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Add Github flavored Markdown syntax for .wiki files #5

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@mehlah

Should we keep files for li3_docs or rather update it to parse .md files ?

@nateabele
Owner

I actually don't see much purpose in this. The root readme file was converted for the repository main page, but the rest were written for li3_docs. Updating those would probably mean changing the documentation standard, and converting the API docs for the entire core, which is just not worth it. Thanks anyway for the efforts.

@nateabele nateabele closed this
@davidpersson

As simple as transitioning all namespace documents and READMEs (by changing the suffix from wiki to md) seems, changes like this lead to an inconsistent state across projects where some inevitably still use wiki while others are already at md.

The original need for changing the suffix comes from the way GitHub deals with such documents. This seems to be a little silly at first.

However I'd see there's something to win here as changing the suffix to .md would lead to:

  • Enabling rendering of namespace documents within github and the repo browser.
  • Synchronizing readme.wiki with README.md would go away.
  • Standardization of the suffix. md would be the suffix I personally would use for markdown files. How much there is a standard for this is still debatable.

Potential solutions for transitioning include:

  • Modifying li3_docs to look for wiki and md or make the suffix configurable.
  • While we're moving projects over to gh change the suffix of the documents.
  • Have a tool doing that for you:
for FILE in $(find . -name '*.wiki'); do git mv $FILE ${FILE/.wiki/.md}; done

All in all I would vote for finding out what we would deem official/standard, changing the suffix.
In the same spirit we should discuss standard project files casing suffix i.e. LICENSE.txt README.txt.

@nateabele
Owner

Unfortunately, the issue isn't as simple as changing a file extension. If it was, I would be all for it. GitHub seems to use a fundamentally different Markdown format than we do, and changing that in all API docblocks in the core and across all applications is not my idea of a good time. :-) Besides, I think the format we have now reads better within the context of source code.

That said, I'm more than happy to be proven wrong. If we can find some middle ground between our format and theirs, great. @mehlah: I know GitHub actually does support multiple markup formats (https://github.com/github/markup). Could you do some investigating and see if they actually do support our flavor and I just overlooked it or didn't do it right? If so, please reopen the issue and let us know whatever you find.

Thanks!

@mehlah

@nateabele I'll check on that

This was referenced
@d1rk

@mehlah any information on the github/markup project? I see Nates points as valid, but also would like to see the benefit of what we would have if .md would be the suffix.

@nateabele
Owner

If all we have to do is change a file extension, awesome. :-)

@d1rk

Well, i would go for that solution, even if github does not render everything as intended or done by li3_docs. At least, it is more readible than the standard .wiki files.

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Commits on Jun 13, 2011
  1. @mehlah
  2. @mehlah

    Minor formatting clean up

    mehlah authored
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  1. +1 −0  action/README.md
  2. +181 −0 console/README.md
  3. +155 −0 template/README.md
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1  action/README.md
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+The `action` namespace relies on `lithium\http`, and includes classes required to route and dispatch HTTP requests.
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181 console/README.md
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+**The console package contains a set of classes required to route and dispatch
+incoming console requests.** Moreover it contains the console front-controller
+file (`lithium.php`) as well as wrappers for both *nix and Windows environments
+(`li3` and `li3.bat` respectively), allowing to easily invoke the
+console front-controller from the command line.
+
+A command is to the command line what an action controller is to the HTTP
+request/response flow. In that commands are quite similar to controllers.
+Commands don't leverage the the full MVC as they don't utilize views, but
+directly interact with the user through `in()` and `out()`.
+
+Lithium itself provides amongst others commands for creating new applications
+or parts thereof. However commands can also be provided through other libraries
+or by your application. Commands running in the application context will have
+complete access to your application. This is especially useful to reuse
+existing logic in an application's model when creating a command to be run as
+i.e. a cron-job.
+
+
+## Invoking the front-controller ##
+
+You right away invoke the console front-controller through one of the wrappers
+provided. From the root directory of a standard Lithium distribution call one
+of the follwing commands. The first is for users on a *nix command line the
+second for users on a Windows system. Please note that the preceding `$` in
+examples always indicates things that you entere on the command line.
+
+ $ libraries/lithium/console/li3
+ $ libraries/lithium/console/li3.bat
+
+
+However it is recommended you add the path containing the wrapper to the paths
+searched by your system. This is `$PATH` for *nix and `%PATH%` for Windows.
+
+
+### A: Configuring your $PATH on *nix ###
+
+This is almost always achievable on a per-user basis through the user's
+`.profile` (Users running Bash may prefer `.bash_profile`). The file is located
+in your home directory. Open the file and add the following line, assuming the
+`li3` wrapper exists in `/path/to/libraries/lithium/console`.
+
+ export PATH+=:/path/to/libraries/lithium/console
+
+
+Once you've followed these steps, save your modified the file and reload your environment settings
+by sourcing the modified profile through the following command.
+
+ $ source ~/.profile
+
+
+If you can't or don't want to modify your `$PATH` you use two other techniques
+to make the wrapper available as just `li3`. You can either symlink the
+wrapper into one of the paths found in the `$PATH` environment variable
+
+ $ cd /path/to/a/directory/in/your/path
+ $ ln -s /path/to/libraries/lithium/console
+
+or create a permanent alias by adding an alias to i.e. the `.bashrc` file in your home directory.
+
+ alias li3='/path/to/lithium/libraries/lithium/console/li3'
+
+
+### B: Configuring your %PATH% on Windows ###
+
+**Note**: Please note that if you're on Windows you've additionally got to add the PHP directory to
+ the `%PATH%` environment variable. As we are going to edit that variable for adding
+ the location of where the `li3.bat` wrapper is anyway, we can kill two birds with one stone.
+
+ * Open _System_ from within the _Control Panel_.
+ * Open the _Advanced_ tab.
+ * Clicking the _Environment Variables_ button open a dialog where you can edit the variables.
+ * Double click the _PATH_ entry in order to edit it.
+ * Add `C:\path\to\php;C:\path\to\libraries\lithium\console` to the end of the value.
+
+### Finishing up ###
+
+Now that you've made the wrapper available as `li3` or `li3.bat` respectively,
+you should be able to use it from the command-line just by executing `li3` and
+`li3.bat`. Invoking the wrapper like that (without arguments) should give you a
+list of available commands.
+
+ $ li3
+ $ li3.bat
+
+
+## Built-in commands ##
+
+Using the commands which come with lithium is easy. Invoke the wrapper without
+any arguments to get a list of all available commands. Get a description about
+each command and the options and arguments it accept or may require by using
+the `help` command.
+
+ $ li3 help
+ $ li3 help create
+ $ li3 help g11n
+
+
+## Creating custom commands ##
+
+Creating your own commands is very easy. A few fundamentals:
+
+* All commands inherit from `lithium\console\Command`.
+* Commands are normally placed in your application or library's `extensions/commands` directory.
+
+Here's an example command:
+
+
+ <?php
+
+ namespace app\extensions\command;
+
+ class HelloWorld extends \lithium\console\Command {
+
+ public function run() {
+ $this->header('Welcome to the Hello World command!');
+ $this->out('Hello, World!');
+ }
+ }
+
+ ?>
+
+
+If you would like to try this command, create an application or use an existing
+application, and place the command into the application's `extensions/commands`
+directory and save it as `HelloWorld.php`. After doing so, open a shell and
+change directory to your application's directory and run the following command:
+
+
+ $ li3 hello_world
+
+
+Although it's probably obvious, when this command runs it will output a nice
+header with the text `Welcome to the Hello World command!` and some regular
+text `Hello, World!` after it.
+
+The public method `run()` is called on your command instance every time your
+command has been requested to run. From this method you can add your own command
+logic.
+
+### Parsing options and arguments ###
+
+Parsing options and arguments to commands should be simple. In fact, the
+parsing is already done for you.
+
+Short and long (GNU-style) options in the form of `-f`, `--foo` and `--foo=bar`
+are automatically parsed and exposed to your command instance through its
+properties. XF68-style long options (i.e. `-foo`) are not supported by default
+but support can be added by extending the console router.
+
+Arguments are passed directly to the invoked method.
+
+Let's look at an example, going back to the `hello_world` command from earlier:
+
+ <?php
+
+ namespace app\extensions\command;
+
+ class HelloWorld extends \lithium\console\Command {
+
+ public $recipient;
+
+ public function run() {
+ $this->header('Welcome to the Hello World command!');
+ $this->out('Hello, ' . ($this->recipient ?: 'World') . '!');
+ }
+ }
+
+ ?>
+
+
+Notice the additional property `$recipient`? Great! Now when `--recipient` is
+passed to the `hello_world` command, the recipient property on your command
+instance will be set to whatever was passed into the command at runtime.
+
+Try it out with the following command:
+
+ $ li3 hello_world --recipient=AwesomeGuy
+
+
+You should get a special greeting from our good old `hello_world` command.
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155 template/README.md
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+## Special syntax ##
+
+Views have a special syntax for outputting escaped text. The standard way to
+output escaped text in your views from Lithium is as follows:
+
+ <?= $variable; ?>
+
+
+This is where a lot of confusion comes in, because it is commonly misunderstood
+that Lithium depends on `short_open_tags`, however, that's not the case. The
+contents of a view are processed through a tokenizer (`template/view/Compiler`) before
+it is included by PHP. The file is then `compiled` into the final PHP+HTML (or whatever
+other content type that is requsted), which is then passed off to be fully rendered
+by the two-step view to its final form.
+
+See the PHP [manual](http://php.net/manual/en/book.tokenizer.php) to learn more about tokens.
+
+The stream wrapper reads the file and searches for anything that looks like
+`<?=...?>` and replaces it with `<?php echo $h(...); ?>`.
+
+The design decision behind using PHP's short echo syntax is because it's a
+familiar syntax and it helps developers focus more on what data _should not_ be
+escaped vs. what data _needs_ to be escaped.
+
+One special case situation to take _important_ note of, is the use of `<?=$this->foo()?>`.
+In this scenario, the code is translated to `<?php echo $this->foo(); ?>`
+rather than being filtered through `$h()` as with the former explanation. When direct access to a method or property on `$this` is contained in the shorthands syntax, it will be output as normal without being filtered.
+This is to make it easier to work with helpers that return markup.
+
+An example would be something like:
+
+ <?=$this->form->create();?>
+ ... my form here ...
+ <?=$this->form->end();?>
+
+**Note:** `$h()` is the HTML escape function used in views.
+
+**Note:** To output regular, unescaped text, use plain old `<?php echo ...; ?>`.
+
+**Other useful information:**
+
+ * [Introduction to PHP streams](http://www.php.net/intro.stream)
+ * [Stream examples](http://www.php.net/stream.examples)
+
+
+## Using helpers ##
+
+Helpers are lazy-loaded by the current renderer. To use a helper, you can
+reference it by its name like this:
+
+ echo $this->html->link('Google', 'http://www.google.com');
+
+In a template, `$this` refers to the `Renderer` object. By using `$this->html`
+for the first time, the renderer will create an instance of the helper and store
+it so that the next time the helper is invoked the renderer will not have to
+re-instantiate the helper.
+
+Using such an approach, helpers can easily be loaded as needed without any
+performance impact.
+
+**More info**
+
+ * [HTML helper](template/helper/Html)
+ * [Form helper](template/helper/Form)
+ * [Helper base class](template/Helper)
+
+
+## Creating custom helpers ##
+
+You can also create your own custom helper very easily by extending the `Helper` base class, and
+placing your helper in the correct namespace. By default, helpers belong in the
+`<library>\extensions\helper` namespace, but this can be changed through configuration (see the
+the `Libraries` class (`core/Libraries`)).
+For example, consider the following class, saved as `app/extensions/helper/Custom.php`:
+
+ <?php
+
+ namespace app\extensions\helper;
+
+ class Custom extends \lithium\template\Helper {
+
+ public function greeting($name) {
+ return "Hello {$name}!";
+ }
+ }
+
+ ?>
+
+
+You can then use your helper in templates as follows:
+
+ <?=$this->custom->greeting("World"); ?>
+
+
+Your custom helper will then be auto-loaded into the templating engine from your application or a
+plugin.
+
+
+## Extending core helpers ##
+
+Because your application and plugins have a higher order-of-precedence than the Lithium core,
+classes like helpers can be extended and replaced seamlessly, without any changes to your templates.
+
+For example, to add or replace methods in the `Form` helper, you can add the following to
+`app/extensions/helper/Form.php`:
+
+
+ <?php
+
+ namespace app\extensions\helper;
+
+ class Form extends \lithium\template\helper\Form {
+
+ // Add or override Form helper methods
+ }
+
+ ?>
+
+
+Your custom `Form` helper will now be invoked in all instances where `$this->form` is called in a
+template. For more information on the load order of classes, see
+the `locate()` method of the `Libraries` class (`core/Libraries::locate`)
+
+
+## Rendering elements ##
+
+Elements are reusable view snippets that you can use in several views and layouts.
+You can reference it like so:
+
+ echo $this->_render('element', 'menu');
+
+
+Where `menu` is the name of your element file, in this example `app/views/elements/menu.html.php`. When using `$this->_render()`, all of the variables set in the controller are available to the element template.
+You can pass variables declared in the view or additional static content using the third parameter to `$this->_render()`:
+
+ $var1 = 'something';
+ echo $this->_render('element', 'menu', array(
+ 'var1' => $var1,
+ 'var2' => 'something else'
+ ));
+
+
+If you need the element template to not have access to existing data passed to the parent template, use the alternate syntax that calls the `View` render method directly:
+
+ echo $this->view()->render(
+ array('element' => 'menu'),
+ array('var1' => $var1, 'var2' => $var2)
+ );
+
+
+**More info**
+
+ * [View](template/View)
+ * [Renderer](template/view/Renderer)
+ * [File adapter](template/view/adapter/File)
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