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Source files for all PicoMite variants + cmake for for the standard PicoMite

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Files to build the PicoMite. MMBasic running on the Raspberry Pi Pico

NB: This should be built against pico-sdk version 1.5.1 with gpio.c replaced with the attached. NB: TinyUSB 0.16.0 is needed for USB builds

The file layout should be:


anything/PicoMite/all source and header files

The code is developed under VSCODE on W11 using GCC 13.2.1 arm-none-eabi

Compiled version and documentation is available on

Change list from V5.07.00

Source files for all PicoMite variants

PicoMite V5.09.00RC5

Support for 16-bit command tokens - refactoring of various commands, Easy setup via OPTION RESET boardname

PicoMite V5.09.00b3

Support for 16-bit displays. Shared CS pin for touch and SDcard. Optional connection to reset pin for all parallel displays.

PicoMite V5.09.00b0

Rationalisation of SPRITE AND BLIT. SPRITE SET TRANSPARENT RGB121colour. PRINT to VGA or LCD screen respects OPTION TAB

PicoMite V5.08.00

-Wall enabled and all warnings in PicoMite code fixed (not sdk) Various bug fixes and addition of support for regular expressions, continous operation of PIO DMA and ADC DMA. Play MODFILE. Support for hardware watchdog. Support for SK6812 RGBW leds. OPTION WEB MESSAGES ON/OFF. MATH WINDOW. Multiline comments. BLIT FRAMEBUFFER, BLIT MEMORY, BLIT COMPRESSED, ILI9341_8. LIBRARY DISK SAVE, LIBRARY DISK LOAD, FLASK DISK LOAD, MM.INFO(FLASH ADDRESS n), FRAMEBUFFER MERGE, BACKLIGHT level [,DEFAULT], BITBANG CAMERA, VS1053 audio support. Number of flash slots reduced to 3. BLIT MERGE. OPTION DISK SAVE/LOAD fname$. PLAY HALT. PLAY CONTINUE track$

PicoMite V5.07.07

Release version

PicoMite V5.07.07RC8

Various small changes and bug fixes

PicoMite V5.07.07RC3

Various small changes

PicoMite V5.07.07RC2

Fix to DATA/READ/RESTORE in library

PicoMite V5.07.07RC1

Support for FLAC playback

PicoMite V5.07.07b34

Support for mono output from PLAY SOUND LIBRARY LIST ALL implemented

PicoMite V5.07.07b33

Support for MCP4822 DAC for audio output

PicoMite V5.07.07b32

Improved sound handling

PicoMite V5.07.07b31

Support for I2C micro keyboard

PicoMite V5.07.07b30

Library command incorporated

PicoMite V5.07.07b28

Enhancements to PLAY SOUND to remove clicks and pops. Implements OPTION ESCAPE. PIO ASSEMBLE now accepts &B, &O, and &H for numeric values.

PicoMite V5.07.07b27

Implementation of virtual display drivers. Implementation of escape sequences in strings. VGA version can now disable console and change display width and height. LOAD IMAGE now supports compressed 4 bit images. Implemented SAVE COMPRESSED IMAGE for 1 and 4 bit displays.

PicoMite V5.07.07b25

Rework of vartbl to reduce memory usage. Finalisation of colour support in 640x480 mode.

PicoMite V5.07.07b22

More defines to support PICOMITEWEB.

PicoMite V5.07.07b19

Colour editing in 640x480 resolution for PicoMiteVGA

PicoMite V5.07.07b18 Update to SDK 1.5 +lots of other changes

PicoMite V5.07.07b5

Bug fix to CHDIR for flash file system. Fix bug in pixel drawing in PicoMite. Bug fix to ON ERROR SKIP (thanks Tom).

New functions

PIO(DMA RX POINTER). PIO(DMA TX POINTER). MM.INFO(EXISTS FILE fname$) ' see CMM2 manual for details. MM.INFO(EXISTS DIR dname$) ' see CMM2 manual for details. PIN(FLEVEL pio [,sm, DIR]) ' dir can be RX or TX. If specified gives the level of the specific fifo. PIO (SHIFTCTRL push_threshold [,pull_threshold] [,autopush] [,autopull] [,in_shiftdir] [,out_shiftdir] [,FJOIN_RX] [,FJOIN_TX]). PIO CLEAR now clears all the FIFOs for the pio specified. PIO INIT and PIO START clear the specific FIFOs for the pio and sm specified.

New Commands

NB: RX and TX are from the Basic code perspective. PIO MAKE RING BUFFER ivar%, size PIO DMA_IN OFF. PIO DMA_OUT OFF. PIO DMA_IN pio, sm, nbr, data%() [,completioninterrupt] [,transfersize] [,loopbackcount] PIO DMA_OUT pio, sm, nbr, data%() [,completioninterrupt] [,transfersize] [,loopbackcount] PIO INTERRUPT pio, sm [,RXinterrupt] [,TXinterrupt]. The PWM command is modified as follows: PWM channel, frequency, [dutyA] [,dutyB] [,phase] [,deferredstart]. PWM SYNC [channel0offset] [,channel1offset] .......[channel7offset].

PicoMite V5.07.06

See release notes

PicoMite V5.07.05RC10

Updated CSUB header file and additional functions exposed. Implements new commands MEMORY PACK and MEMORY UNPACK. These allow the normal 64 bit integers in memory to be packed into 32, 16, 8, 4 or 1 bits and then unpacked.

PicoMite V5.07.05RC9

Implements an additional parameter on OPTION SERIAL CONSOLE. i.e. OPTION SERIAL CONSOLE TXpin, RXpin [,B]. adding the "B" parameter means output will go to "B"oth the serial port and the USB PicoMite V5.07.05RC8.

Corrects reporting of MM.HRES and MM.VRES by OPTION LIST when a user driver is loaded. Fixes bug in PLAY TONE n. m. d, interrupt which caused the interrupt not to fire. Fixes bug in ERASE command when erasing arrays. Fixes bug in audio commands executed at the command line - introduced in previous RC. Implements$(sound) to report status of the audio channel. Implements ON PS2 interrupt. This triggers an interrupt whenever the PicoMite sees a message from the PS2 interface. Use to report the raw message received. This allows the programmer to trap both keypress and release. See for the scan codes (Set 2). Resets default fonts when a new program is loaded or the NEW command is executed.

PicoMite V5.07.05RC7

Changes to PS2 handler. Other changes in preparation for future release.

PicoMite V5.07.05RC6

Fixed bug in LOAD IMAGE for mono displays (e.g. SSD1306I2C32). Enabled BLIT and LOAD JPG for mono displays. Improved LOAD JPG for MODE 1 (mono VGA).

PicoMite V5.07.05RC5

MM.INFO(HEAP). MM.INFO(STACK). various tuning.

PicoMite V5.07.05RC4

Various tidying. Improved error messaging for incorrect pin usage. Fixed MM.INFO(pinno when OPTION EXPLICIT specified.

PicoMite V5.07.05RC2

MM.INFO(PINNO n) now accepts a literal, a string variable or an unquoted GPn designation

PicoMite V5.07.05RC1

OPTION LIST now shows version number and which firmware. Fixes issue where connecting a USB CDC cable would cause the VGA version to Hardfault

PicoMite V5.07.05b18

Change to better support modules with >2Mb Flash chips. SPI for touch reduced in speed to 1MHz. GUI TEXTBOX ACTIVATE removed. Bug fix to GUI spinbox to erase triangle bounding line properly. Fix to BITBANG WS2812 timings.

PicoMite V5.07.05b17

Max editor clipboard size now 16384 characters. Fixes bug in MM.INFO(filesize ... and MM.INFO(Modified ... Max number of BLIT buffers now 32 (memory dependent).

PicoMite V5.07.05b16

Fixes bug in GUI DELETE. Fixes bug in passing string function to time$. Fixes bug in OPTION LIST for some displays. New command: OPTION HEARTBEAT ON/OFF. Fixes bug in GUI TEXTBOX ACTIVATE not accepting # in the control number.

PicoMite V5.07.05b14

New commands: BITBANG SERIALTX pinno, baudrate, ostring$. BITBANG SERIALRX pinno, baudrate, instring , timeoutinms, status [,nbr] [,terminators$]

PicoMite V5.07.05b13

Adds support for the 480x320 IPS ILI9341 display (use code ILI9341IPS). Modifies the port function to read all pins simultaneously. Updates SDK to V1.4. Updates Compiler to version 11.2.1.

PicoMite V5.07.05b11

Fixes bug when using "ON KEY int" command. Enables operation up to 378MHz.


Improved error checking for SETPIN command. Updated SPI.h in SDK to fix issue with clock (pico-sdk\src\rp2_common\hardware_spi\include\hardware\spi.h)


Fixes crashing bug if edit is used after running a program with IR input. Removes support for the GDEH029A1 display as this controller is now obsolete. Reduces available RAM for VGA version from 108Kb to 104Kb to solve memory corruption issue. Build file reverts to default.


Fixed bug in PWM n,OFF requiring spurious extra parameter. Fixed bug in sound command overdriving the PWM when > 2 channels are used and the volume isn't explicitly specified.


Re-engineering of PORT command to allow simultaneous update


Implements SPRITE command and function in VGA version. Note: the build now uses a non-standard build file to gain 4K of usable RAM




Fixes bug in PIO READ. Allows a single integer variable to be used when nbr=1 in PIO READ. Implements DRAW3D command and function (VGA version only). Implements FRAMEBUFFER command (VGA version only).


V5.07.04 Changes from V5.07.03

Bug Fixes and functional corrections. Fixes bug where the system would lock up on booting if OPTION RTC AUTO was enabled but the RTC was missing. Now a warning will be printed and the option disabled. Fixes bug in MM.INFO(FILESIZE and MM.INFO(MODIFIED. Fixes an interaction between setpin FIN/PIN/CIN and PS2 keyboard usage. Fixes an interaction between interrupts and error messages. Fixes bug in ADC START command when more than 2 channels are specified and it is used in blocking mode. Fixes bug in datetime$. fixes bug in play wav command skipping a small amount of output at the beginning of playing. Fixes bug that caused tempr function to give pin reserved error under certain circumstances. Fixes PS2 keyboard dropping characters under certain circumstances. Changes to onewire timings to match CMM2.

General changes. Forces an option reset and clear flash if swapping between PicoMite and PicoMiteVGA firmware. Implements READ SAVE and READ RESTORE. These allow a subrountine to read its own data whilst preserving the data pointers for the main program. Implements EXECUTE command. Enables pins that are not exposed on the Pico to be used for reserved functions (e.g.SYSTEM I2C).

VGA version changes. Major re-write of the VGA driver to allow selection of foreground and backgound colours in 640x480 mode. The colours can be set for the whole screen or individually for 16x16 pixel tiles. Huge performance improvements. GETSCANLINE function implemented. Allows programmable switching between mode 1 (640x480) and mode 2 (320x240). Use OPTION DEFAULT MODE 1 to boot in 640x480 mode. Use OPTION DEFAULT MODE 2 to boot in 320x240 mode. Use OPTION LCDPANEL CONSOLE n to set the default font to n. To switch modes in a program use the new MODE command. MODE 1 sets to 640x480. MODE 2 sets to 320x240. There is a new command TILE that can be used to set the foreground and background color of each 16x16 area in mode 1 (640x480). TILE x, y [,foregroundcolour] [,backgroundcolour] [,no_tiles_wide] [,no_tiles_high]. This command is ignored in mode 2.

V5.07.03 Release version


Fixed bug in PWM timings. Bug fixes to CSUB internals. New command: INTERRUPT [myint]. This command triggers a software interrupt. The interrupt is set up using INTERRUPT 'myint'.
where 'myint' is the name of a subroutine that will be executed when the interrupt is triggered. Use INTERRUPT 0 to disable the interrupt. Use INTERRUPT without parameters to trigger the interrupt. NB: the interrupt can also be triggered from within a CSUB. Fixes bug which caused edit command to be rejected in certain undefined circumstances. New option for SETPIN pinno,CIN [,change]. change can be 1=rising edge (default if not specified), 2=falling edge, 3=both edges. Change to OPTION KEYBOARD: OPTION KEYBOARD nn [,capslock] [,numlock] [repeatstart] [repeatrate]. The optional parameters capslock and numlock set the initial state of the keyboard (default 0, 1). The repeatstart defines how how long before a character repeats the first time (valid 0-3 = 250mSec, 500mSec, 750mSec, 1S: default 1=500mSec). The repeat rate defines how fast a character repeats after the first repeat (valid 0-31 = 33mSec to 500mSec: default 12=100mSec). Change to AUTOSAVE: This mode is terminated by entering Control-Z or F1 which will then cause the received data to be transferred into program memory.
overwriting the previous program. Use F2 to exit and immediately run the program.


Fixes a bug where ADC START stopped VGA output. Fixes a bug where LINE INPUT would not read the last line in a file if it was not terminated with a CR.


New command LOAD JPG. LOAD JPG fname$ [,xleft%] [,ytop%]. This loads a jpg to the display. Like the CMM2 it does not support progressive jpg. Unlike the CMM2 it doesn't care how big the jpg is and whether it exceeeds the screen limits. POKE DISPLAY HRES n. POKE DISPLAY VRES m. Allows you to override the display limits. Like the rest of the POKE DISPLAY commands (and POKE in general) use with care and don't blame me for the consequences. Increased the maximum display width in OPTION DISPLAY to 240 characters. POKE DISPLAY command [,data1] [,data2] [,datan]. This command sends commands and associated data to the display controller for a connected display. This allows the programmer to change parameters of how the display is configured. e.g. POKE DISPLAY &H28 will turn off an SSD1963 display and POKE DISPLAY &H29 will turn it back on again. It is up to the Basic programmer to read and understand the datasheet for the display in use to make use of the command. Works for all displays except ST7790 and GDEH029A1. Automatically resizes compatible terminal programs to match the OPTION DISPLAY parameters. Thanks to Rich Geldreich et al for the jpg decoder


Enables F1 as a user programmable function key. Fixes bug in cursor positioning in editor. Fixed bug error message when an invalid flash page is selected. Implements support for SSD1963 parallel displays.

SSD1963_4, SSD1963_5, SSD1963_5A, SSD1963_7, SSD1963_7A, SSD1963_8. OPTION LCDPANEL SSD1963_n, orientation. It is assumed the SSD1963 is configured for 1963_PWM backlight control in which case the BACKLIGHT command will work as expected. Pin connections are as follows: DB0 pin 1:GP0, DB0 pin 2:GP1, DB0 pin 4:GP2, DB0 pin 5:GP3, DB0 pin 6:GP4, DB0 pin 7:GP5, DB0 pin 9:GP6, DB0 pin 10:GP7, RS pin 17:GP13, WR pin 19:GP14, RD pin 20:GP15, RESET pin 21:GP16, SSD displays support RGB666 and are much faster than SPI displays. The firmware includes full support for console mode. The downside is the number of pins used. A typical configuration could be: GP0-GP7 SSD1983, GP8-GP9 PS2 Keyboard, GP10-GP12 SPI for touch and SDcard, GP13-GP16 SSD1963, GP18-GP19 Touch CS and IRQ, GP22 SD CS, Leaving: GP17 I2C_SCL/COM1_RX/PWM0B, GP20 I2C_SDA/COM2_TX/PWM2A, GP21 I2C_SCL/COM2_RX/PWM2B, GP26 ADC0/SPI2_CLK/I2C2_SDA/PWM5A, GP27 ADC1/SPI2_OUT/I2C2_SCL/PWM5B, GP28 ADC2/SPI2_IN/I2C_SDA/COM1_TX/PWM6A

New command FLUSH [#]filenumber. This causes any outstanding writes to a file to be written to disk or waits for serial output to be complete. Fixed error handling for too many labels and/or functions and subroutines (max 224). Improved USB console receive. Fixes bug in GUI BITMAP when using monochrome displays. Fixes bug in handling of mouse escape sequences in the editor introduced in 5.07.03b1.


Performance tuning. Fixed bug in FLASH SAVE introduced in 5.07.03b1. Added FORMAT$() function as per CMM2 Minor change to DIR$() function to allow use with a single parameter in which case the type defaults to FILE. Changes to FILE command to deal with relative paths from a sub-directory. Fixes bug in loading F6-F9 user function definitions.


Various tidying up in preparation for release of V5.07.03


Merge of VGA and standard codesets


YOU MUST LOAD clear_flash BEFORE LOADING THIS VERSION. Program now runs from flash memory freeing up much more memory, following tuning there is no significant impact on performance. Maximum program size now 124Kbytes, Flash slots reduced from 10 to 7. FLASH RUN and FLASH CHAIN now execute direct from the specified flash slot without changing the main program. OPTION MEMORY removed as no longer relevant. OPTION BAUDRATE n now sets the baudrate for when a serial console is used. Fixes bug in using SYSTEM I2C or I2C2 for general I2C use if I2C READ does not use a string as the variable.
Fixes bug in COM1 where buffer overrun is losing characters. Support for a PS2 Keyboard added. OPTION KEYBOARD NO_KEYBOARD/US/FR/GR/IT/BE/UK/ES. use level conversion between the Pico pins and the PS2 socket or run the keyboard at 3.3V. Connect GP8 to PS2 socket CLOCK pin via level converter.
Connect GP9 to PS2 socket DATA pin via level converter. Connect VBUS to PS2 socket +5V. Connect GND to PS2 socket GND. Increases drive level for SDcard output pins (CD, MOSI and CLOCK) which MAY improve SDcard reliability when the SPI bus is loaded with additional devices (LCD and/or touch). Reduces maximum file name length to 63 characters but increase maximum files that can be listed with FILES command to 1000. Fixed memory leak caused by ctrl-C out of FILES command.


Fixes bug in day$(now) function. Fixes bug where writing text to an SPI LCD that overlapped the bottom of the screen would fail to de-assert LCD_CS. Fixes bug that added an extra space after a REM command each time the program was edited. NEW subcommands for SETTICK. SETTICK PAUSE, myint [,tickno] ' pauses the tick so that the interrupt is delayed but the current count is maintained. SETTICK RESUME, myint [,tickno] ' resumes the tick after a pause. NEW subcommands for FLASH. FLASH LIST no [,all] ' lists in full the program held in the flash slot.


Fixes bug in ON KEY keyno,int Increases drive level for SDcard output pins (CD, MOSI and CLOCK) Reduces maximum file name length to 63 characters but increase maximum files that can be listed with FILES command to 1000

V5.07.02b0 Support for 240x240 round GC9A01 display

V5.07.01b1: Fixed bug in epoch function. Increased number of WS2812 LEDs supported to 256. MM.INFO(pinno GPnn) implemented to give physical pin number for a given GP number.

V5.07.01b2: Improvement to terminal serial output used by command stacking. Implements a logarithmic scale for the volume control so that PLAY VOLUME 50,50 should sound half as loud as 100,100. Also applies to PLAY SOUND n, ch, type, freq [,vol]

V5.07.01b3: Fixes bug in SETPIN pinno,IR. Fixes bug in parameters following subcommands/sub-functions that are enclosed in brackets e.g. POKE WORD (anything),anything or ? PEEK(WORD (anything)). Allows variables or string literals in the SOUND command for both the channel and sound type. The original syntax is still also allowed.

V5.07.01b4: YOU MUST EXECUTE OPTION RESET BEFORE LOADING THIS VERSION Implements the option of using a standard uart as the console. OPTION SERIAL CONSOLE uartapin, uartbpin. uartapin and uartbpin can be any valid pair of rx and tx pins for either com1 (uart0) or com2( uart1). The order you specify them is not important. Use: OPTION SERIAL CONSOLE DISABLE to revert to normal the USB console

V5.07.01b5: Re-compile under sdk V1.3

V5.07.01b6: Fixes bug in GPS receipt where the first read of GPS(DATE) may give an incorrect answer. Fixes bug in reporting the line of an error when goto/gosub to a line number is used. Fixes bug where OPTION SERIAL CONSOLE DISABLE doesn't work after reboot. Fixes filenames so that linux which doesn't understand that "The" and "the" are the same word will compile.

V5.07.01b7 Implements LIST ALL fname$. Fixes bug in GUI SWITCH. Restores original program if AUTOSAVE is terminated with Ctrl-C or XMODEM R terminates with an error.

V5.07.01b8 Clears variable memory after Ctrl-C out of Autosave. Stops creation of spurious "Reset" USB device.

V5.07.01b9 Further rework of GUI SWITCH. Rename FileIO.c for Linux. AUTOSAVE "file" now reports a "Syntax Error" rather than "Unknown command". EDIT "file" reporting an error rather than just ignoring the argument.

V5.07.01 release. Incorporate changes above + force reset after OPTION AUDIO

7-dec-2021: Fixed filename cases for Linux. No functional code changes

PicoMite MMBasic

Geoff Graham, Peter Mather Copyright (c) 2021, All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  3. The name MMBasic be used when referring to the interpreter in any documentation and promotional material and the original copyright message be displayed on the console at startup (additional copyright messages may be added).
  4. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed by Geoff Graham, Peter Mather.
  5. Neither the name of the nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.



Source files for all PicoMite variants + cmake for for the standard PicoMite







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