 'No variables match your requested type.'
print 'Interactive namespace is empty.'
# if we have variables, move on...
count = 0
for i in varlist:
print i+'\t',
count += 1
if count > 8:
count = 0
def magic_whos(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Like %who, but gives some extra information about each variable.
The same type filtering of %who can be applied here.
For all variables, the type is printed. Additionally it prints:
- For {},[],(): their length.
- For numpy and Numeric arrays, a summary with shape, number of
elements, typecode and size in memory.
- Everything else: a string representation, snipping their middle if
too long."""
varnames = self.magic_who_ls(parameter_s)
if not varnames:
if parameter_s:
print 'No variables match your requested type.'
print 'Interactive namespace is empty.'
# if we have variables, move on...
# for these types, show len() instead of data:
seq_types = [types.DictType,types.ListType,types.TupleType]
# for numpy/Numeric arrays, display summary info
import numpy
except ImportError:
ndarray_type = None
ndarray_type = numpy.ndarray.__name__
import Numeric
except ImportError:
array_type = None
array_type = Numeric.ArrayType.__name__
# Find all variable names and types so we can figure out column sizes
def get_vars(i):
# some types are well known and can be shorter
abbrevs = {'IPython.macro.Macro' : 'Macro'}
def type_name(v):
tn = type(v).__name__
return abbrevs.get(tn,tn)
varlist = map(get_vars,varnames)
typelist = []
for vv in varlist:
tt = type_name(vv)
if tt=='instance':
typelist.append( abbrevs.get(str(vv.__class__),
# column labels and # of spaces as separator
varlabel = 'Variable'
typelabel = 'Type'
datalabel = 'Data/Info'
colsep = 3
# variable format strings
vformat = "$vname.ljust(varwidth)$vtype.ljust(typewidth)"
vfmt_short = '$vstr[:25]<...>$vstr[-25:]'
aformat = "%s: %s elems, type `%s`, %s bytes"
# find the size of the columns to format the output nicely
varwidth = max(max(map(len,varnames)), len(varlabel)) + colsep
typewidth = max(max(map(len,typelist)), len(typelabel)) + colsep
# table header
print varlabel.ljust(varwidth) + typelabel.ljust(typewidth) + \
' '+datalabel+'\n' + '-'*(varwidth+typewidth+len(datalabel)+1)
# and the table itself
kb = 1024
Mb = 1048576 # kb**2
for vname,var,vtype in zip(varnames,varlist,typelist):
print itpl(vformat),
if vtype in seq_types:
print len(var)
elif vtype in [array_type,ndarray_type]:
vshape = str(var.shape).replace(',','').replace(' ','x')[1:-1]
if vtype==ndarray_type:
# numpy
vsize = var.size
vbytes = vsize*var.itemsize
vdtype = var.dtype
# Numeric
vsize = Numeric.size(var)
vbytes = vsize*var.itemsize()
vdtype = var.typecode()
if vbytes < 100000:
print aformat % (vshape,vsize,vdtype,vbytes)
print aformat % (vshape,vsize,vdtype,vbytes),
if vbytes < Mb:
print '(%s kb)' % (vbytes/kb,)
print '(%s Mb)' % (vbytes/Mb,)
vstr = str(var)
except UnicodeEncodeError:
vstr = unicode(var).encode(sys.getdefaultencoding(),
vstr = vstr.replace('\n','\\n')
if len(vstr) < 50:
print vstr
def magic_reset(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Resets the namespace by removing all names defined by the user.
Input/Output history are left around in case you need them.
-y : force reset without asking for confirmation.
In [6]: a = 1
In [7]: a
Out[7]: 1
In [8]: 'a' in _ip.user_ns
Out[8]: True
In [9]: %reset -f
In [10]: 'a' in _ip.user_ns
Out[10]: False
if parameter_s == '-f':
ans = True
ans =
"Once deleted, variables cannot be recovered. Proceed (y/[n])? ")
if not ans:
print 'Nothing done.'
user_ns =
for i in self.magic_who_ls():
# Also flush the private list of module references kept for script
# execution protection
def magic_logstart(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Start logging anywhere in a session.
%logstart [-o|-r|-t] [log_name [log_mode]]
If no name is given, it defaults to a file named '' in your
current directory, in 'rotate' mode (see below).
'%logstart name' saves to file 'name' in 'backup' mode. It saves your
history up to that point and then continues logging.
%logstart takes a second optional parameter: logging mode. This can be one
of (note that the modes are given unquoted):\\
append: well, that says it.\\
backup: rename (if exists) to name~ and start name.\\
global: single logfile in your home dir, appended to.\\
over : overwrite existing log.\\
rotate: create rotating logs name.1~, name.2~, etc.
-o: log also IPython's output. In this mode, all commands which
generate an Out[NN] prompt are recorded to the logfile, right after
their corresponding input line. The output lines are always
prepended with a '#[Out]# ' marker, so that the log remains valid
Python code.
Since this marker is always the same, filtering only the output from
a log is very easy, using for example a simple awk call:
awk -F'#\\[Out\\]# ' '{if($2) {print $2}}'
-r: log 'raw' input. Normally, IPython's logs contain the processed
input, so that user lines are logged in their final form, converted
into valid Python. For example, %Exit is logged as
'_ip.magic("Exit"). If the -r flag is given, all input is logged
exactly as typed, with no transformations applied.
-t: put timestamps before each input line logged (these are put in
opts,par = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'ort')
log_output = 'o' in opts
log_raw_input = 'r' in opts
timestamp = 't' in opts
rc =
logger =
# if no args are given, the defaults set in the logger constructor by
# ipytohn remain valid
if par:
logfname,logmode = par.split()
logfname = par
logmode = 'backup'
logfname = logger.logfname
logmode = logger.logmode
# put logfname into rc struct as if it had been called on the command
# line, so it ends up saved in the log header Save it in case we need
# to restore it...
old_logfile = rc.opts.get('logfile','')
if logfname:
logfname = os.path.expanduser(logfname)
rc.opts.logfile = logfname
loghead = % (sys.stdin.encoding, rc.opts, rc.args)
started = logger.logstart(logfname,loghead,logmode,
rc.opts.logfile = old_logfile
warn("Couldn't start log: %s" % sys.exc_info()[1])
# log input history up to this point, optionally interleaving
# output if requested
if timestamp:
# disable timestamping for the previous history, since we've
# lost those already (no time machine here).
logger.timestamp = False
if log_raw_input:
input_hist =
input_hist =
if log_output:
log_write = logger.log_write
output_hist =
for n in range(1,len(input_hist)-1):
if n in output_hist:
if timestamp:
# re-enable timestamping
logger.timestamp = True
print ('Activating auto-logging. '
'Current session state plus future input saved.')
def magic_logstop(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Fully stop logging and close log file.
In order to start logging again, a new %logstart call needs to be made,
possibly (though not necessarily) with a new filename, mode and other
def magic_logoff(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Temporarily stop logging.
You must have previously started logging."""
def magic_logon(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Restart logging.
This function is for restarting logging which you've temporarily
stopped with %logoff. For starting logging for the first time, you
must use the %logstart function, which allows you to specify an
optional log filename."""
def magic_logstate(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Print the status of the logging system."""
def magic_pdb(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Control the automatic calling of the pdb interactive debugger.
Call as '%pdb on', '%pdb 1', '%pdb off' or '%pdb 0'. If called without
argument it works as a toggle.
When an exception is triggered, IPython can optionally call the
interactive pdb debugger after the traceback printout. %pdb toggles
this feature on and off.
The initial state of this feature is set in your ipythonrc
configuration file (the variable is called 'pdb').
If you want to just activate the debugger AFTER an exception has fired,
without having to type '%pdb on' and rerunning your code, you can use
the %debug magic."""
par = parameter_s.strip().lower()
if par:
new_pdb = {'off':0,'0':0,'on':1,'1':1}[par]
except KeyError:
print ('Incorrect argument. Use on/1, off/0, '
'or nothing for a toggle.')
# toggle
new_pdb = not
# set on the shell = new_pdb
print 'Automatic pdb calling has been turned',on_off(new_pdb)
def magic_debug(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Activate the interactive debugger in post-mortem mode.
If an exception has just occurred, this lets you inspect its stack
frames interactively. Note that this will always work only on the last
traceback that occurred, so you must call this quickly after an
exception that you wish to inspect has fired, because if another one
occurs, it clobbers the previous one.
If you want IPython to automatically do this on every exception, see
the %pdb magic for more details.
def magic_prun(self, parameter_s ='',user_mode=1,
"""Run a statement through the python code profiler.
%prun [options] statement
The given statement (which doesn't require quote marks) is run via the
python profiler in a manner similar to the function.
Namespaces are internally managed to work correctly;
cannot be used in IPython because it makes certain assumptions about
namespaces which do not hold under IPython.
-l <limit>: you can place restrictions on what or how much of the
profile gets printed. The limit value can be:
* A string: only information for function names containing this string
is printed.
* An integer: only these many lines are printed.
* A float (between 0 and 1): this fraction of the report is printed
(for example, use a limit of 0.4 to see the topmost 40% only).
You can combine several limits with repeated use of the option. For
example, '-l __init__ -l 5' will print only the topmost 5 lines of
information about class constructors.
-r: return the pstats.Stats object generated by the profiling. This
object has all the information about the profile in it, and you can
later use it for further analysis or in other functions.
-s <key>: sort profile by given key. You can provide more than one key
by using the option several times: '-s key1 -s key2 -s key3...'. The
default sorting key is 'time'.
The following is copied verbatim from the profile documentation
referenced below:
When more than one key is provided, additional keys are used as
secondary criteria when the there is equality in all keys selected
before them.
Abbreviations can be used for any key names, as long as the
abbreviation is unambiguous. The following are the keys currently
Valid Arg Meaning
"calls" call count
"cumulative" cumulative time
"file" file name
"module" file name
"pcalls" primitive call count
"line" line number
"name" function name
"nfl" name/file/line
"stdname" standard name
"time" internal time
Note that all sorts on statistics are in descending order (placing
most time consuming items first), where as name, file, and line number
searches are in ascending order (i.e., alphabetical). The subtle
distinction between "nfl" and "stdname" is that the standard name is a
sort of the name as printed, which means that the embedded line
numbers get compared in an odd way. For example, lines 3, 20, and 40
would (if the file names were the same) appear in the string order
"20" "3" and "40". In contrast, "nfl" does a numeric compare of the
line numbers. In fact, sort_stats("nfl") is the same as
sort_stats("name", "file", "line").
-T <filename>: save profile results as shown on screen to a text
file. The profile is still shown on screen.
-D <filename>: save (via dump_stats) profile statistics to given
filename. This data is in a format understod by the pstats module, and
is generated by a call to the dump_stats() method of profile
objects. The profile is still shown on screen.
If you want to run complete programs under the profiler's control, use
'%run -p [prof_opts] [args to program]' where prof_opts
contains profiler specific options as described here.
You can read the complete documentation for the profile module with::
In [1]: import profile;
opts_def = Struct(D=[''],l=[],s=['time'],T=[''])
# protect user quote marks
parameter_s = parameter_s.replace('"',r'\"').replace("'",r"\'")
if user_mode: # regular user call
opts,arg_str = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'D:l:rs:T:',
namespace =
else: # called to run a program by %run -p
filename = get_py_filename(arg_lst[0])
except IOError,msg:
arg_str = 'execfile(filename,prog_ns)'
namespace = locals()
prof = profile.Profile()
prof = prof.runctx(arg_str,namespace,namespace)
sys_exit = ''
except SystemExit:
sys_exit = """*** SystemExit exception caught in code being profiled."""
stats = pstats.Stats(prof).strip_dirs().sort_stats(*opts.s)
lims = opts.l
if lims:
lims = [] # rebuild lims with ints/floats/strings
for lim in opts.l:
except ValueError:
except ValueError:
# Trap output.
stdout_trap = StringIO()
if hasattr(stats,'stream'):
# In newer versions of python, the stats object has a 'stream'
# attribute to write into. = stdout_trap
# For older versions, we manually redirect stdout during printing
sys_stdout = sys.stdout
sys.stdout = stdout_trap
sys.stdout = sys_stdout
output = stdout_trap.getvalue()
output = output.rstrip()
print sys_exit,
dump_file = opts.D[0]
text_file = opts.T[0]
if dump_file:
print '\n*** Profile stats marshalled to file',\
if text_file:
pfile = file(text_file,'w')
print '\n*** Profile printout saved to text file',\
if opts.has_key('r'):
return stats
return None
def magic_run(self, parameter_s ='',runner=None,
"""Run the named file inside IPython as a program.
%run [-n -i -t [-N<N>] -d [-b<N>] -p [profile options]] file [args]
Parameters after the filename are passed as command-line arguments to
the program (put in sys.argv). Then, control returns to IPython's
This is similar to running at a system prompt:\\
$ python file args\\
but with the advantage of giving you IPython's tracebacks, and of
loading all variables into your interactive namespace for further use
(unless -p is used, see below).
The file is executed in a namespace initially consisting only of
__name__=='__main__' and sys.argv constructed as indicated. It thus
sees its environment as if it were being run as a stand-alone program
(except for sharing global objects such as previously imported
modules). But after execution, the IPython interactive namespace gets
updated with all variables defined in the program (except for __name__
and sys.argv). This allows for very convenient loading of code for
interactive work, while giving each program a 'clean sheet' to run in.
-n: __name__ is NOT set to '__main__', but to the running file's name
without extension (as python does under import). This allows running
scripts and reloading the definitions in them without calling code
protected by an ' if __name__ == "__main__" ' clause.
-i: run the file in IPython's namespace instead of an empty one. This
is useful if you are experimenting with code written in a text editor
which depends on variables defined interactively.
-e: ignore sys.exit() calls or SystemExit exceptions in the script
being run. This is particularly useful if IPython is being used to
run unittests, which always exit with a sys.exit() call. In such
cases you are interested in the output of the test results, not in
seeing a traceback of the unittest module.
-t: print timing information at the end of the run. IPython will give
you an estimated CPU time consumption for your script, which under
Unix uses the resource module to avoid the wraparound problems of
time.clock(). Under Unix, an estimate of time spent on system tasks
is also given (for Windows platforms this is reported as 0.0).
If -t is given, an additional -N<N> option can be given, where <N>
must be an integer indicating how many times you want the script to
run. The final timing report will include total and per run results.
For example (testing the script
In [1]: run -t uniq_stable
IPython CPU timings (estimated):\\
User : 0.19597 s.\\
System: 0.0 s.\\
In [2]: run -t -N5 uniq_stable
IPython CPU timings (estimated):\\
Total runs performed: 5\\
Times : Total Per run\\
User : 0.910862 s, 0.1821724 s.\\
System: 0.0 s, 0.0 s.
-d: run your program under the control of pdb, the Python debugger.
This allows you to execute your program step by step, watch variables,
etc. Internally, what IPython does is similar to calling:'execfile("YOURFILENAME")')
with a breakpoint set on line 1 of your file. You can change the line
number for this automatic breakpoint to be <N> by using the -bN option
(where N must be an integer). For example:
%run -d -b40 myscript
will set the first breakpoint at line 40 in Note that
the first breakpoint must be set on a line which actually does
something (not a comment or docstring) for it to stop execution.
When the pdb debugger starts, you will see a (Pdb) prompt. You must
first enter 'c' (without qoutes) to start execution up to the first
Entering 'help' gives information about the use of the debugger. You
can easily see pdb's full documentation with "import pdb;"
at a prompt.
-p: run program under the control of the Python profiler module (which
prints a detailed report of execution times, function calls, etc).
You can pass other options after -p which affect the behavior of the
profiler itself. See the docs for %prun for details.
In this mode, the program's variables do NOT propagate back to the
IPython interactive namespace (because they remain in the namespace
where the profiler executes them).
Internally this triggers a call to %prun, see its documentation for
details on the options available specifically for profiling.
There is one special usage for which the text above doesn't apply:
if the filename ends with .ipy, the file is run as ipython script,
just as if the commands were written on IPython prompt.
# get arguments and set sys.argv for program to be run.
opts,arg_lst = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'nidtN:b:pD:l:rs:T:e',
filename = file_finder(arg_lst[0])
except IndexError:
warn('you must provide at least a filename.')
print '\n%run:\n',OInspect.getdoc(self.magic_run)
except IOError,msg:
if filename.lower().endswith('.ipy'):
# Control the response to exit() calls made by the script being run
exit_ignore = opts.has_key('e')
# Make sure that the running script gets a proper sys.argv as if it
# were run from a system shell.
save_argv = sys.argv # save it for later restoring
sys.argv = [filename]+ arg_lst[1:] # put in the proper filename
if opts.has_key('i'):
# Run in user's interactive namespace
prog_ns =
__name__save =['__name__']
prog_ns['__name__'] = '__main__'
main_mod =
# Run in a fresh, empty namespace
if opts.has_key('n'):
name = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(filename))[0]
name = '__main__'
main_mod =
prog_ns = main_mod.__dict__
prog_ns['__name__'] = name
# Since '%run foo' emulates 'python' at the cmd line, we must
# set the __file__ global in the script's namespace
prog_ns['__file__'] = filename
# pickle fix. See iplib for an explanation. But we need to make sure
# that, if we overwrite __main__, we replace it at the end
main_mod_name = prog_ns['__name__']
if main_mod_name == '__main__':
restore_main = sys.modules['__main__']
restore_main = False
# This needs to be undone at the end to prevent holding references to
# every single object ever created.
sys.modules[main_mod_name] = main_mod
stats = None
if opts.has_key('p'):
stats = self.magic_prun('',0,opts,arg_lst,prog_ns)
if opts.has_key('d'):
deb = Debugger.Pdb(
# reset Breakpoint state, which is moronically kept
# in a class = 1
bdb.Breakpoint.bplist = {}
bdb.Breakpoint.bpbynumber = [None]
# Set an initial breakpoint to stop execution
maxtries = 10
bp = int(opts.get('b',[1])[0])
checkline = deb.checkline(filename,bp)
if not checkline:
for bp in range(bp+1,bp+maxtries+1):
if deb.checkline(filename,bp):
msg = ("\nI failed to find a valid line to set "
"a breakpoint\n"
"after trying up to line: %s.\n"
"Please set a valid breakpoint manually "
"with the -b option." % bp)
# if we find a good linenumber, set the breakpoint
deb.do_break('%s:%s' % (filename,bp))
# Start file run
print "NOTE: Enter 'c' at the",
print "%s prompt to start your script." % deb.prompt
try:'execfile("%s")' % filename,prog_ns)
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
# Skip three frames in the traceback: the %run one,
# one inside, and the command-line typed by the
# user (run by exec in pdb itself).,value,tb,tb_offset=3)
if runner is None:
runner =
if opts.has_key('t'):
# timed execution
nruns = int(opts['N'][0])
if nruns < 1:
error('Number of runs must be >=1')
except (KeyError):
nruns = 1
if nruns == 1:
t0 = clock2()
t1 = clock2()
t_usr = t1[0]-t0[0]
t_sys = t1[1]-t0[1]
print "\nIPython CPU timings (estimated):"
print " User : %10s s." % t_usr
print " System: %10s s." % t_sys
runs = range(nruns)
t0 = clock2()
for nr in runs:
t1 = clock2()
t_usr = t1[0]-t0[0]
t_sys = t1[1]-t0[1]
print "\nIPython CPU timings (estimated):"
print "Total runs performed:",nruns
print " Times : %10s %10s" % ('Total','Per run')
print " User : %10s s, %10s s." % (t_usr,t_usr/nruns)
print " System: %10s s, %10s s." % (t_sys,t_sys/nruns)
# regular execution
if opts.has_key('i'):['__name__'] = __name__save
# The shell MUST hold a reference to prog_ns so after %run
# exits, the python deletion mechanism doesn't zero it out
# (leaving dangling references).,filename)
# update IPython interactive namespace
# Some forms of read errors on the file may mean the
# __name__ key was never set; using pop we don't have to
# worry about a possible KeyError.
prog_ns.pop('__name__', None)
# It's a bit of a mystery why, but __builtins__ can change from
# being a module to becoming a dict missing some key data after
# %run. As best I can see, this is NOT something IPython is doing
# at all, and similar problems have been reported before:
# Since this seems to be done by the interpreter itself, the best
# we can do is to at least restore __builtins__ for the user on
# exit.['__builtins__'] = __builtin__
# Ensure key global structures are restored
sys.argv = save_argv
if restore_main:
sys.modules['__main__'] = restore_main
# Remove from sys.modules the reference to main_mod we'd
# added. Otherwise it will trap references to objects
# contained therein.
del sys.modules[main_mod_name]
return stats
def magic_runlog(self, parameter_s =''):
"""Run files as logs.
%runlog file1 file2 ...
Run the named files (treating them as log files) in sequence inside
the interpreter, and return to the prompt. This is much slower than
%run because each line is executed in a try/except block, but it
allows running files with syntax errors in them.
Normally IPython will guess when a file is one of its own logfiles, so
you can typically use %run even for logs. This shorthand allows you to
force any file to be treated as a log file."""
for f in parameter_s.split():,,,islog=1)
def magic_timeit(self, parameter_s =''):
"""Time execution of a Python statement or expression
%timeit [-n<N> -r<R> [-t|-c]] statement
Time execution of a Python statement or expression using the timeit
-n<N>: execute the given statement <N> times in a loop. If this value
is not given, a fitting value is chosen.
-r<R>: repeat the loop iteration <R> times and take the best result.
Default: 3
-t: use time.time to measure the time, which is the default on Unix.
This function measures wall time.
-c: use time.clock to measure the time, which is the default on
Windows and measures wall time. On Unix, resource.getrusage is used
instead and returns the CPU user time.
-p<P>: use a precision of <P> digits to display the timing result.
Default: 3
In [1]: %timeit pass
10000000 loops, best of 3: 53.3 ns per loop
In [2]: u = None
In [3]: %timeit u is None
10000000 loops, best of 3: 184 ns per loop
In [4]: %timeit -r 4 u == None
1000000 loops, best of 4: 242 ns per loop
In [5]: import time
In [6]: %timeit -n1 time.sleep(2)
1 loops, best of 3: 2 s per loop
The times reported by %timeit will be slightly higher than those
reported by the script when variables are accessed. This is
due to the fact that %timeit executes the statement in the namespace
of the shell, compared with, which uses a single setup
statement to import function or create variables. Generally, the bias
does not matter as long as results from are not mixed with
those from %timeit."""
import timeit
import math
# XXX: Unfortunately the unicode 'micro' symbol can cause problems in
# certain terminals. Until we figure out a robust way of
# auto-detecting if the terminal can deal with it, use plain 'us' for
# microseconds. I am really NOT happy about disabling the proper
# 'micro' prefix, but crashing is worse... If anyone knows what the
# right solution for this is, I'm all ears...
# Note: using
# s = u'\xb5'
# s.encode(sys.getdefaultencoding())
# is not sufficient, as I've seen terminals where that fails but
# print s
# succeeds
# See bug:
#units = [u"s", u"ms",u'\xb5',"ns"]
units = [u"s", u"ms",u'us',"ns"]
scaling = [1, 1e3, 1e6, 1e9]
opts, stmt = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'n:r:tcp:',
if stmt == "":
timefunc = timeit.default_timer
number = int(getattr(opts, "n", 0))
repeat = int(getattr(opts, "r", timeit.default_repeat))
precision = int(getattr(opts, "p", 3))
if hasattr(opts, "t"):
timefunc = time.time
if hasattr(opts, "c"):
timefunc = clock
timer = timeit.Timer(timer=timefunc)
# this code has tight coupling to the inner workings of timeit.Timer,
# but is there a better way to achieve that the code stmt has access
# to the shell namespace?
src = timeit.template % {'stmt': timeit.reindent(stmt, 8),
'setup': "pass"}
# Track compilation time so it can be reported if too long
# Minimum time above which compilation time will be reported
tc_min = 0.1
t0 = clock()
code = compile(src, "<magic-timeit>", "exec")
tc = clock()-t0
ns = {}
exec code in, ns
timer.inner = ns["inner"]
if number == 0:
# determine number so that 0.2 <= total time < 2.0
number = 1
for i in range(1, 10):
if timer.timeit(number) >= 0.2:
number *= 10
best = min(timer.repeat(repeat, number)) / number
if best > 0.0 and best < 1000.0:
order = min(-int(math.floor(math.log10(best)) // 3), 3)
elif best >= 1000.0:
order = 0
order = 3
print u"%d loops, best of %d: %.*g %s per loop" % (number, repeat,
best * scaling[order],
if tc > tc_min:
print "Compiler time: %.2f s" % tc
def magic_time(self,parameter_s = ''):
"""Time execution of a Python statement or expression.
The CPU and wall clock times are printed, and the value of the
expression (if any) is returned. Note that under Win32, system time
is always reported as 0, since it can not be measured.
This function provides very basic timing functionality. In Python
2.3, the timeit module offers more control and sophistication, so this
could be rewritten to use it (patches welcome).
Some examples:
In [1]: time 2**128
CPU times: user 0.00 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 0.00 s
Wall time: 0.00
Out[1]: 340282366920938463463374607431768211456L
In [2]: n = 1000000
In [3]: time sum(range(n))
CPU times: user 1.20 s, sys: 0.05 s, total: 1.25 s
Wall time: 1.37
Out[3]: 499999500000L
In [4]: time print 'hello world'
hello world
CPU times: user 0.00 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 0.00 s
Wall time: 0.00
Note that the time needed by Python to compile the given expression
will be reported if it is more than 0.1s. In this example, the
actual exponentiation is done by Python at compilation time, so while
the expression can take a noticeable amount of time to compute, that
time is purely due to the compilation:
In [5]: time 3**9999;
CPU times: user 0.00 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 0.00 s
Wall time: 0.00 s
In [6]: time 3**999999;
CPU times: user 0.00 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 0.00 s
Wall time: 0.00 s
Compiler : 0.78 s
# fail immediately if the given expression can't be compiled
expr =,False)
# Minimum time above which compilation time will be reported
tc_min = 0.1
mode = 'eval'
t0 = clock()
code = compile(expr,'<timed eval>',mode)
tc = clock()-t0
except SyntaxError:
mode = 'exec'
t0 = clock()
code = compile(expr,'<timed exec>',mode)
tc = clock()-t0
# skew measurement as little as possible
glob =
clk = clock2
wtime = time.time
# time execution
wall_st = wtime()
if mode=='eval':
st = clk()
out = eval(code,glob)
end = clk()
st = clk()
exec code in glob
end = clk()
out = None
wall_end = wtime()
# Compute actual times and report
wall_time = wall_end-wall_st
cpu_user = end[0]-st[0]
cpu_sys = end[1]-st[1]
cpu_tot = cpu_user+cpu_sys
print "CPU times: user %.2f s, sys: %.2f s, total: %.2f s" % \
print "Wall time: %.2f s" % wall_time
if tc > tc_min:
print "Compiler : %.2f s" % tc
return out
def magic_macro(self,parameter_s = ''):
"""Define a set of input lines as a macro for future re-execution.
%macro [options] name n1-n2 n3-n4 ... n5 .. n6 ...
-r: use 'raw' input. By default, the 'processed' history is used,
so that magics are loaded in their transformed version to valid
Python. If this option is given, the raw input as typed as the
command line is used instead.
This will define a global variable called `name` which is a string
made of joining the slices and lines you specify (n1,n2,... numbers
above) from your input history into a single string. This variable
acts like an automatic function which re-executes those lines as if
you had typed them. You just type 'name' at the prompt and the code
The notation for indicating number ranges is: n1-n2 means 'use line
numbers n1,...n2' (the endpoint is included). That is, '5-7' means
using the lines numbered 5,6 and 7.
Note: as a 'hidden' feature, you can also use traditional python slice
notation, where N:M means numbers N through M-1.
For example, if your history contains (%hist prints it):
44: x=1
45: y=3
46: z=x+y
47: print x
48: a=5
49: print 'x',x,'y',y
you can create a macro with lines 44 through 47 (included) and line 49
called my_macro with:
In [55]: %macro my_macro 44-47 49
Now, typing `my_macro` (without quotes) will re-execute all this code
in one pass.
You don't need to give the line-numbers in order, and any given line
number can appear multiple times. You can assemble macros with any
lines from your input history in any order.
The macro is a simple object which holds its value in an attribute,
but IPython's display system checks for macros and executes them as
code instead of printing them when you type their name.
You can view a macro's contents by explicitly printing it with:
'print macro_name'.
For one-off cases which DON'T contain magic function calls in them you
can obtain similar results by explicitly executing slices from your
input history with:
In [60]: exec In[44:48]+In[49]"""
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'r',mode='list')
if not args:
macs = [k for k,v in if isinstance(v, Macro)]
return macs
if len(args) == 1:
raise UsageError(
"%macro insufficient args; usage '%macro name n1-n2 n3-4...")
name,ranges = args[0], args[1:]
#print 'rng',ranges # dbg
lines = self.extract_input_slices(ranges,opts.has_key('r'))
macro = Macro(lines){name:macro})
print 'Macro `%s` created. To execute, type its name (without quotes).' % name
print 'Macro contents:'
print macro,
def magic_save(self,parameter_s = ''):
"""Save a set of lines to a given filename.
%save [options] filename n1-n2 n3-n4 ... n5 .. n6 ...
-r: use 'raw' input. By default, the 'processed' history is used,
so that magics are loaded in their transformed version to valid
Python. If this option is given, the raw input as typed as the
command line is used instead.
This function uses the same syntax as %macro for line extraction, but
instead of creating a macro it saves the resulting string to the
filename you specify.
It adds a '.py' extension to the file if you don't do so yourself, and
it asks for confirmation before overwriting existing files."""
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'r',mode='list')
fname,ranges = args[0], args[1:]
if not fname.endswith('.py'):
fname += '.py'
if os.path.isfile(fname):
ans = raw_input('File `%s` exists. Overwrite (y/[N])? ' % fname)
if ans.lower() not in ['y','yes']:
print 'Operation cancelled.'
cmds = ''.join(self.extract_input_slices(ranges,opts.has_key('r')))
f = file(fname,'w')
print 'The following commands were written to file `%s`:' % fname
print cmds
def _edit_macro(self,mname,macro):
"""open an editor with the macro data in a file"""
filename =
# and make a new macro object, to replace the old one
mfile = open(filename)
mvalue =
mfile.close()[mname] = Macro(mvalue)
def magic_ed(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Alias to %edit."""
return self.magic_edit(parameter_s)
def magic_edit(self,parameter_s='',last_call=['','']):
"""Bring up an editor and execute the resulting code.
%edit [options] [args]
%edit runs IPython's editor hook. The default version of this hook is
set to call the __IPYTHON__.rc.editor command. This is read from your
environment variable $EDITOR. If this isn't found, it will default to
vi under Linux/Unix and to notepad under Windows. See the end of this
docstring for how to change the editor hook.
You can also set the value of this editor via the command line option
'-editor' or in your ipythonrc file. This is useful if you wish to use
specifically for IPython an editor different from your typical default
(and for Windows users who typically don't set environment variables).
This command allows you to conveniently edit multi-line code right in
your IPython session.
If called without arguments, %edit opens up an empty editor with a
temporary file and will execute the contents of this file when you
close it (don't forget to save it!).
-n <number>: open the editor at a specified line number. By default,
the IPython editor hook uses the unix syntax 'editor +N filename', but
you can configure this by providing your own modified hook if your
favorite editor supports line-number specifications with a different
-p: this will call the editor with the same data as the previous time
it was used, regardless of how long ago (in your current session) it
-r: use 'raw' input. This option only applies to input taken from the
user's history. By default, the 'processed' history is used, so that
magics are loaded in their transformed version to valid Python. If
this option is given, the raw input as typed as the command line is
used instead. When you exit the editor, it will be executed by
IPython's own processor.
-x: do not execute the edited code immediately upon exit. This is
mainly useful if you are editing programs which need to be called with
command line arguments, which you can then do using %run.
If arguments are given, the following possibilites exist:
- The arguments are numbers or pairs of colon-separated numbers (like
1 4:8 9). These are interpreted as lines of previous input to be
loaded into the editor. The syntax is the same of the %macro command.
- If the argument doesn't start with a number, it is evaluated as a
variable and its contents loaded into the editor. You can thus edit
any string which contains python code (including the result of
previous edits).
- If the argument is the name of an object (other than a string),
IPython will try to locate the file where it was defined and open the
editor at the point where it is defined. You can use `%edit function`
to load an editor exactly at the point where 'function' is defined,
edit it and have the file be executed automatically.
If the object is a macro (see %macro for details), this opens up your
specified editor with a temporary file containing the macro's data.
Upon exit, the macro is reloaded with the contents of the file.
Note: opening at an exact line is only supported under Unix, and some
editors (like kedit and gedit up to Gnome 2.8) do not understand the
'+NUMBER' parameter necessary for this feature. Good editors like
(X)Emacs, vi, jed, pico and joe all do.
- If the argument is not found as a variable, IPython will look for a
file with that name (adding .py if necessary) and load it into the
editor. It will execute its contents with execfile() when you exit,
loading any code in the file into your interactive namespace.
After executing your code, %edit will return as output the code you
typed in the editor (except when it was an existing file). This way
you can reload the code in further invocations of %edit as a variable,
via _<NUMBER> or Out[<NUMBER>], where <NUMBER> is the prompt number of
the output.
Note that %edit is also available through the alias %ed.
This is an example of creating a simple function inside the editor and
then modifying it. First, start up the editor:
In [1]: ed
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
Out[1]: 'def foo():n print "foo() was defined in an editing session"n'
We can then call the function foo():
In [2]: foo()
foo() was defined in an editing session
Now we edit foo. IPython automatically loads the editor with the
(temporary) file where foo() was previously defined:
In [3]: ed foo
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
And if we call foo() again we get the modified version:
In [4]: foo()
foo() has now been changed!
Here is an example of how to edit a code snippet successive
times. First we call the editor:
In [5]: ed
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
Out[5]: "print 'hello'n"
Now we call it again with the previous output (stored in _):
In [6]: ed _
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
hello world
Out[6]: "print 'hello world'n"
Now we call it with the output #8 (stored in _8, also as Out[8]):
In [7]: ed _8
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
hello again
Out[7]: "print 'hello again'n"
Changing the default editor hook:
If you wish to write your own editor hook, you can put it in a
configuration file which you load at startup time. The default hook
is defined in the IPython.hooks module, and you can use that as a
starting example for further modifications. That file also has
general instructions on how to set a new hook for use once you've
defined it."""
# FIXME: This function has become a convoluted mess. It needs a
# ground-up rewrite with clean, simple logic.
def make_filename(arg):
"Make a filename from the given args"
filename = get_py_filename(arg)
except IOError:
if args.endswith('.py'):
filename = arg
filename = None
return filename
# custom exceptions
class DataIsObject(Exception): pass
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'prxn:')
# Set a few locals from the options for convenience:
opts_p = opts.has_key('p')
opts_r = opts.has_key('r')
# Default line number value
lineno = opts.get('n',None)
if opts_p:
args = '_%s' % last_call[0]
if not
args = last_call[1]
# use last_call to remember the state of the previous call, but don't
# let it be clobbered by successive '-p' calls.
last_call[0] =
if not opts_p:
last_call[1] = parameter_s
# by default this is done with temp files, except when the given
# arg is a filename
use_temp = 1
if re.match(r'\d',args):
# Mode where user specifies ranges of lines, like in %macro.
# This means that you can't edit files whose names begin with
# numbers this way. Tough.
ranges = args.split()
data = ''.join(self.extract_input_slices(ranges,opts_r))
elif args.endswith('.py'):
filename = make_filename(args)
data = ''
use_temp = 0
elif args:
# Load the parameter given as a variable. If not a string,
# process it as an object instead (below)
#print '*** args',args,'type',type(args) # dbg
data = eval(args,
if not type(data) in StringTypes:
raise DataIsObject
except (NameError,SyntaxError):
# given argument is not a variable, try as a filename
filename = make_filename(args)
if filename is None:
warn("Argument given (%s) can't be found as a variable "
"or as a filename." % args)
data = ''
use_temp = 0
except DataIsObject:
# macros have a special edit function
if isinstance(data,Macro):
# For objects, try to edit the file where they are defined
filename = inspect.getabsfile(data)
if 'fakemodule' in filename.lower() and inspect.isclass(data):
# class created by %edit? Try to find source
# by looking for method definitions instead, the
# __module__ in those classes is FakeModule.
attrs = [getattr(data, aname) for aname in dir(data)]
for attr in attrs:
if not inspect.ismethod(attr):
filename = inspect.getabsfile(attr)
if filename and 'fakemodule' not in filename.lower():
# change the attribute to be the edit target instead
data = attr
datafile = 1
except TypeError:
filename = make_filename(args)
datafile = 1
warn('Could not find file where `%s` is defined.\n'
'Opening a file named `%s`' % (args,filename))
# Now, make sure we can actually read the source (if it was in
# a temp file it's gone by now).
if datafile:
if lineno is None:
lineno = inspect.getsourcelines(data)[1]
except IOError:
filename = make_filename(args)
if filename is None:
warn('The file `%s` where `%s` was defined cannot '
'be read.' % (filename,data))
use_temp = 0
data = ''
if use_temp:
filename =
print 'IPython will make a temporary file named:',filename
# do actual editing here
print 'Editing...',
except IPython.ipapi.TryNext:
warn('Could not open editor')
# XXX TODO: should this be generalized for all string vars?
# For now, this is special-cased to blocks created by cpaste
if args.strip() == 'pasted_block':['pasted_block'] = file_read(filename)
if opts.has_key('x'): # -x prevents actual execution
print 'done. Executing edited code...'
if opts_r:
if use_temp:
return open(filename).read()
except IOError,msg:
if msg.filename == filename:
warn('File not found. Did you forget to save?')
def magic_xmode(self,parameter_s = ''):
"""Switch modes for the exception handlers.
Valid modes: Plain, Context and Verbose.
If called without arguments, acts as a toggle."""
def xmode_switch_err(name):
warn('Error changing %s exception modes.\n%s' %
shell =
new_mode = parameter_s.strip().capitalize()
print 'Exception reporting mode:',shell.InteractiveTB.mode
# threaded shells use a special handler in sys.excepthook
if shell.isthreaded:
def magic_colors(self,parameter_s = ''):
"""Switch color scheme for prompts, info system and exception handlers.
Currently implemented schemes: NoColor, Linux, LightBG.
Color scheme names are not case-sensitive."""
def color_switch_err(name):
warn('Error changing %s color schemes.\n%s' %
new_scheme = parameter_s.strip()
if not new_scheme:
raise UsageError(
"%colors: you must specify a color scheme. See '%colors?'")
# local shortcut
shell =
import IPython.rlineimpl as readline
if not readline.have_readline and sys.platform == "win32":
msg = """\
Proper color support under MS Windows requires the pyreadline library.
You can find it at:
Gary's readline needs the ctypes module, from:
(Note that ctypes is already part of Python versions 2.5 and newer).
Defaulting color scheme to 'NoColor'"""
new_scheme = 'NoColor'
# readline option is 0
if not shell.has_readline:
new_scheme = 'NoColor'
# Set prompt colors
shell.rc.colors = \
# Set exception colors
shell.InteractiveTB.set_colors(scheme = new_scheme)
shell.SyntaxTB.set_colors(scheme = new_scheme)
# threaded shells use a verbose traceback in sys.excepthook
if shell.isthreaded:
color_switch_err('system exception handler')
# Set info (for 'object?') colors
if shell.rc.color_info:
color_switch_err('object inspector')
def magic_color_info(self,parameter_s = ''):
"""Toggle color_info.
The color_info configuration parameter controls whether colors are
used for displaying object details (by things like %psource, %pfile or
the '?' system). This function toggles this value with each call.
Note that unless you have a fairly recent pager (less works better
than more) in your system, using colored object information displays
will not work properly. Test it and see.""" = 1 -
print 'Object introspection functions have now coloring:',
print ['OFF','ON'][]
def magic_Pprint(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Toggle pretty printing on/off.""" = 1 -
print 'Pretty printing has been turned', \
def magic_exit(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Exit IPython, confirming if configured to do so.
You can configure whether IPython asks for confirmation upon exit by
setting the confirm_exit flag in the ipythonrc file."""
def magic_quit(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Exit IPython, confirming if configured to do so (like %exit)"""
def magic_Exit(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Exit IPython without confirmation."""
# Functions to implement unix shell-type things
def magic_alias(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Define an alias for a system command.
'%alias alias_name cmd' defines 'alias_name' as an alias for 'cmd'
Then, typing 'alias_name params' will execute the system command 'cmd
params' (from your underlying operating system).
Aliases have lower precedence than magic functions and Python normal
variables, so if 'foo' is both a Python variable and an alias, the
alias can not be executed until 'del foo' removes the Python variable.
You can use the %l specifier in an alias definition to represent the
whole line when the alias is called. For example:
In [2]: alias all echo "Input in brackets: <%l>"
In [3]: all hello world
Input in brackets: <hello world>
You can also define aliases with parameters using %s specifiers (one
per parameter):
In [1]: alias parts echo first %s second %s
In [2]: %parts A B
first A second B
In [3]: %parts A
Incorrect number of arguments: 2 expected.
parts is an alias to: 'echo first %s second %s'
Note that %l and %s are mutually exclusive. You can only use one or
the other in your aliases.
Aliases expand Python variables just like system calls using ! or !!
do: all expressions prefixed with '$' get expanded. For details of
the semantic rules, see PEP-215: This is the library used by
IPython for variable expansion. If you want to access a true shell
variable, an extra $ is necessary to prevent its expansion by IPython:
In [6]: alias show echo
In [7]: PATH='A Python string'
In [8]: show $PATH
A Python string
In [9]: show $$PATH
You can use the alias facility to acess all of $PATH. See the %rehash
and %rehashx functions, which automatically create aliases for the
contents of your $PATH.
If called with no parameters, %alias prints the current alias table."""
par = parameter_s.strip()
if not par:
stored = self.db.get('stored_aliases', {} )
atab =
aliases = atab.keys()
res = []
showlast = []
for alias in aliases:
special = False
tgt = atab[alias][1]
except (TypeError, AttributeError):
# unsubscriptable? probably a callable
tgt = atab[alias]
special = True
# 'interesting' aliases
if (alias in stored or
special or
alias.lower() != os.path.splitext(tgt)[0].lower() or
' ' in tgt):
showlast.append((alias, tgt))
res.append((alias, tgt ))
# show most interesting aliases last
print "Total number of aliases:",len(aliases)
return res
alias,cmd = par.split(None,1)
print OInspect.getdoc(self.magic_alias)
nargs = cmd.count('%s')
if nargs>0 and cmd.find('%l')>=0:
error('The %s and %l specifiers are mutually exclusive '
'in alias definitions.')
else: # all looks OK[alias] = (nargs,cmd)
# end magic_alias
def magic_unalias(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Remove an alias"""
aname = parameter_s.strip()
if aname in
stored = self.db.get('stored_aliases', {} )
if aname in stored:
print "Removing %stored alias",aname
del stored[aname]
self.db['stored_aliases'] = stored
def magic_rehashx(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Update the alias table with all executable files in $PATH.
This version explicitly checks that every entry in $PATH is a file
with execute access (os.X_OK), so it is much slower than %rehash.
Under Windows, it checks executability as a match agains a
'|'-separated string of extensions, stored in the IPython config
variable win_exec_ext. This defaults to 'exe|com|bat'.
This function also resets the root module cache of module completer,
used on slow filesystems.
ip = self.api
# for the benefit of module completer in
del ip.db['rootmodules']
path = [os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(p)) for p in
path = filter(os.path.isdir,path)
alias_table =
syscmdlist = []
if == 'posix':
isexec = lambda fname:os.path.isfile(fname) and \
winext = os.environ['pathext'].replace(';','|').replace('.','')
except KeyError:
winext = 'exe|com|bat|py'
if 'py' not in winext:
winext += '|py'
execre = re.compile(r'(.*)\.(%s)$' % winext,re.IGNORECASE)
isexec = lambda fname:os.path.isfile(fname) and execre.match(fname)
savedir = os.getcwd()
# write the whole loop for posix/Windows so we don't have an if in
# the innermost part
if == 'posix':
for pdir in path:
for ff in os.listdir(pdir):
if isexec(ff) and ff not in
# each entry in the alias table must be (N,name),
# where N is the number of positional arguments of the
# alias.
# Dots will be removed from alias names, since ipython
# assumes names with dots to be python code
alias_table[ff.replace('.','')] = (0,ff)
for pdir in path:
for ff in os.listdir(pdir):
base, ext = os.path.splitext(ff)
if isexec(ff) and base.lower() not in
if ext.lower() == '.exe':
ff = base
alias_table[base.lower().replace('.','')] = (0,ff)
# Make sure the alias table doesn't contain keywords or builtins
# Call again init_auto_alias() so we get 'rm -i' and other
# modified aliases since %rehashx will probably clobber them
# no, we don't want them. if %rehashx clobbers them, good,
# we'll probably get better versions
db = ip.db
db['syscmdlist'] = syscmdlist
def magic_pwd(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Return the current working directory path."""
return os.getcwd()
def magic_cd(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Change the current working directory.
This command automatically maintains an internal list of directories
you visit during your IPython session, in the variable _dh. The
command %dhist shows this history nicely formatted. You can also
do 'cd -<tab>' to see directory history conveniently.
cd 'dir': changes to directory 'dir'.
cd -: changes to the last visited directory.
cd -<n>: changes to the n-th directory in the directory history.
cd --foo: change to directory that matches 'foo' in history
cd -b <bookmark_name>: jump to a bookmark set by %bookmark
(note: cd <bookmark_name> is enough if there is no
directory <bookmark_name>, but a bookmark with the name exists.)
'cd -b <tab>' allows you to tab-complete bookmark names.
-q: quiet. Do not print the working directory after the cd command is
executed. By default IPython's cd command does print this directory,
since the default prompts do not display path information.
Note that !cd doesn't work for this purpose because the shell where
!command runs is immediately discarded after executing 'command'."""
parameter_s = parameter_s.strip()
#bkms ="bookmarks",{})
oldcwd = os.getcwd()
numcd = re.match(r'(-)(\d+)$',parameter_s)
# jump in directory history by number
if numcd:
nn = int(
ps =['_dh'][nn]
except IndexError:
print 'The requested directory does not exist in history.'
opts = {}
elif parameter_s.startswith('--'):
ps = None
fallback = None
pat = parameter_s[2:]
dh =['_dh']
# first search only by basename (last component)
for ent in reversed(dh):
if pat in os.path.basename(ent) and os.path.isdir(ent):
ps = ent
if fallback is None and pat in ent and os.path.isdir(ent):
fallback = ent
# if we have no last part match, pick the first full path match
if ps is None:
ps = fallback
if ps is None:
print "No matching entry in directory history"
opts = {}
#turn all non-space-escaping backslashes to slashes,
# for c:\windows\directory\names\
parameter_s = re.sub(r'\\(?! )','/', parameter_s)
opts,ps = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'qb',mode='string')
# jump to previous
if ps == '-':
ps =['_dh'][-2]
except IndexError:
raise UsageError('%cd -: No previous directory to change to.')
# jump to bookmark if needed
if not os.path.isdir(ps) or opts.has_key('b'):
bkms = self.db.get('bookmarks', {})
if bkms.has_key(ps):
target = bkms[ps]
print '(bookmark:%s) -> %s' % (ps,target)
ps = target
if opts.has_key('b'):
raise UsageError("Bookmark '%s' not found. "
"Use '%%bookmark -l' to see your bookmarks." % ps)
# at this point ps should point to the target dir
if ps:
#print 'set term title:', # dbg
platutils.set_term_title('IPy ' + abbrev_cwd())
except OSError:
print sys.exc_info()[1]
cwd = os.getcwd()
dhist =['_dh']
if oldcwd != cwd:
self.db['dhist'] = compress_dhist(dhist)[-100:]
platutils.set_term_title("IPy ~")
cwd = os.getcwd()
dhist =['_dh']
if oldcwd != cwd:
self.db['dhist'] = compress_dhist(dhist)[-100:]
if not 'q' in opts and['_dh']:
def magic_env(self, parameter_s=''):
"""List environment variables."""
def magic_pushd(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Place the current dir on stack and change directory.
%pushd ['dirname']
dir_s =
tgt = os.path.expanduser(parameter_s)
cwd = os.getcwd().replace(self.home_dir,'~')
if tgt:
return self.magic_dirs()
def magic_popd(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Change to directory popped off the top of the stack.
if not
raise UsageError("%popd on empty stack")
top =
print "popd ->",top
def magic_dirs(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Return the current directory stack."""
def magic_dhist(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Print your history of visited directories.
%dhist -> print full history\\
%dhist n -> print last n entries only\\
%dhist n1 n2 -> print entries between n1 and n2 (n1 not included)\\
This history is automatically maintained by the %cd command, and
always available as the global list variable _dh. You can use %cd -<n>
to go to directory number <n>.
Note that most of time, you should view directory history by entering
cd -<TAB>.
dh =['_dh']
if parameter_s:
args = map(int,parameter_s.split())
if len(args) == 1:
ini,fin = max(len(dh)-(args[0]),0),len(dh)
elif len(args) == 2:
ini,fin = args
ini,fin = 0,len(dh)
header = 'Directory history (kept in _dh)',
def magic_sc(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Shell capture - execute a shell command and capture its output.
DEPRECATED. Suboptimal, retained for backwards compatibility.
You should use the form 'var = !command' instead. Example:
"%sc -l myfiles = ls ~" should now be written as
"myfiles = !ls ~"
myfiles.s, myfiles.l and myfiles.n still apply as documented
%sc [options] varname=command
IPython will run the given command using commands.getoutput(), and
will then update the user's interactive namespace with a variable
called varname, containing the value of the call. Your command can
contain shell wildcards, pipes, etc.
The '=' sign in the syntax is mandatory, and the variable name you
supply must follow Python's standard conventions for valid names.
(A special format without variable name exists for internal use)
-l: list output. Split the output on newlines into a list before
assigning it to the given variable. By default the output is stored
as a single string.
-v: verbose. Print the contents of the variable.
In most cases you should not need to split as a list, because the
returned value is a special type of string which can automatically
provide its contents either as a list (split on newlines) or as a
space-separated string. These are convenient, respectively, either
for sequential processing or to be passed to a shell command.
For example:
# all-random
# Capture into variable a
In [1]: sc a=ls *py
# a is a string with embedded newlines
In [2]: a
Out[2]: '\\'
# which can be seen as a list:
In [3]: a.l
Out[3]: ['', '']
# or as a whitespace-separated string:
In [4]: a.s
Out[4]: ''
# a.s is useful to pass as a single command line:
In [5]: !wc -l $a.s
276 total
# while the list form is useful to loop over:
In [6]: for f in a.l:
...: !wc -l $f
Similiarly, the lists returned by the -l option are also special, in
the sense that you can equally invoke the .s attribute on them to
automatically get a whitespace-separated string from their contents:
In [7]: sc -l b=ls *py
In [8]: b
Out[8]: ['', '']
In [9]: b.s
Out[9]: ''
In summary, both the lists and strings used for ouptut capture have
the following special attributes:
.l (or .list) : value as list.
.n (or .nlstr): value as newline-separated string.
.s (or .spstr): value as space-separated string.
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'lv')
# Try to get a variable name and command to run
# the variable name must be obtained from the parse_options
# output, which uses shlex.split to strip options out.
var,_ = args.split('=',1)
var = var.strip()
# But the the command has to be extracted from the original input
# parameter_s, not on what parse_options returns, to avoid the
# quote stripping which shlex.split performs on it.
_,cmd = parameter_s.split('=',1)
except ValueError:
var,cmd = '',''
# If all looks ok, proceed
out,err =
if err:
print >> Term.cerr,err
if opts.has_key('l'):
out = SList(out.split('\n'))
out = LSString(out)
if opts.has_key('v'):
print '%s ==\n%s' % (var,pformat(out))
if var:{var:out})
return out
def magic_sx(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Shell execute - run a shell command and capture its output.
%sx command
IPython will run the given command using commands.getoutput(), and
return the result formatted as a list (split on '\\n'). Since the
output is _returned_, it will be stored in ipython's regular output
cache Out[N] and in the '_N' automatic variables.
1) If an input line begins with '!!', then %sx is automatically
invoked. That is, while:
causes ipython to simply issue system('ls'), typing
is a shorthand equivalent to:
%sx ls
2) %sx differs from %sc in that %sx automatically splits into a list,
like '%sc -l'. The reason for this is to make it as easy as possible
to process line-oriented shell output via further python commands.
%sc is meant to provide much finer control, but requires more
3) Just like %sc -l, this is a list with special attributes:
.l (or .list) : value as list.
.n (or .nlstr): value as newline-separated string.
.s (or .spstr): value as whitespace-separated string.
This is very useful when trying to use such lists as arguments to
system commands."""
if parameter_s:
out,err =
if err:
print >> Term.cerr,err
return SList(out.split('\n'))
def magic_bg(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Run a job in the background, in a separate thread.
For example,
%bg myfunc(x,y,z=1)
will execute 'myfunc(x,y,z=1)' in a background thread. As soon as the
execution starts, a message will be printed indicating the job
number. If your job number is 5, you can use
myvar = jobs.result(5) or myvar = jobs[5].result
to assign this result to variable 'myvar'.
IPython has a job manager, accessible via the 'jobs' object. You can
type jobs? to get more information about it, and use jobs.<TAB> to see
its attributes. All attributes not starting with an underscore are
meant for public use.
In particular, look at the method, which is used to create
new jobs. This magic %bg function is just a convenience wrapper
around, for expression-based jobs. If you want to create a
new job with an explicit function object and arguments, you must call directly.
The docstring also describes in detail several important
caveats associated with a thread-based model for background job
execution. Type for details.
You can check the status of all jobs with jobs.status().
The jobs variable is set by IPython into the Python builtin namespace.
If you ever declare a variable named 'jobs', you will shadow this
name. You can either delete your global jobs variable to regain
access to the job manager, or make a new name and assign it manually
to the manager (stored in IPython's namespace). For example, to
assign the job manager to the Jobs name, use:
Jobs =""",
def magic_r(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Repeat previous input.
Note: Consider using the more powerfull %rep instead!
If given an argument, repeats the previous command which starts with
the same string, otherwise it just repeats the previous input.
Shell escaped commands (with ! as first character) are not recognized
by this system, only pure python code and magic commands.
start = parameter_s.strip()
esc_magic =
# Identify magic commands even if automagic is on (which means
# the in-memory version is different from that typed by the user).
start_magic = esc_magic+start
start_magic = start
# Look through the input history in reverse
for n in range(len(,0,-1):
input =[n]
# skip plain 'r' lines so we don't recurse to infinity
if input != '_ip.magic("r")\n' and \
(input.startswith(start) or input.startswith(start_magic)):
#print 'match',`input` # dbg
print 'Executing:',input,
print 'No previous input matching `%s` found.' % start
def magic_bookmark(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Manage IPython's bookmark system.
%bookmark <name> - set bookmark to current dir
%bookmark <name> <dir> - set bookmark to <dir>
%bookmark -l - list all bookmarks
%bookmark -d <name> - remove bookmark
%bookmark -r - remove all bookmarks
You can later on access a bookmarked folder with:
%cd -b <name>
or simply '%cd <name>' if there is no directory called <name> AND
there is such a bookmark defined.
Your bookmarks persist through IPython sessions, but they are
associated with each profile."""
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'drl',mode='list')
if len(args) > 2:
raise UsageError("%bookmark: too many arguments")
bkms = self.db.get('bookmarks',{})
if opts.has_key('d'):
todel = args[0]
except IndexError:
raise UsageError(
"%bookmark -d: must provide a bookmark to delete")
del bkms[todel]
except KeyError:
raise UsageError(
"%%bookmark -d: Can't delete bookmark '%s'" % todel)
elif opts.has_key('r'):
bkms = {}
elif opts.has_key('l'):
bks = bkms.keys()
if bks:
size = max(map(len,bks))
size = 0
fmt = '%-'+str(size)+'s -> %s'
print 'Current bookmarks:'
for bk in bks:
print fmt % (bk,bkms[bk])
if not args:
raise UsageError("%bookmark: You must specify the bookmark name")
elif len(args)==1:
bkms[args[0]] = os.getcwd()
elif len(args)==2:
bkms[args[0]] = args[1]
self.db['bookmarks'] = bkms
def magic_pycat(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Show a syntax-highlighted file through a pager.
This magic is similar to the cat utility, but it will assume the file
to be Python source and will show it with syntax highlighting. """
filename = get_py_filename(parameter_s)
cont = file_read(filename)
except IOError:
cont = eval(parameter_s,self.user_ns)
except NameError:
cont = None
if cont is None:
print "Error: no such file or variable"
def _rerun_pasted(self):
""" Rerun a previously pasted command.
b = self.user_ns.get('pasted_block', None)
if b is None:
raise UsageError('No previous pasted block available')
print "Re-executing '%s...' (%d chars)"% (b.split('\n',1)[0], len(b))
exec b in self.user_ns
def _get_pasted_lines(self, sentinel):
""" Yield pasted lines until the user enters the given sentinel value.
from IPython import iplib
print "Pasting code; enter '%s' alone on the line to stop." % sentinel
while True:
l = iplib.raw_input_original(':')
if l == sentinel:
yield l
def _strip_pasted_lines_for_code(self, raw_lines):
""" Strip non-code parts of a sequence of lines to return a block of
# Regular expressions that declare text we strip from the input:
strip_re = [r'^\s*In \[\d+\]:', # IPython input prompt
r'^\s*(\s?>)+', # Python input prompt
r'^\s*\.{3,}', # Continuation prompts
strip_from_start = map(re.compile,strip_re)
lines = []
for l in raw_lines:
for pat in strip_from_start:
l = pat.sub('',l)
block = "\n".join(lines) + '\n'
#print "block:\n",block
return block
def _execute_block(self, block, par):
""" Execute a block, or store it in a variable, per the user's request.
if not par:
b = textwrap.dedent(block)
self.user_ns['pasted_block'] = b
exec b in self.user_ns
self.user_ns[par] = SList(block.splitlines())
print "Block assigned to '%s'" % par
def magic_cpaste(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Allows you to paste & execute a pre-formatted code block from clipboard.
You must terminate the block with '--' (two minus-signs) alone on the
line. You can also provide your own sentinel with '%paste -s %%' ('%%'
is the new sentinel for this operation)
The block is dedented prior to execution to enable execution of method
definitions. '>' and '+' characters at the beginning of a line are
ignored, to allow pasting directly from e-mails, diff files and
doctests (the '...' continuation prompt is also stripped). The
executed block is also assigned to variable named 'pasted_block' for
later editing with '%edit pasted_block'.
You can also pass a variable name as an argument, e.g. '%cpaste foo'.
This assigns the pasted block to variable 'foo' as string, without
dedenting or executing it (preceding >>> and + is still stripped)
'%cpaste -r' re-executes the block previously entered by cpaste.
Do not be alarmed by garbled output on Windows (it's a readline bug).
Just press enter and type -- (and press enter again) and the block
will be what was just pasted.
IPython statements (magics, shell escapes) are not supported (yet).
See also
paste: automatically pull code from clipboard.
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'rs:',mode='string')
par = args.strip()
if opts.has_key('r'):
sentinel = opts.get('s','--')
block = self._strip_pasted_lines_for_code(
self._execute_block(block, par)
def magic_paste(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Allows you to paste & execute a pre-formatted code block from clipboard.
The text is pulled directly from the clipboard without user
The block is dedented prior to execution to enable execution of method
definitions. '>' and '+' characters at the beginning of a line are
ignored, to allow pasting directly from e-mails, diff files and
doctests (the '...' continuation prompt is also stripped). The
executed block is also assigned to variable named 'pasted_block' for
later editing with '%edit pasted_block'.
You can also pass a variable name as an argument, e.g. '%paste foo'.
This assigns the pasted block to variable 'foo' as string, without
dedenting or executing it (preceding >>> and + is still stripped)
'%paste -r' re-executes the block previously entered by cpaste.
IPython statements (magics, shell escapes) are not supported (yet).
See also
cpaste: manually paste code into terminal until you mark its end.
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'r:',mode='string')
par = args.strip()
if opts.has_key('r'):
text =
block = self._strip_pasted_lines_for_code(text.splitlines())
self._execute_block(block, par)
def magic_quickref(self,arg):
""" Show a quick reference sheet """
import IPython.usage
qr = IPython.usage.quick_reference + self.magic_magic('-brief')
def magic_upgrade(self,arg):
""" Upgrade your IPython installation
This will copy the config files that don't yet exist in your
ipython dir from the system config dir. Use this after upgrading
IPython if you don't wish to delete your .ipython dir.
Call with -nolegacy to get rid of ipythonrc* files (recommended for
new users)
ip = self.getapi()
ipinstallation = path(IPython.__file__).dirname()
upgrade_script = '%s "%s"' % (sys.executable,ipinstallation / '')
src_config = ipinstallation / 'UserConfig'
userdir = path(ip.options.ipythondir)
cmd = '%s "%s" "%s"' % (upgrade_script, src_config, userdir)
print ">",cmd
if arg == '-nolegacy':
legacy = userdir.files('ipythonrc*')
print "Nuking legacy files:",legacy
[p.remove() for p in legacy]
suffix = (sys.platform == 'win32' and '.ini' or '')
(userdir / ('ipythonrc' + suffix)).write_text('# Empty, see\n')
def magic_doctest_mode(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Toggle doctest mode on and off.
This mode allows you to toggle the prompt behavior between normal
IPython prompts and ones that are as similar to the default IPython
interpreter as possible.
It also supports the pasting of code snippets that have leading '>>>'
and '...' prompts in them. This means that you can paste doctests from
files or docstrings (even if they have leading whitespace), and the
code will execute correctly. You can then use '%history -tn' to see
the translated history without line numbers; this will give you the
input after removal of all the leading prompts and whitespace, which
can be pasted back into an editor.
With these features, you can switch into this mode easily whenever you
need to do testing and changes to doctests, without having to leave
your existing IPython session.
# XXX - Fix this to have cleaner activate/deactivate calls.
from IPython.Extensions import InterpreterPasteInput as ipaste
from IPython.ipstruct import Struct
# Shorthands
shell =
oc = shell.outputcache
rc = shell.rc
meta = shell.meta
# dstore is a data store kept in the instance metadata bag to track any
# changes we make, so we can undo them later.
dstore = meta.setdefault('doctest_mode',Struct())
save_dstore = dstore.setdefault
# save a few values we'll need to recover later
mode = save_dstore('mode',False)
if mode == False:
# turn on
oc.prompt1.p_template = '>>> '
oc.prompt2.p_template = '... '
oc.prompt_out.p_template = ''
# Prompt separators like plain python
oc.input_sep = oc.prompt1.sep = ''
oc.output_sep = ''
oc.output_sep2 = ''
oc.prompt1.pad_left = oc.prompt2.pad_left = \
oc.prompt_out.pad_left = False
rc.pprint = False
# turn off
oc.prompt1.p_template = rc.prompt_in1
oc.prompt2.p_template = rc.prompt_in2
oc.prompt_out.p_template = rc.prompt_out
oc.input_sep = oc.prompt1.sep = dstore.rc_separate_in
oc.output_sep = dstore.rc_separate_out
oc.output_sep2 = dstore.rc_separate_out2
oc.prompt1.pad_left = oc.prompt2.pad_left = \
oc.prompt_out.pad_left = dstore.rc_prompts_pad_left
rc.pprint = dstore.rc_pprint
# Store new mode and inform
dstore.mode = bool(1-int(mode))
print 'Doctest mode is:',
print ['OFF','ON'][dstore.mode]
# end Magic
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