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Classical Chinese Universal Dependencies Treebank annotated and converted by Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University.


This Treebank is taken under the full text of 論語 (Lunyu, 20 volumes), 孟子 (Mencius, 14 volumes), 禮記 (Liji, 50 volumes), and 十八史略 (18shi-lue, 19 eras). In Classical Chinese we had no spaces or punctuations between words or sentences, so we did not include any spaces or punctuations in Treebank files:

  • lzh_kyoto-ud-test.conllu

    • 學而篇第一 為政篇第二 and 八佾篇第三 from 論語
    • 梁惠王上 and 梁惠王下 from 孟子
    • 中庸 from 禮記
    • 春秋戰國 from 十八史略
  • lzh_kyoto-ud-dev.conllu

    • 顏淵篇第十二 子路篇第十三 and 憲問篇第十四 from 論語
    • 告子上 and 告子下 from 孟子
    • 大學 from 禮記
    • 唐 from 十八史略
  • lzh_kyoto-ud-train.conllu

    • 論語 (except for 學而篇第一 為政篇第二 八佾篇第三 顏淵篇第十二 子路篇第十三 憲問篇第十四)
    • 孟子 (except for 梁惠王上 梁惠王下 告子上 告子下)
    • 禮記 (except for 中庸 大學)
    • 十八史略 (except for 春秋戰國 唐)



  • 2021-05-15 v2.8

    • 2 eras from 十八史略 added.
  • 2020-11-15 v2.7

    • 7 volumes from 禮記 added.
    • 17 eras from 十八史略 added.
  • 2020-05-15 v2.6

    • 19 volumes from 禮記 added.
  • 2019-11-15 v2.5

    • 22 volumes from 禮記 added.
  • 2019-05-15 v2.4

    • Initial release in Universal Dependencies.
=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Data available since: UD v2.4
License: PD
Includes text: yes
Genre: nonfiction
Lemmas: converted with corrections
UPOS: converted with corrections
XPOS: converted with corrections
Features: converted with corrections
Relations: manual native
Contributors: Yasuoka, Koichi; Wittern, Christian; Morioka, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Takumi; Yamazaki, Naoki; Nikaido, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Shingo; Moro, Shigeki; Li, Yuan; Shirasu, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Kazunori
Contributing: elsewhere