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pyGram - PQ-Gram Edit Distance ============================== A Python implementation of the PQ-Gram algorithm for approximating tree edit distance. For more information on the algorithm, please see the academic paper: http://www.vldb2005.org/program/paper/wed/p301-augsten.pdf. The PQ-Gram edit distance provides an extremely fast approximate tree edit distance. In testing it appears to perform faster than any current approximation for tree edit distance, with only a slight overhead in terms of memory usage. The PQ-Gram edit distance is pseudo-metric: 1) Identity - edit_distance(a, a) = 0 2) Symmetric - edit_distance(a, b) = edit_distance(b, a) 3) Triangle Inequality - edit_distance(a, b) + edit_distance(b, c) >= edit_distance(a, c) In effect, this means that if the PQ-Gram distance between tree A and B is less than the distance between tree C and D, then the true edit distance between A and B is less than or equal to the distance between C and D. Note that an edit distance of 0 does not mean the two trees are identical, only very similar. USAGE: To use PyGram.py distance you must complete three steps: 1) Re-write or modify tree.py. This class is currently a stub which provides a basic tree structure. In order for PyGram.py to function properly, this stub must be used, or a class with the same characteristics must be put in it's place. These characteristics include: - class Node() - def addkid(self, node, before=False) - self.label - self.children If the Node class does not have a label in the form of a string or children in the form of a list then the algorithm will fail. 2) Generate a PQ-Gram Profile. This can be done by simply creating an object of class Profile. 3) Call the edit_distance method using two PQ-Gram Profiles. Note that there is no installation script, simply add the source files to the appropriate directory and use them. TIPS: 1) The p and q values will change the distribution of the edit_distance function. This occurs for reasons that are more apparent if you read the paper. The basic concept is that p controls the impact of ancestor nodes, and q controls the impact of sibling nodes. In practice, you will likely not need to modify these, as the preset values are reasonable. However, you may wish to tweak them to improve performance (either speed or accuracy) of your program. 2) When node labels are compared, it is using a binary string comparison. That is, the string "I am a dog" compared with the string "I am not a dog" results in a 0, whereas the string "Hello" and "Hello" results in a 1. This is due to limitations in the PQ-Gram Edit Distance algorithm. Whenever node labels are extended or overly descriptive, performance and accuracy of the algorithm can be increased dramatically by exploding node labels. This can be done using the helper method split_tree. When given a tree, split_tree will return a basic tree (that is to say, if you modify tree.py to include more than just the label value those values will be lost) which has each node split into a null node parent and child nodes based on a delimiter specified. Example: Given the following tree A:B:C | A:B split_method(root, ":") would result in * / | \ A B C | * / \ A B Note that the fact that A becomes the new parent is irrelevant because all nodes split using this method become left aligned. Given no delimiter, the function defaults to a full explosion, where each character in the label becomes it's own node. In practice, I have found this to be both the fastest and most accurate method, despite the dramatic increase in tree size. It is also important to note that split_tree is nondestructive. This ensures that if you modify tree.py so each node has more information than just a label, computing the split_tree for use in generating a PQ-Gram Profile would not destroy the extra data. 3) PQ-Gram always compares by the labels. Whatever other data you may have with the nodes, the edit distance comparison is always using just information in the labels. If you feel the data is necessary for proper comparison, you must include it in the label in some way. Once again, I highly recommend you use the split_tree function in tree.py to ensure the correct level of granularity in the string comparison.