A collection of NLP pipelines including pipelines that use the UIMA ConceptMapper to annotate text with concepts from the Open Biomedical Ontologies
AMPL Java

README.md

ccp nlp-pipelines

Colorado Computational Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine June 26, 2014

The pipelines presented in this project were developed to produce concept annotations from any biomedical ontology on any collection of text documents and also to evaluate any annotations produced by automatic annotators on the Colorado Richly Annotation Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus.

These pipelines are derived from those used in the evaluation and analysis of three different automatic annotators on the CRAFT corpus, as seen in Funk et al. 2014 (citation below). This work found that Concept Mapper, a UIMA dictionary-based annotator, was the best performer on a majority of the ontologies.

Funk C, Baumgartner W, Garcia B, Roeder C, Bada M, Cohen KB, Hunter LE & Verspoor K (2014). Large-scale biomedical concept recognition: an evaluation of current automatic annotators and their parameters. BMC Bioinformatics, 15, 59.

Development

This project follows the Git-Flow approach to branching as originally described here. To facilitate the Git-Flow branching approach, this project makes use of the jgitflow-maven-plugin as described here.

Code in the master branch reflects the latest release of this library. Code in the development branch contains the most up-to-date version of this project.

Maven signature

<dependency>
    <groupId>edu.ucdenver.ccp</groupId>
    <artifactId>nlp-pipelines-conceptmapper</artifactId>
    <version>0.5.3</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>edu.ucdenver.ccp</groupId>
    <artifactId>nlp-pipelines-evaluation</artifactId>
    <version>0.5.3</version>
</dependency>

<repository>
    <id>bionlp-sourceforge</id>
    <url>http://svn.code.sf.net/p/bionlp/code/repo/</url>
</repository>

Producing concept annotations from the command line

The pipeline to produce concept annotations is located in the edu.ucdenver.ccp.nlp.pipelines.conceptmapper.EntityFinder class. To produce annotations from a directory of text files, do the following:

  1. Install MAVEN via the instructions found at http://maven.apache.org/download.cgi.

  2. Change directory to the nlp-pipelines project.

  3. Compile, test, and package the source use the following command:

mvn clean install

  1. Annotate text files in a directory using the following command:

mvn -f nlp-pipelines-conceptmapper/pom.xml exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="edu.ucdenver.ccp.nlp.pipelines.conceptmapper.EntityFinder" -Dexec.args="<InputDir> <OutputDir> <ontology> <OBOfile> <DictDir> <CleanDictFlag>"

The parameters required are as follows:

  • <InputDir> - Directory of text files for input. The text files should be named by the identifier of the article and have a file extension of ".txt". The text files can be in ASCII or UTF-8 encoding but must be plain text (i.e. not XML). It is possible to use a different collection reader with XML or other input but it requires editing the source.

  • <OutputDir> - Directory where annotations will be written. Output is one ".a1" file per input text file in the BioNLP/Brat format. More information about the output format can be seen here. Simply, the format stores one annotation per line (and an extra line for the ontology concept reference). Annotation lines take the form of

annotation_id [tab] annotation_type span_start_offset span_end_offset [tab] covered_text

The lines beginning with N capture the ontology term reference and take the form of

normalization_id [tab] Reference annotation_id ontology_concept_id

Serialization of two sample Gene Ontology annotations using the BioNLP format are shown below:

T2 go_term 232 244 pigmentation
N2 Reference T2 GO:0043473
T7 go_term 1841 1862 embryonic development
N7 Reference T7 GO:0009790

  • <ontology> - Specifies which ontology concepts are used for annotation. If an ontology evaluated in Funk et al. 2014 is selected, then the best parameter combinations discovered in the published evaluation are used. The ontologies with specific parameter combinations are:
    • CHEBI - Chemical Entities of Biological Interest
    • SO - Sequence Ontology
    • GO - Gene Ontology
      • GO_MF - GO Molecular Function
    • GO_CC - GO Cellular Component
    • GO_BP - GO Biological Process
    • PR - Protein Ontology
    • CL - Cell Ontology
    • NCBI_TAXON - NCBI Taxonomy

If the specific ontology of interestes is not listed please use "OBO" as the value for this parameter.

  • <OBOfile> - The OBO or OWL ontology file. A large list of biomedical ontologies can be found at http://www.obofoundry.org/.

  • <DictDir> - The directory where the Concept Mapper dictionary will be written.

  • <CleanDictFlag> - If true, previously build dictionary files are deleted and the dictionary is recreated prior to use. If false, previously used dictionary files are used if they are available.

Evaluating annotations against CRAFT:

The pipeline to evaluate annotations again the CRAFT corpus is located in the edu.ucdenver.ccp.nlp.pipelines.evaluation.craft.CraftRunGenericComparison class. It compares normalized concepts based on their text spans. Prior annotations must be used, this pipeline is only for evaluation. Annotations can be obtained from any automatic annotator and converted to the correct format, or obtained from the previously discussed pipeline and converted via the script to the correct format. The following command will run the evaluation pipeline:

mvn -f nlp-pipelines-evaluation/pom.xml exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="edu.ucdenver.ccp.nlp.pipelines.evaluation.craft. CraftRunGenericComparison" -Dexec.args="<ontology> <AnnotationDir> <outputFile <comparisonSpanMatcher> OPTIONAL:<scoreCutoff>"

The parameters are as follows:

  • <ontology> - Specifies which ontology the annotations are from. It must be one of the ontologies annotated in CRAFT. The ontologies are:

    • CHEBI - Chemical Entities of Biological Interest
    • SO - Sequence Ontology
    • GO_MF - GO Molecular Function
    • GO_CC - GO Cellular Component
    • GO_BP - GO Biological Process
    • PR - Protein Ontology
    • CL - Cell Ontology
    • NCBI_TAXON - NCBI Taxonomy
    • EG - Entrez Gene
  • <AnnotationDir> - The directory where the annotations are placed. The directory should contain on annotation file for each of the 67 CRAFT documents following the naming convention of "PMID.txt". Each concept annotation should be on a single tab delimited line, should be formatted as follows:

ConceptID [tab] covered_text [tab] span_start_offset [tab] span_end_offset [tab] OPTIONAL:score

  • <outputFile> - The output filename that will be produced. It lists True Positives (TP), False Positives (FP), and False Negatives (FN) for each document along with how overall performance in terms of Precision (P), Recall (R), and F1-measure (F).

  • <comparisonSpanMatcher> - Specifies how to compare the annotations based on their text span. Results will differ depending on which parameter is chosen. The options are as follows:

    • STRICT - Text spans must match exactly. This is the strictest option.
    • OVERLAP - Some part of the annotation and gold standard must overlap. This is
      the loosest option.
    • SHARED_START - The annotation and gold standard must share beginning text span, but not the end.
    • SHARED_END - The annotation and gold standard must share end text span, but not the beginning.
    • SHARED_START_OR_END - The annotation and gold standard must share either the beginning or end, but not both.
  • OPTIONAL:<scoreCutoff> - The cutoff parameter is optional. If your annotation produces a confidence score it can be included and annotations can be filtered based off of it. Only annotations with scores >= cutoff parameter provided are used.

Converting A1 files evaluations:

A script in nlp-pipelines/scripts named "convertA1forEvaluation.pl" converts BioNLP/Brat format annotations produced by the concept annotation pipeline to the required format for evaluation against CRAFT. The correct usage is:

./convertA1forEvaluation.pl <inputA1Dir> <outputDir>

where:

  • <inputA1Dir> - is the directory that contains the A1 annotation files for every corresponding article in CRAFT.

  • <outputDir> - the directory where output will be written.

License

The software is released under the New BSD license (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php).

Copyright (c) 2014, Regents of the University of Colorado All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

  • Neither the name of the University of Colorado nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Any documentation, advertising materials, publications and other materials related to redistribution and use must acknowledge that the software was developed by Christopher Funk <Christopher.Funk@ucdenver.edu>, William A Baumgartner Jr <William.Baumgartner@ucdenver.edu>, Christophe Roeder, and Karin Verspoor <Karin.Verspoor@ucdenver.edu> and should reference the following publication:

>Funk C, Baumgartner W, Garcia B, Roeder C, Bada M, Cohen KB, Hunter LE & Verspoor K (2014). Large-scale biomedical concept recognition: an evaluation of current automatic annotators and their parameters. BMC Bioinformatics, 15, 59.