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This Universal Dependencies Ancient Greek Treebank consists of an automatic conversion of a selection of passages from the Ancient Greek and Latin Dependency Treebank 2.1


The current UD treebank derives from texts taken from the Ancient Greek and Latin Dependency Treebank 2.1 available at

The original data have been semi-automatically annotated. More precisely, morphological annotation and lemmatization have been performed with the help of the Morpheus morphological analyzer, while syntactic annotation has been done manually. The following guidelines have been followed:

Further details can be found at:

The release contains parts of the following works:

author work
Aesop Fabulae
Aeschylus Agamemnon
Aeschylus Eumenides
Aeschylus Libation Bearers
Aeschylus Prometheus Bound
Aeschylus Persians
Aeschylus Seven Against Thebes
Aeschylus Supplian Women
Anonymous Hymn to Demeter
Apollodorus Library
Athenaeus The Deipnosophists
Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca Historica
Herodotus Histories
Hesiod Shield of Heracles
Hesiod Theogony
Hesiod Works and Days
Homer Iliad
Lysias Against Pancleon
Lysias Alcybiades 1
Lysias Alcybiades 2
Lysias On the Murder of Eratosthenes
Plutarch Alcibiades
Plutarch Lycurgus
Plybius Histories
Pseudo-Homer Hymn to Demeter
Sophocles Ajax
Sophocles Antigone
Sophocles Electra
Sophocles Oedipus Tyrannus
Sophocles Trachinae
Thucydides Histories


The current UD data have been converted by Giuseppe G. A. Celano.

The Ancient Greek and Latin treebank is a result of a joint effort between Tufts University and Leipzig University (DH) under the supervision of Prof. Gregory Crane. Current editors of the treebank are Giuseppe G. A. Celano, Gregory Crane, and Bridget Almas.

Authors of the annotations are (in alphabetical order):

Giuseppe G. A. Celano, J. F. Gentile, Robert Gorman, Vanessa Gorman, Jordan Hawkesworth, Yoana Ivanova, Tovah Keynton, Florin Leonte, Alex Lessie, Daniel Lim Libatique, Meg Luthin, Francesco Mambrini, George Matthews, Jack Mitchell, Molly Miller, Jessica Nord, Sean Stewart, Anthony D. Yates, Polina Yordanova, and Sam Zukoff.

Further details can be found at:

Basic statistics

Tree count: 13919 Word count: 202989 Token count: 202989 Dep. relations: 25 of which 0 language specific POS tags: 14 Category=value feature pairs: 33


Bamman, David and Gregory Crane. 2011. The Ancient Greek and Latin Dependency Treebanks. 2011. In Caroline Sporleder, Antal van den Bosch, Kalliopi Zervanou (eds.), Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, 79-98.

Celano, Giuseppe G. A., Gregory Crane, and Bridget Almas. 2014. The Ancient Greek and Latin Dependency treebank 2.0.


  • 2022-11-15 v2.11
    • Fixed adverbially used nominals from advmod to obl.
    • Fixed adverbially used verbs from advmod to advcl.
    • Fixed interjections from advmod to discourse.
    • Fixed UPOS tags of copulae: from VERB to AUX.
  • 2021-05-15 v2.8
    • Fixed non-projective punctuation using Udapi ud.FixPunct.
  • 2018-04-15 v2.2
    • Repository renamed from UD_Ancient_Greek to UD_Ancient_Greek-Perseus.
=== Machine-readable metadata =================================================
Data available since: UD v1.2
License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.5
Includes text: yes
Genre: fiction
Lemmas: converted from manual
UPOS: converted from manual
XPOS: manual native
Features: converted from manual
Relations: converted from manual
Contributors: Celano, Giuseppe G. A.; Zeman, Daniel
Contributing: elsewhere