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A Traditional Chinese treebank of film subtitles and of legislative proceedings of Hong Kong, parallel with the Cantonese-HK treebank.


The Chinese-HK UD treebank was manually annotated by Herman H. M. Leung and Tak-sum Wong at City University of Hong Kong, directly using the subtitles from three films shot by students from the School of Creative Media as well as part of the official record of proceedings of the section of the Election of President of the council meeting of the Legislative Council of the HKSAR of the P. R. China on 12th October, 2016 commencing at 2:13 p.m. The data are in Traditional Chinese. These trees form a parallel treebank with those in Cantonese-HK.


#send_id = 1 to 410

#send_id = 411 to 547

#send_id = 548 to 650

#send_id = 651 to 1004


Since there are fewer than a myriad tokens, only the test set is provided.


  • Tree count: 1004
  • Word count: 9874
  • Token count: 9874
  • Dep. relations: 46 of which 15 language specific
  • POS tags: 16
  • Category=value feature pairs: 1


When determining the POS, one usually considers both the "morphological evidence", i.e., the linguistic form of the word, as well as the "distributional evidence", i.e., its syntactic use in the sentence. Usually, these two kinds of evidence should agree; in some cases, however, the POS of some word is tentatively alterned to fullfil the special purpose of the author.

Take an example in English, consider the word "pen" in the sentence "I pen a letter". Morphological evidence suggests the word "pen" should be tagged as an noun (NN), reflecting its normal usage. Distributional evidence suggests it should be tagged as a verb, since this word is in a typical syntactic position of verb in a SVO language.

When these two kinds of evidence contradict one another, the morphological evidence prevails.


This work was partially supported by a grant from the PROCORE-France/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme sponsored by the Research Grants Council and the Consulate General of France in Hong Kong (Reference No.: F-CityU107/15 and N 35322RG); and by two Strategic Research Grants (Project No. 7004494 and No. 7004736) from City University of Hong Kong.


When using this treebank, please cite at least one paper from the following references: Tak-sum WONG, Kim GERDES, Herman LEUNG, and John LEE. "Quantitative Comparative Syntax on the Cantonese-Mandarin Parallel Dependency Treebank" Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Dependency Linguistics, pp. 266−275, Pisa, Italy, September 2017. Herman LEUNG, Rafaël POIRET, Tak-sum WONG, Xinying CHEN, Kim GERDES and John LEE. "Developing Universal Dependencies for Mandarin Chinese" Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Asian Language Resources, pp. 20−29, Osaka, Japan, December 2016.


  • 2023-05-15 v2.12
    • Fixed: PUNCT nodes must be attached via punct relations.
    • Fixed: Only some UPOS categories are compatible with det.
    • Fixed: Nominal cannot be advmod.
    • Added pinyin transcription.
    • Added lemmas.
    • Scaled down the set of copulas and other auxiliaries.
    • Fixed: function words must be leaves.
    • Fixed: at most one subject per clause.
  • 2019-03-10 v1.51
    • Some errors fixed
  • 2019-03-03 v.1.5
    • Data from the Legislative Council added
=== Machine-readable metadata =================================================
Documentation status: partial
Data source: manual
Data available since: UD v2.1
License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Includes text: yes
Genre: spoken
Lemmas: automatic with corrections
UPOS: manual native
XPOS: not available
Features: manual native
Relations: manual native
Contributors: Gerdes, Kim; Lee, John; Leung, Herman; Wong, Tak-sum
Contributing: elsewhere