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Home Office API Standards

This document captures The Home Office's view of API best practices and standards.


Important Note!! We want your feedback!

Before you begin to read this guide, please bear in mind that technology moves forward at a pace, and our understandings and opinions change even faster. Where you read something that doesn't make sense for your service or as general guidance we appreciate debate and discussion on it - raise an issue, get some developers together, or email the Centre of Excellence at

Core principles

  1. Understand the user needs and try to adopt a consumer-first approach. Ensure you know who your consumers are and talk to them. It's good to have a mailing list for them and to create a forum where the services can be discussed. Contracts / schemas / ICDs are all very useul but cannot replace the human conversations. Don't surprise your users by suddenly introducing breaking changes or non-standard responses.
  2. Hide implementation details and understand your bounded context. Hide your database structure! Do not have multiple services reading or (worse) writing to the same database. This breaks encapsulation and cohesion, increases coupling and makes it difficult to change schemas and data
  3. Decentralise services so that a team owns and operates it (they build, own and support it). Be wary of ESBs which can force you to use a particular, centralised architectural style . Keep messaging middleware dumb and ignorant of the domain. Be aware of the added complexity of using API Gateways for much more than API key management. Be aware of the drawbacks of orchestration / "God services" / BPM systems which tell other services what to do (they can become a point of centralisation and contention). Choreography via event driven and pub/sub patterns helps to facilitate looser coupling.
  4. Deploy independently so that small changes to your service can be released separately from other applications. This requires a high degree of automated provisioning and testing (so that it's easy to create new, small services and release frequently). Minimise end-to-end tests, which can become test cycle bottlenecks, and instead focus on whether you break any of your consumers by using consumer-driven contracts: API consumers write explicit expectations as tests which are made available to and tested by the service itself.
  5. Isolate and understand inevitable failure to improve resiliency. The last thing you want is a 'distributed single point of failure' where a failure in one microservice brings down an entire system; this is more difficult to deal with than a simple monolith failure. Avoid 'cascading failures' by failing fast and explicitly so that dependent services know ASAP (and don't wait longer and longer for a response). Likewise, as a consumer, don't wait too long for a response and deal appropriately with requests that take too long. Understand the business implications of failure so you can discuss and agree mitigation strategies (preferably in advance). See also stability patterns such as bulkhead and circuit breaker.
  6. Make your service highly observable. Record requests, response times and error codes and make sure it's easy to access these metrics. Ensure your services are monitorable via healthcheck endpoints; monitoring of dependencies (e.g. downstream connections) is also useful. Use a Correlation ID to make it easier to track requests across multiple microservices. Semantic monitoring using end-to-end tests can be useful. Also consider outputting business metrics (e.g. number of applications) to the same place.
  7. Follow standards and be consistent with versioning, pagination etc. The PayPal API Style Guide on GitHub is a good starting point.
  8. Document your service - several approaches including OpenAPI and Spring REST Docs are outlined below
  9. KISS. Textual payloads are easier to read even if they are less efficient - so always favour them. Return the minimum number of fields required (it's easier to add more fields later than to remove them) but balance this with having multiple, small requests. Avoid versioning unless it's really needed (and then, use URL-based versioning e.g. v2/ then v3/ to version if you have control over your consumers). Avoid client libraries (the idea is that they're DRY but logic can leak into these, and new versions require new client libraries, so make it just about the connection if you do use these)
  10. Use tech agnostic APIs (avoid RMI) and prefer REST as the default choice. However, don't use REST at the expense of usability eg for mobile clients. You could consider using REST expansion or even GraphQL (see GitHub's implementation) for clients with high latency or poor network reliability.

Key practices

Always use HTTPS

Any new API should use and require HTTPS encryption (using TLS/SSL). HTTPS provides:

  • Security. The contents of the request are encrypted across the Internet.
  • Authenticity. A stronger guarantee that a client is communicating with the real API.
  • Privacy. Enhanced privacy for apps and users using the API. HTTP headers and query string parameters (among other things) will be encrypted.
  • Compatibility. Broader client-side compatibility. For CORS requests to the API to work on HTTPS websites -- to not be blocked as mixed content -- those requests must be over HTTPS.

HTTPS should be configured using modern best practices, including ciphers that support forward secrecy, and HTTP Strict Transport Security.

Prefer JSON

Prefer JSON as the default for your APIs. It reduces complexity for both the API provider and consumer.

General JSON guidelines:

  • Use a schema, preferably JSON Schema. This will also mean you know they keys in advance (i.e. they are not dynamic, derviced from data) and that you're consistent in your case
  • Responses should be a JSON object, not an array. Using an array to return results limits the ability to include metadata about results.
  • Keep JSON minified in all responses. Extra whitespace adds needless response size to requests, and many clients for human consumption will automatically "prettify" JSON output.

use ISO 8601 for dates

Use ISO 8601, in UTC.

For dates use the format YYYY-MM-DD e.g. 2013-02-27. For datetimes, use the form YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ e.g. 2013-02-27T10:00:00Z.

Use UTF-8

Just use UTF-8.

An API should tell clients to expect UTF-8 by including a charset notation in the Content-Type header for responses, e.g.:

Content-Type: application/json; charset#utf-8


For clients to be able to use an API from inside web browsers, the API must enable CORS.

For the simplest and most common use case, where the entire API should be accessible from inside the browser, enabling CORS is as simple as including this HTTP header in all responses:

Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

It's supported by every modern browser, and will Just Work in many JavaScript clients, like jQuery.

For more advanced configuration, see the W3C spec or Mozilla's guide.


JSONP is not secure or performant.


HTTP requests are stateless and requests should be independent; they may occur in any order, so do not attempt to retain transient state information between requests. Each request should be an atomic operation: a finite state machine where a request transitions a resource from one non-transient state to another.

Avoid designing interfaces that mirrors the internal structure of the data. Instead expose business entities and the operations that an application can perform on these entities.

Avoid “chatty” APIs (a large number of small resources), but balance this against the overhead of fetching excessive data that might not be frequently required.

Avoid requiring resource URIs more complex than collection/item/collection

API Endpoints

An API endpoint should be an easy-to-read, self-explanatory URL that represents a single resource. Do not shoehorn multiple resources or operations into a single endpoint.

Operations must use the proper HTTP methods (verbs) and Idempotency must be respected:

Method Description Idempotent?
GET Return the resource Yes
POST Create a new resource based on the data provided in the body, or submit a command No
PUT Replace a resource (i.e. updates it) or create a named resource, based on the data provided in the body Yes
DELETE Delete a resource Yes
HEAD Return metadata of a resource for a GET response Yes
PATCH Apply a partial update to a resource No


POST operations must support the Location response header to specify the location of any created resource that was not explicitly named, via the Location header.

Example: the service below allows creation of hosted servers, which will be named by the service:


Example response (201) with Location header:

201 Created

Extra information can be passed to an endpoint either via a query string (e.g. ?year#2014) or in an HTTP header (e.g. X-Api-Key: my-key)


When an application sends an HTTP PUT request to update a resource, it specifies the URI of the resource and provides the data to be modified in the body of the request message. It specficies the Content-Type in the header.

If the modification is successful, it should ideally respond with an HTTP 204 status code, indicating that the process has been successfully handled, but that the response body contains no further information. The Location header in the response contains the URI of the newly updated resource:

Date: Fri, 22 Aug 2014 09:18:37 GMT

Other best practice

  • The request can include an Accept header which specifies the preferred format that the client would like to receive and the web service should attempt to honor this format if at all possible
  • a GET request to the root endpoint should return all the endpoint categories that the API supports
  • use null for blank values instead of omitting it
  • lists of resources can return summary responses (a subset of all attributes for the resource, omitting attributes that may be expensive to return)
  • use parameters for filtering or pagination


  • the best way to understand and address the weaknesses in an API's design and implementation is to use it in a production system. Whenever feasible, design an API in parallel with an accompanying integration of that API.
  • have an clear way for clients to report issues and ask questions about the API. In addition, publish an email address for direct, non-public inquiries.
  • have a simple way for clients to follow changes to the API, e.g. a mailing list, or a dedicated developer blog with an RSS feed.

Error handling

Client errors

There are three possible types of client errors on API calls that receive request bodies:

Sending invalid JSON should result in a 400 Bad Request response.

HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request Content-Length: 35

{"message":"Problems parsing JSON"}

Sending the wrong type of JSON values should result in a 400 Bad Request response.

HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request Content-Length: 40

{"message":"Body should be a JSON object"}

Sending invalid fields should result in a 422 Unprocessable Entity response.

HTTP/1.1 422 Unprocessable Entity Content-Length: 149

  "message": "Validation Failed",
  "errors": [
      "resource": "Issue",
      "field": "title",
      "code": "missing_field"

Handle all errors (including otherwise uncaught exceptions) and return a data structure in the same format as the rest of the API.

For example, a JSON API might provide the following when an uncaught exception occurs:

  "message": "Description of the error.",
  "exception": "[detailed stacktrace]"

HTTP responses with error details should use a 4XX status code to indicate a client-side failure (such as invalid authorization, or an invalid parameter), and a 5XX status code to indicate server-side failure (such as an uncaught exception).


If pagination is required to navigate datasets, use the method that makes the most sense for the API's data.


Common patterns:

  • page and per_page. Intuitive for many use cases. Links to "page 2" may not always contain the same data.
  • offset and limit. This standard comes from the SQL database world, and is a good option when you need stable permalinks to result sets.
  • since and limit. Get everything "since" some ID or timestamp. Useful when it's a priority to let clients efficiently stay "in sync" with data. Generally requires result set order to be very stable.


Include enough metadata so that clients can calculate how much data there is, and how and whether to fetch the next set of results.

Example of how that might be implemented:

  "results": [ ... actual results ... ],
  "pagination": {
    "count": 2340,
    "page": 4,
    "per_page": 20


It is usually best to avoid versioning by enabling the continuous evolution of a schema. If adding new features to an API requires a new version, this makes using the API more difficult and fragile. Prefer to add capabilities via new types and new fields on those types; avoid breaking changes and serve a versionless API


How consumers authenticate with an API is important for many APIs. Whilst we've not settled on a standard the following approaches have been tried.

Mutual TLS

Mutual TLS means that connecting clients need to have a client certificate before using the service. Typically the system terminating the mutual TLS will add headers to identify the client. The could allow your application to use these for example for granular permissions.

Pros and Cons of Mutual TLS

| Pros | Cons |---| |Can use standard nginx or similar for this purpose, so your application doesn't need to worry about auth | Client certificates will expire, and hence need to recreate these for all clients periodically, which introduces a lot of overhead and potential for errors | | Have to maintain a CA for signing client certs

OAuth2 with keycloak

OAuth2 is very commonly used for user authentication, but less frequently for API authentication. This is reflected by fewer client auth libraries available than you may expect. However the logic is trivial to implement.

We can implement OAuth2 authentication trivially using keycloak-proxy in front of an API, authenticating to a centralised keycloak server. This is especially beneficial as keycloak-proxy combined with a centralised keycloak give many capabilities for free such as role and user management, brute force prevention.

Pros and Cons of OAuth2 with keycloak

| Pros | Cons |---| |Can implement trivially using keycloak-proxy and keycloak |Client auth is slightly more complicated| |Get a lot of capabilities for free with keycloak | | |Possibility for consumers to rotate their own credentials, reducing administrative overhead | | |Creds are only sent to the system on first auth or when the authentication token expires | |

Basic HTTP Auth with username and password

Basic HTTP auth requires a username and password to be sent with every request.

Pros and Cons of Basic HTTP Auth

| Pros | Cons |---| |Very simple to set up initially |Doing anything beyond basic auth is difficult | |User accounts have to be managed by your application, introducing complexity

Documentation, Acceptance tests, and creating a mock of your API

These topics all go hand in hand - frequently one document can be the basis for tests, documentation, and for generating a mock. Here we will cover the common approaches we favour, and when each is appropriate.

Recommended approaches

1. Open API/Swagger

OpenAPI is an open standard for documenting APIs, and is one of the most common. It does a decent job of getting some API documentation available with relatively little effort required on your part. Because it is an open standard there are a plethora of tools that can work with OpenAPI specs to produce mocks, pretty docs, tests, etc. It is also emerging as the cross-government default choice.

The shortcomings are that:

  • Some implementations can become out of sync if they rely heavily on annotations which can get out of date
  • the mock you can generate from an OpenAPI spec is somewhat inflexible, as are the docs

However both of these shortcomings are likely to be addressed as the spec matures and the tools improve.

2. Rest-assured tests with Spring RestDocs (you don't need Spring!), and Wiremock

Why we like this approach

  • It enables one set of tests to generate docs and mock, helping to make sure everything ties together
  • The mock generated is flexible - it can have multiple canned responses per endpoint depending on the request params, whereas many other automatically generated mocks only allow one canned response per endpoint
  • The docs generated are flexible - A person writes the overall documentation, meaning it can be structured however makes most sense for your API, with as much detail as you like. The generated snippets then give real examples that you can embed into sections. This allows you to put much more context around the documentation than you may otherwise have been able to do
  • Allows testing and documentation of a json schema for your API

Example application using this approach Peruse the example docs and mock for the LEV project. The source code is available on request. If you have any questions ask in the developers slack channel and one of us will get back to you.

Rest assured is a library designed for making testing APIs straightforward. We recommend it here as it works out the box with Spring RestDocs.

Spring Restdocs allows you to generate documentation snippets for each of your tests. It records the request and the response and creates snippets for each of these. You can then embed these snippets into a master document that describes your whole API. Documentation snippets are recorded in asciidoctor format, which is like a more advanced version of markdown. The main readme asciidoc file can then embed snippets from other files

Wiremock is a mock API that allows you to record a series of requests and responses (by proxying requests through wiremock). When running your rest-assured tests you should proxy requests through a wiremock instance in record mode. It will then generate a number of files that represent the requests and responses. These files can then be used to run wiremock as a mock, where it will then respond with the recorded responses.

Alternative approach - API Blueprint

API blueprint is another alternative, but because it is less standard than OpenAPI we would typically recommend that instead. API blueprint allows you to have one markdown file which is a specification of your API. From this file you can generate html docs, run tests, and generate a mock version of your API. The shortcomings are that the mock you can generate from an API Blueprint is very inflexible, and the docs are also very inflexible. The major benefits are that it is a common format that you can put together very quickly.

Alternative approach - RAML

RAML is somewhat similar to OpenAPI, but following a different standard. There haven't been any uses in the Home Office yet so we don't recommend it's use, but some other departments use it as their standard choice.

Further reading



Roy Fielding's original REST chapter

Microsoft API Best Practice guide

Microsoft's API guidelines on GitHub

API design guide Gitbook

GitHub's API guide for developers

GDS API guide

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