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<?php
/**
* Lithium: the most rad php framework
*
* @copyright Copyright 2012, Union of RAD (http://union-of-rad.org)
* @license http://opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php The BSD License
*/

namespace lithium\data;

use lithium\util\Set;
use lithium\util\Inflector;
use lithium\core\ConfigException;
use BadMethodCallException;

/**
* The `Model` class is the starting point for the domain logic of your application.
* Models are tasked with providing meaning to otherwise raw and unprocessed data (e.g.
* user profile).
*
* Models expose a consistent and unified API to interact with an underlying datasource (e.g.
* MongoDB, CouchDB, MySQL) for operations such as querying, saving, updating and deleting data
* from the persistent storage.
*
* Models allow you to interact with your data in two fundamentally different ways: querying, and
* data mutation (saving/updating/deleting). All query-related operations may be done through the
* static `find()` method, along with some additional utility methods provided for convenience.
*
* Classes extending this one should, conventionally, be named as Plural, CamelCase and be
* placed in the `models` directory. i.e. a posts model would be `model/Posts.php`.
*
* Examples:
* {{{
* // Return all 'post' records
* Posts::find('all');
* Posts::all();
*
* // With conditions and a limit
* Posts::find('all', array('conditions' => array('published' => true), 'limit' => 10));
* Posts::all(array('conditions' => array('published' => true), 'limit' => 10));
*
* // Integer count of all 'post' records
* Posts::find('count');
* Posts::count(); // This is equivalent to the above.
*
* // With conditions
* Posts::find('count', array('conditions' => array('published' => true)));
* Posts::count(array('published' => true));
* }}}
*
* The actual objects returned from `find()` calls will depend on the type of data source in use.
* MongoDB, for example, will return results as a `Document` (as will CouchDB), while MySQL will
* return results as a `RecordSet`. Both of these classes extend a common `lithium\data\Collection`
* class, and provide the necessary abstraction to make working with either type completely
* transparent.
*
* For data mutation (saving/updating/deleting), the `Model` class acts as a broker to the proper
* objects. When creating a new record or document, for example, a call to `Posts::create()` will
* return an instance of `lithium\data\entity\Record` or `lithium\data\entity\Document`, which can
* then be acted upon.
*
* Example:
* {{{
* $post = Posts::create();
* $post->author = 'Robert';
* $post->title = 'Newest Post!';
* $post->content = 'Lithium rocks. That is all.';
*
* $post->save();
* }}}
*
* @see lithium\data\entity\Record
* @see lithium\data\entity\Document
* @see lithium\data\collection\RecordSet
* @see lithium\data\collection\DocumentSet
* @see lithium\data\Connections
*/
class Model extends \lithium\core\StaticObject {

/**
* Criteria for data validation.
*
* Example usage:
* {{{
* public $validates = array(
* 'title' => 'please enter a title',
* 'email' => array(
* array('notEmpty', 'message' => 'Email is empty.'),
* array('email', 'message' => 'Email is not valid.'),
* )
* );
* }}}
*
* @var array
*/
public $validates = array();

/**
* Model hasOne relations.
* Not yet implemented.
*
* @var array
*/
public $hasOne = array();

/**
* Model hasMany relations.
* Not yet implemented.
*
* @var array
*/
public $hasMany = array();

/**
* Model belongsTo relations.
* Not yet implemented.
*
* @var array
*/
public $belongsTo = array();

/**
* Stores model instances for internal use.
*
* While the `Model` public API does not require instantiation thanks to late static binding
* introduced in PHP 5.3, LSB does not apply to class attributes. In order to prevent you
* from needing to redeclare every single `Model` class attribute in subclasses, instances of
* the models are stored and used internally.
*
* @var array
*/
protected static $_instances = array();

/**
* Stores the filters that are applied to the model instances stored in `Model::$_instances`.
*
* @var array
*/
protected $_instanceFilters = array();

/**
* Class dependencies.
*
* @var array
*/
protected static $_classes = array(
'connections' => 'lithium\data\Connections',
'query' => 'lithium\data\model\Query',
'validator' => 'lithium\util\Validator'
);

/**
* A list of the current relation types for this `Model`.
*
* @var array
*/
protected $_relations = array();

/**
* List of relation types and the configuration fields that these relations
* require/accept.
*
* Valid relation types are:
*
* - `belongsTo`
* - `hasOne`
* - `hasMany`
*
* @var array
*/
protected $_relationTypes = array(
'belongsTo' => array('class', 'key', 'conditions', 'fields'),
'hasOne' => array('class', 'key', 'conditions', 'fields'),
'hasMany' => array(
'class', 'key', 'conditions', 'fields', 'order', 'limit'
)
);

/**
* Specifies all meta-information for this model class, including the name of the data source it
* connects to, how it interacts with that class, and how its data structure is defined.
*
* - `connection`: The name of the connection (as defined in `Connections::add()`) to which the
* model should bind
* - `key`: The primary key or identifier key for records / documents this model produces,
* i.e. `'id'` or `array('_id', '_rev')`. Defaults to `'id'`.
* - `name`: The canonical name of this model. Defaults to the class name.
* - `source`: The name of the database table or document collection to bind to. Defaults to the
* lower-cased and underscored name of the class, i.e. `class UserProfile` maps to
* `'user_profiles'`.
* - `title`: The field or key used as the title for each record. Defaults to `'title'` or
* `'name'`, if those fields are available.
*
* @var array
* @see lithium\data\Connections::add()
*/
protected $_meta = array(
'name' => null,
'title' => null,
'class' => null,
'source' => null,
'connection' => 'default',
'initialized' => false
);

/**
* Stores the data schema.
*
* The schema is lazy-loaded by the first call to `Model::schema()`, unless it has been
* manually defined in the `Model` subclass.
*
* For schemaless persistent storage (e.g. MongoDB), this is never populated automatically - if
* you desire a fixed schema to interact with in those cases, you will be required to define it
* yourself.
*
* Example:
* {{{
* protected $_schema = array(
* '_id' => array('type' => 'id'), // required for Mongo
* 'name' => array('type' => 'string', 'default' => 'Moe', 'null' => false),
* 'sign' => array('type' => 'string', 'default' => 'bar', 'null' => false),
* 'age' => array('type' => 'integer', 'default' => 0, 'null' => false)
* );
* }}}
*
* For MongoDB specifically, you can also implement a callback in your database connection
* configuration that fetches and returns the schema data, as in the following:
*
* {{{
* // config/bootstrap/connections.php:
* Connections::add('default', array(
* 'type' => 'MongoDb',
* 'host' => 'localhost',
* 'database' => 'app_name',
* 'schema' => function($db, $collection, $meta) {
* $result = $db->connection->schemas->findOne(compact('collection'));
* return $result ? $result['data'] : array();
* }
* ));
* }}}
*
* This example defines an optional MongoDB convention in which the schema for each individual
* collection is stored in a "schemas" collection, where each document contains the name of
* a collection, along with a `'data'` key, which contains the schema for that collection, in
* the format specified above.
*
* When defining `'$_schema'` where the data source is MongoDB, the types map to database
* types as follows:
*
* {{{
* id => MongoId
* date => MongoDate
* regex => MongoRegex
* integer => integer
* float => float
* boolean => boolean
* code => MongoCode
* binary => MongoBinData
* }}}
*
* @see lithium\data\source\MongoDb::$_schema
* @var array
*/
protected $_schema = array();

/**
* Default query parameters.
*
* - `'conditions'`: The conditional query elements, e.g.
* `'conditions' => array('published' => true)`
* - `'fields'`: The fields that should be retrieved. When set to `null`, defaults to
* all fields.
* - `'order'`: The order in which the data will be returned, e.g. `'order' => 'ASC'`.
* - `'limit'`: The maximum number of records to return.
* - `'page'`: For pagination of data.
* - `'with'`: An array of relationship names to be included in the query.
*
* @var array
*/
protected $_query = array(
'conditions' => null,
'fields' => null,
'order' => null,
'limit' => null,
'page' => null,
'with' => array()
);

/**
* Custom find query properties, indexed by name.
*
* @var array
*/
protected $_finders = array();

/**
* List of base model classes. Any classes which are declared to be base model classes (i.e.
* extended but not directly interacted with) must be present in this list. Models can declare
* themselves as base models using the following code:
* {{{
* public static function __init() {
* static::_isBase(__CLASS__, true);
* parent::__init();
* }
* }}}
*
* @var array
*/
protected static $_baseClasses = array(__CLASS__ => true);

/**
* Stores all custom instance methods created by `Model::instanceMethods`.
*
* @var array
*/
protected static $_instanceMethods = array();

/**
* Sets default connection options and connects default finders.
*
* @param array $options
* @return void
*/
public static function __init() {
static::config();
}

/**
* Configures the model for use. This method is called by `Model::__init()`.
*
* This method will set the `Model::$_schema`, `Model::$_meta`, `Model::$_finders` class
* attributes, as well as obtain a handle to the configured persistent storage connection.
*
* @param array $options Possible options are:
* - `meta`: Meta-information for this model, such as the connection.
* - `finders`: Custom finders for this model.
*
* @return void
*/
public static function config(array $options = array()) {
if (static::_isBase($class = get_called_class())) {
return;
}
$self = static::_object();
$query = array();
$meta = array();
$schema = array();
$source = array();
$classes = static::$_classes;

foreach (static::_parents() as $parent) {
$parentConfig = get_class_vars($parent);

foreach (array('meta', 'schema', 'classes', 'query') as $key) {
if (isset($parentConfig["_{$key}"])) {
${$key} += $parentConfig["_{$key}"];
}
}
if ($parent == __CLASS__) {
break;
}
}
$tmp = $options + $self->_meta + $meta;
$source = array('meta' => array(), 'finders' => array(), 'schema' => array());

if ($tmp['connection']) {
$conn = $classes['connections']::get($tmp['connection']);
$source = (($conn) ? $conn->configureClass($class) : array()) + $source;
}
static::$_classes = $classes;
$name = static::_name();

$local = compact('class', 'name') + $options + $self->_meta;
$self->_meta = ($local + $source['meta'] + $meta);
$self->_meta['initialized'] = false;
$self->_schema += $schema + $source['schema'];

$self->_finders += $source['finders'] + $self->_findFilters();
static::_relations();
}

/**
* Allows the use of syntactic-sugar like `Model::all()` instead of `Model::find('all')`.
*
* @see lithium\data\Model::find()
* @see lithium\data\Model::$_meta
* @link http://php.net/manual/en/language.oop5.overloading.php PHP Manual: Overloading
*
* @throws BadMethodCallException On unhandled call, will throw an exception.
* @param string $method Method name caught by `__callStatic()`.
* @param array $params Arguments given to the above `$method` call.
* @return mixed Results of dispatched `Model::find()` call.
*/
public static function __callStatic($method, $params) {
$self = static::_object();
$isFinder = isset($self->_finders[$method]);

if ($isFinder && count($params) === 2 && is_array($params[1])) {
$params = array($params[1] + array($method => $params[0]));
}

if ($method == 'all' || $isFinder) {
if ($params && is_scalar($params[0])) {
$params[0] = array('conditions' => array($self->_meta['key'] => $params[0]));
}
return $self::find($method, $params ? $params[0] : array());
}
preg_match('/^findBy(?P<field>\w+)$|^find(?P<type>\w+)By(?P<fields>\w+)$/', $method, $args);

if (!$args) {
$message = "Method `%s` not defined or handled in class `%s`.";
throw new BadMethodCallException(sprintf($message, $method, get_class($self)));
}
$field = Inflector::underscore($args['field'] ? $args['field'] : $args['fields']);
$type = isset($args['type']) ? $args['type'] : 'first';
$type[0] = strtolower($type[0]);

$conditions = array($field => array_shift($params));
$params = (isset($params[0]) && count($params) == 1) ? $params[0] : $params;
return $self::find($type, compact('conditions') + $params);
}

/**
* The `find` method allows you to retrieve data from the connected data source.
*
* Examples:
* {{{
* Model::find('all'); // returns all records
* Model::find('count'); // returns a count of all records
*
* // The first ten records that have 'author' set to 'Lithium'
* Model::find('all', array(
* 'conditions' => array('author' => "Lithium"), 'limit' => 10
* ));
* }}}
*
* @param string $type The find type, which is looked up in `Model::$_finders`. By default it
* accepts `all`, `first`, `list` and `count`,
* @param array $options Options for the query. By default, accepts:
* - `conditions`: The conditional query elements, e.g.
* `'conditions' => array('published' => true)`
* - `fields`: The fields that should be retrieved. When set to `null`, defaults to
* all fields.
* - `order`: The order in which the data will be returned, e.g. `'order' => 'ASC'`.
* - `limit`: The maximum number of records to return.
* - `page`: For pagination of data.
* @return mixed
* @filter This method can be filtered.
*/
public static function find($type, array $options = array()) {
$self = static::_object();
$finder = array();

if ($type === null) {
return null;
}

if ($type != 'all' && is_scalar($type) && !isset($self->_finders[$type])) {
$options['conditions'] = array($self->_meta['key'] => $type);
$type = 'first';
}

if (isset($self->_finders[$type]) && is_array($self->_finders[$type])) {
$options = Set::merge($self->_finders[$type], $options);
}

$options = (array) $options + (array) $self->_query;
$meta = array('meta' => $self->_meta, 'name' => get_called_class());
$params = compact('type', 'options');

$filter = function($self, $params) use ($meta) {
$options = $params['options'] + array('type' => 'read', 'model' => $meta['name']);
$query = $self::invokeMethod('_instance', array('query', $options));
return $self::connection()->read($query, $options);
};
if (is_string($type) && isset($self->_finders[$type])) {
$finder = is_callable($self->_finders[$type]) ? array($self->_finders[$type]) : array();
}
return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, $filter, $finder);
}

/**
* Gets or sets a finder by name. This can be an array of default query options,
* or a closure that accepts an array of query options, and a closure to execute.
*
* @param string $name The finder name, e.g. `first`.
* @param string $options If you are setting a finder, this is the finder definition.
* @return mixed Finder definition if querying, null otherwise.
*/
public static function finder($name, $options = null) {
$self = static::_object();

if (empty($options)) {
return isset($self->_finders[$name]) ? $self->_finders[$name] : null;
}
$self->_finders[$name] = $options;
}

/**
* Gets or sets Model's metadata.
*
* @see lithium\data\Model::$_meta
* @param string $key Model metadata key.
* @param string $value Model metadata value.
* @return mixed Metadata value for a given key.
*/
public static function meta($key = null, $value = null) {
$self = static::_object();

if ($value) {
$self->_meta[$key] = $value;
}
if (is_array($key)) {
$self->_meta = $key + $self->_meta;
}

if (!$self->_meta['initialized']) {
$self->_meta['initialized'] = true;

if ($self->_meta['source'] === null) {
$self->_meta['source'] = Inflector::tableize($self->_meta['name']);
}
$titleKeys = array('title', 'name');

if (isset($self->_meta['key'])) {
$titleKeys = array_merge($titleKeys, (array) $self->_meta['key']);
}
$self->_meta['title'] = $self->_meta['title'] ?: static::hasField($titleKeys);
}
if (is_array($key) || !$key || $value) {
return $self->_meta;
}
return isset($self->_meta[$key]) ? $self->_meta[$key] : null;
}

/**
* If no values supplied, returns the name of the `Model` key. If values
* are supplied, returns the key value.
*
* @param array $values An array of values.
* @return mixed Key value.
*/
public static function key($values = array()) {
$key = static::_object()->_meta['key'];

if (is_object($values) && method_exists($values, 'to')) {
$values = $values->to('array');
} elseif (is_object($values) && is_string($key) && isset($values->{$key})) {
return $values->{$key};
}

if (!$values) {
return $key;
}
if (!is_array($values) && !is_array($key)) {
return array($key => $values);
}
$key = (array) $key;
return array_intersect_key($values, array_combine($key, $key));
}

/**
* Returns a list of models related to `Model`, or a list of models related
* to this model, but of a certain type.
*
* @param string $name A type of model relation.
* @return array An array of relation types.
*/
public static function relations($name = null) {
$self = static::_object();

if (!$name) {
return $self->_relations;
}

if (isset($self->_relationTypes[$name])) {
return array_keys(array_filter($self->_relations, function($i) use ($name) {
return $i->data('type') == $name;
}));
}
return isset($self->_relations[$name]) ? $self->_relations[$name] : null;
}

/**
* Creates a relationship binding between this model and another.
*
* @see lithium\data\model\Relationship
* @param string $type The type of relationship to create. Must be one of `'hasOne'`,
* `'hasMany'` or `'belongsTo'`.
* @param string $name The name of the relationship. If this is also the name of the model,
* the model must be in the same namespace as this model. Otherwise, the
* fully-namespaced path to the model class must be specified in `$config`.
* @param array $config Any other configuration that should be specified in the relationship.
* See the `Relationship` class for more information.
* @return object Returns an instance of the `Relationship` class that defines the connection.
*/
public static function bind($type, $name, array $config = array()) {
$self = static::_object();

if (!isset($self->_relationTypes[$type])) {
throw new ConfigException("Invalid relationship type `{$type}` specified.");
}
$rel = static::connection()->relationship(get_called_class(), $type, $name, $config);
return $self->_relations[$name] = $rel;
}

/**
* Lazy-initialize the schema for this Model object, if it is not already manually set in the
* object. You can declare `protected $_schema = array(...)` to define the schema manually.
*
* @param mixed $field Optional. You may pass a field name to get schema information for just
* one field. Otherwise, an array containing all fields is returned. If `false`, the
* schema is reset to an empty value. If an array, field definitions contained are
* appended to the schema.
* @return array
*/
public static function schema($field = null) {
$self = static::_object();

if ($field === false) {
return $self->_schema = array();
}
if (!$self->_schema) {
$self->_schema = static::connection()->describe($self::meta('source'), $self->_meta);
$key = (array) self::meta('key');
if ($self->_schema && array_intersect($key, array_keys($self->_schema)) != $key) {
throw new ConfigException('Missing key `' . implode(',', $key) . '` from schema.');
}
}
if (is_string($field) && $field) {
return isset($self->_schema[$field]) ? $self->_schema[$field] : null;
}
return $self->_schema;
}

/**
* Checks to see if a particular field exists in a model's schema. Can check a single field, or
* return the first field found in an array of multiple options.
*
* @param mixed $field A single field (string) or list of fields (array) to check the existence
* of.
* @return mixed If `$field` is a string, returns a boolean indicating whether or not that field
* exists. If `$field` is an array, returns the first field found, or `false` if none of
* the fields in the list are found.
*/
public static function hasField($field) {
if (is_array($field)) {
foreach ($field as $f) {
if (static::hasField($f)) {
return $f;
}
}
return false;
}
$schema = static::schema();
return ($schema && isset($schema[$field]));
}

/**
* Instantiates a new record or document object, initialized with any data passed in. For
* example:
*
* {{{
* $post = Posts::create(array('title' => 'New post'));
* echo $post->title; // echoes 'New post'
* $success = $post->save();
* }}}
*
* Note that while this method creates a new object, there is no effect on the database until
* the `save()` method is called.
*
* In addition, this method can be used to simulate loading a pre-existing object from the
* database, without actually querying the database:
*
* {{{
* $post = Posts::create(array('id' => $id, 'moreData' => 'foo'), array('exists' => true));
* $post->title = 'New title';
* $success = $post->save();
* }}}
*
* This will create an update query against the object with an ID matching `$id`. Also note that
* only the `title` field will be updated.
*
* @param array $data Any data that this object should be populated with initially.
* @param array $options Options to be passed to item.
* @return object Returns a new, _un-saved_ record or document object. In addition to the values
* passed to `$data`, the object will also contain any values assigned to the
* `'default'` key of each field defined in `$_schema`.
* @filter
*/
public static function create(array $data = array(), array $options = array()) {
$params = compact('data', 'options');

return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, function($self, $params) {
$data = $params['data'];
$options = $params['options'];
$defaults = array();

foreach ((array) $self::schema() as $field => $config) {
if (isset($config['default'])) {
$defaults[$field] = $config['default'];
}
}
$data = Set::merge(Set::expand($defaults), $data);
return $self::connection()->item($self, $data, $options);
});
}

/**
* Getter and setter for custom instance methods. This is used in `Entity::__call`.
*
* {{{
* Model::instanceMethods(array(
* 'method_name' => array('Class', 'method'),
* 'another_method' => array($object, 'method'),
* 'closure_callback' => function($entity) {}
* ));
* }}}
*
* @param array $methods
* @return array
*/
public static function instanceMethods(array $methods = null) {
$class = get_called_class();
if (!isset(static::$_instanceMethods[$class])) {
static::$_instanceMethods[$class] = array();
}
if (!is_null($methods)) {
static::$_instanceMethods[$class] = $methods + static::$_instanceMethods[$class];
}
return static::$_instanceMethods[$class];
}

/**
* An instance method (called on record and document objects) to create or update the record or
* document in the database that corresponds to `$entity`.
*
* For example, to create a new record or document:
* {{{
* $post = Posts::create(); // Creates a new object, which doesn't exist in the database yet
* $post->title = "My post";
* $success = $post->save();
* }}}
*
* It is also used to update existing database objects, as in the following:
* {{{
* $post = Posts::first($id);
* $post->title = "Revised title";
* $success = $post->save();
* }}}
*
* By default, an object's data will be checked against the validation rules of the model it is
* bound to. Any validation errors that result can then be accessed through the `errors()`
* method.
*
* {{{
* if (!$post->save($someData)) {
* return array('errors' => $post->errors());
* }
* }}}
*
* To override the validation checks and save anyway, you can pass the `'validate'` option:
*
* {{{
* $post->title = "We Don't Need No Stinkin' Validation";
* $post->body = "I know what I'm doing.";
* $post->save(null, array('validate' => false));
* }}}
*
* @see lithium\data\Model::$validates
* @see lithium\data\Model::validates()
* @see lithium\data\Model::errors()
* @param object $entity The record or document object to be saved in the database. This
* parameter is implicit and should not be passed under normal circumstances.
* In the above example, the call to `save()` on the `$post` object is
* transparently proxied through to the `Posts` model class, and `$post` is passed
* in as the `$entity` parameter.
* @param array $data Any data that should be assigned to the record before it is saved.
* @param array $options Options:
* - `'callbacks'` _boolean_: If `false`, all callbacks will be disabled before
* executing. Defaults to `true`.
* - `'validate'` _mixed_: If `false`, validation will be skipped, and the record will
* be immediately saved. Defaults to `true`. May also be specified as an array, in
* which case it will replace the default validation rules specified in the
* `$validates` property of the model.
* - `'events'` _mixed_: A string or array defining one or more validation _events_.
* Events are different contexts in which data events can occur, and correspond to the
* optional `'on'` key in validation rules. They will be passed to the validates()
* method if `'validate'` is not `false`.
* - `'whitelist'` _array_: An array of fields that are allowed to be saved to this
* record.
*
* @return boolean Returns `true` on a successful save operation, `false` on failure.
* @filter
*/
public function save($entity, $data = null, array $options = array()) {
$self = static::_object();
$_meta = array('model' => get_called_class()) + $self->_meta;
$_schema = $self->_schema;

$defaults = array(
'validate' => true,
'events' => $entity->exists() ? 'update' : 'create',
'whitelist' => null,
'callbacks' => true,
'locked' => $self->_meta['locked']
);
$options += $defaults;
$params = compact('entity', 'data', 'options');

$filter = function($self, $params) use ($_meta, $_schema) {
$entity = $params['entity'];
$options = $params['options'];

if ($params['data']) {
$entity->set($params['data']);
}
if ($rules = $options['validate']) {
$events = $options['events'];
$validateOpts = is_array($rules) ? compact('rules','events') : compact('events');
if (!$entity->validates($validateOpts)) {
return false;
}
}
if (($whitelist = $options['whitelist']) || $options['locked']) {
$whitelist = $whitelist ?: array_keys($_schema);
}

$type = $entity->exists() ? 'update' : 'create';
$queryOpts = compact('type', 'whitelist', 'entity') + $options + $_meta;
$query = $self::invokeMethod('_instance', array('query', $queryOpts));
return $self::connection()->{$type}($query, $options);
};

if (!$options['callbacks']) {
return $filter(get_called_class(), $params);
}
return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, $filter);
}

/**
* An important part of describing the business logic of a model class is defining the
* validation rules. In Lithium models, rules are defined through the `$validates` class
* property, and are used by this method before saving to verify the correctness of the data
* being sent to the backend data source.
*
* Note that these are application-level validation rules, and do not
* interact with any rules or constraints defined in your data source. If such constraints fail,
* an exception will be thrown by the database layer. The `validates()` method only checks
* against the rules defined in application code.
*
* This method uses the `Validator` class to perform data validation. An array representation of
* the entity object to be tested is passed to the `check()` method, along with the model's
* validation rules. Any rules defined in the `Validator` class can be used to validate fields.
* See the `Validator` class to add custom rules, or override built-in rules.
*
* @see lithium\data\Model::$validates
* @see lithium\util\Validator::check()
* @see lithium\data\Entity::errors()
* @param string $entity Model entity to validate. Typically either a `Record` or `Document`
* object. In the following example:
* {{{
* $post = Posts::create($data);
* $success = $post->validates();
* }}}
* The `$entity` parameter is equal to the `$post` object instance.
* @param array $options Available options:
* - `'rules'` _array_: If specified, this array will _replace_ the default
* validation rules defined in `$validates`.
* - `'events'` _mixed_: A string or array defining one or more validation
* _events_. Events are different contexts in which data events can occur, and
* correspond to the optional `'on'` key in validation rules. For example, by
* default, `'events'` is set to either `'create'` or `'update'`, depending on
* whether `$entity` already exists. Then, individual rules can specify
* `'on' => 'create'` or `'on' => 'update'` to only be applied at certain times.
* Using this parameter, you can set up custom events in your rules as well, such
* as `'on' => 'login'`. Note that when defining validation rules, the `'on'` key
* can also be an array of multiple events.
* @return boolean Returns `true` if all validation rules on all fields succeed, otherwise
* `false`. After validation, the messages for any validation failures are assigned to
* the entity, and accessible through the `errors()` method of the entity object.
* @filter
*/
public function validates($entity, array $options = array()) {
$defaults = array(
'rules' => $this->validates,
'events' => $entity->exists() ? 'update' : 'create',
'model' => get_called_class()
);
$options += $defaults;
$self = static::_object();
$validator = static::$_classes['validator'];
$params = compact('entity', 'options');

$filter = function($parent, $params) use (&$self, $validator) {
$entity = $params['entity'];
$options = $params['options'];
$rules = $options['rules'];
unset($options['rules']);

if ($errors = $validator::check($entity->data(), $rules, $options)) {
$entity->errors($errors);
}
return empty($errors);
};
return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, $filter);
}

/**
* Deletes the data associated with the current `Model`.
*
* @param object $entity Entity to delete.
* @param array $options Options.
* @return boolean Success.
* @filter
*/
public function delete($entity, array $options = array()) {
$params = compact('entity', 'options');

return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, function($self, $params) {
$options = $params + $params['options'] + array('model' => $self, 'type' => 'delete');
unset($options['options']);

$query = $self::invokeMethod('_instance', array('query', $options));
return $self::connection()->delete($query, $options);
});
}

/**
* Update multiple records or documents with the given data, restricted by the given set of
* criteria (optional).
*
* @param mixed $data Typically an array of key/value pairs that specify the new data with which
* the records will be updated. For SQL databases, this can optionally be an SQL
* fragment representing the `SET` clause of an `UPDATE` query.
* @param mixed $conditions An array of key/value pairs representing the scope of the records
* to be updated.
* @param array $options Any database-specific options to use when performing the operation. See
* the `delete()` method of the corresponding backend database for available
* options.
* @return boolean Returns `true` if the update operation succeeded, otherwise `false`.
* @filter
*/
public static function update($data, $conditions = array(), array $options = array()) {
$params = compact('data', 'conditions', 'options');

return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, function($self, $params) {
$options = $params + $params['options'] + array('model' => $self, 'type' => 'update');
unset($options['options']);

$query = $self::invokeMethod('_instance', array('query', $options));
return $self::connection()->update($query, $options);
});
}

/**
* Remove multiple documents or records based on a given set of criteria. **WARNING**: If no
* criteria are specified, or if the criteria (`$conditions`) is an empty value (i.e. an empty
* array or `null`), all the data in the backend data source (i.e. table or collection) _will_
* be deleted.
*
* @param mixed $conditions An array of key/value pairs representing the scope of the records or
* documents to be deleted.
* @param array $options Any database-specific options to use when performing the operation. See
* the `delete()` method of the corresponding backend database for available
* options.
* @return boolean Returns `true` if the remove operation succeeded, otherwise `false`.
* @filter
*/
public static function remove($conditions = array(), array $options = array()) {
$params = compact('conditions', 'options');

return static::_filter(__FUNCTION__, $params, function($self, $params) {
$options = $params['options'] + $params + array('model' => $self, 'type' => 'delete');
unset($options['options']);

$query = $self::invokeMethod('_instance', array('query', $options));
return $self::connection()->delete($query, $options);
});
}

/**
* Gets the connection object to which this model is bound. Throws exceptions if a connection
* isn't set, or if the connection named isn't configured.
*
* @return object Returns an instance of `lithium\data\Source` from the connection configuration
* to which this model is bound.
*/
public static function &connection() {
$self = static::_object();
$connections = static::$_classes['connections'];
$name = isset($self->_meta['connection']) ? $self->_meta['connection'] : null;

if ($conn = $connections::get($name)) {
return $conn;
}
throw new ConfigException("The data connection `{$name}` is not configured.");
}

/**
* Gets just the class name portion of a fully-name-spaced class name, i.e.
* `app\models\Posts::_name()` returns `'Posts'`.
*
* @return string
*/
protected static function _name() {
return basename(str_replace('\\', '/', get_called_class()));
}

/**
* Wraps `StaticObject::applyFilter()` to account for object instances.
*
* @see lithium\core\StaticObject::applyFilter()
* @param string $method
* @param mixed $closure
*/
public static function applyFilter($method, $closure = null) {
$instance = static::_object();
$methods = (array) $method;

foreach ($methods as $method) {
if (!isset($instance->_instanceFilters[$method])) {
$instance->_instanceFilters[$method] = array();
}
$instance->_instanceFilters[$method][] = $closure;
}
}

/**
* Wraps `StaticObject::_filter()` to account for object instances.
*
* @see lithium\core\StaticObject::_filter()
* @param string $method
* @param array $params
* @param mixed $callback
* @param array $filters Defaults to empty array.
* @return object
*/
protected static function _filter($method, $params, $callback, $filters = array()) {
if (!strpos($method, '::')) {
$method = get_called_class() . '::' . $method;
}
list($class, $method) = explode('::', $method, 2);
$instance = static::_object();

if (isset($instance->_instanceFilters[$method])) {
$filters = array_merge($instance->_instanceFilters[$method], $filters);
}
return parent::_filter($method, $params, $callback, $filters);
}

protected static function &_object() {
$class = get_called_class();

if (!isset(static::$_instances[$class])) {
static::$_instances[$class] = new $class();
}
return static::$_instances[$class];
}

/**
* Iterates through relationship types to construct relation map.
*
* @return void
* @todo See if this can be rewritten to be lazy.
*/
protected static function _relations() {
$self = static::_object();

if (!$self->_meta['connection']) {
return;
}

foreach ($self->_relationTypes as $type => $keys) {
foreach (Set::normalize($self->{$type}) as $name => $config) {
static::bind($type, $name, (array) $config);
}
}
}

/**
* Helper function for setting/getting base class settings.
*
* @param string $class Classname.
* @param boolean $set If `true`, then the `$class` will be set.
* @return boolean Success.
*/
protected static function _isBase($class = null, $set = false) {
if ($set) {
static::$_baseClasses[$class] = true;
}
return isset(static::$_baseClasses[$class]);
}

/**
* Exports an array of custom finders which use the filter system to wrap around `find()`.
*
* @return void
*/
protected static function _findFilters() {
$self = static::_object();
$_query = $self->_query;

return array(
'first' => function($self, $params, $chain) {
$params['options']['limit'] = 1;
$data = $chain->next($self, $params, $chain);
$data = is_object($data) ? $data->rewind() : $data;
return $data ?: null;
},
'list' => function($self, $params, $chain) {
$result = array();
$meta = $self::meta();
$name = $meta['key'];

foreach ($chain->next($self, $params, $chain) as $entity) {
$key = $entity->{$name};
$result[is_scalar($key) ? $key : (string) $key] = $entity->{$meta['title']};
}
return $result;
},
'count' => function($self, $params) use ($_query) {
$model = $self;
$type = $params['type'];
$options = array_diff_key($params['options'], $_query);

if ($options && !isset($params['options']['conditions'])) {
$options = array('conditions' => $options);
} else {
$options = $params['options'];
}
$options += array('type' => 'read') + compact('model');
$query = $self::invokeMethod('_instance', array('query', $options));
return $self::connection()->calculation('count', $query, $options);
}
);
}

/**
* @deprecated
* @see lithium\data\Model::connection()
* @return connection object
*/
protected static function &_connection() {
return static::connection();
}
}

?>
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