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Universal Dependencies - English Dependency Treebank Universal Dependencies English Web Treebank v2.3 -- 2018-11-15 https://github.com/UniversalDependencies/UD_English-EWT

Summary

A Gold Standard Universal Dependencies Corpus for English, built over the source material of the English Web Treebank LDC2012T13 (https://catalog.ldc.upenn.edu/LDC2012T13).

Introduction

The corpus comprises 254,830 words and 16,622 sentences, taken from five genres of web media: weblogs, newsgroups, emails, reviews, and Yahoo! answers. See the LDC2012T13 documentation for more details on the sources of the sentences. The trees were automatically converted into Stanford Dependencies and then hand-corrected to Universal Dependencies. All the basic dependency annotations have been single-annotated, a limited portion of them have been double-annotated, and subsequent correction has been done to improve consistency. Other aspects of the treebank, such as Universal POS, features and enhanced dependencies, has mainly been done automatically, with very limited hand-correction.

License/Copyright

Universal Dependencies English Web Treebank © 2013-2018 by The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University. All Rights Reserved.

The annotations and database rights of the Universal Dependencies English Web Treebank are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

You should have received a copy of the license along with this work. If not, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

The underlying texts come from various sources collected for the LDC English Web Treebank. Some parts are in the public domain. Portions may be © 2012 Google Inc., © 2011 Yahoo! Inc., © 2012 Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania and/or © other original authors.

Structure

This directory contains a corpus of sentences annotated using Universal Dependencies annotation. The corpus comprises 254,830 words and 16,622 sentences, taken from various web media including weblogs, newsgroups, emails, reviews, and Yahoo! answers; see the LDC2012T13 documentation for more details on the source of the sentences. The trees were automatically converted into Stanford Dependencies and then hand-corrected to Universal Dependencies. All the dependency annotations have been single-annotated, and a limited portion of them have been double-annotated with interannotator agreement at approximately 96%. The sentence IDs include the genre and the filename of the original LDC2012T13 filename.

This corpus is compatible with the CoNLL-U format defined for Universal Dependencies. See:

http://universaldependencies.github.io/docs/format.html

The dependency taxonomy can be found on the Universal Dependencies web site:

http://www.universaldependencies.org

For the conversion to v2, we performed an automatic conversion with extensive spot-checking, and manual adjudication of ambiguous cases.

The enhanced dependencies were automatically obtained by running an adapted version of the converter by Schuster and Manning (2016). These dependencies have not been manually checked.

Deviations from UD

Version 2.3 of the English UD treebank conforms to the UD guidelines in almost all respects, but there remain the following deviations:

  • The UD dependency flat is largely only used for person names.
  • Dates are not annotated consistently.
  • The attachment of punctuation tokens is sometimes not according to the guidelines.

Changelog

2018-11-15 v2.3

  • Fixed several lemmata

2018-04-15 v2.2

  • Repository renamed from UD_English to UD_English-EWT
  • Automatically added enhanced dependencies (These have not been manually checked!)
  • Fixed some wrong lemmata and POS tags
  • Fixed miscellaneous syntactic issues

2017-11-15 v2.1

  • Fixed some wrong lemmata, POS tags
  • Fixed miscellaneous syntactic issues
  • Added basic dependencies into the DEPS column according to the CONLL-U v2 format

2017-02-15 v2.0

  • Updated treebank to conform to v2 guidelines
  • Fixed some wrong lemmata
  • Fixed miscellaneous syntactic issues
  • Added empty nodes for gapped constructions in enhanced representation

2016-11-15 v1.4

  • Changed POS tag of fused det-noun pronouns (e.g., "somebody", "nothing") to PRON
  • Added original, untokenized sentences to CoNLL-U files
  • Fixed some POS errors, features and wrong lemmata
  • Fixed miscellaneous syntactic issues in a few sentences

2016-05-15 v1.3

  • Improved mapping of WDT to UPOS
  • Corrected lemma of "n't" to "not"
  • Fixed some errors between advcl, ccomp and parataxis
  • Fixed inconsistent analyses of sentences repeated between dev and train sets
  • Fixed miscellaneous syntactic issues in a few sentences

2015-11-15 v1.2

  • Bugfix: removed _NFP suffix from some lemmas
  • Fixed date annotations to adopt UD standard
  • Remove escaping of ( and ) from word tokens (XPOSTAGs are still -LRB- and -RRB-)
  • Improved precision of xcomp relation
  • Improved recall of name relation
  • Corrected lemmas for reduced auxiliaries
  • Corrected UPOS tags of pronominal uses of this/that/these/those (from DET to PRON)
  • Corrected UPOS tags of subordinating conjunctions (from ADP to SCONJ)
  • Corrected UPOS tags of some main verbs (from AUX to VERB)

Contributing

To help improve the corpus, please alert us to any errors you find in it. The best way to do this is to file a github issue at:

https://github.com/UniversalDependencies/UD_English-EWT/issues

We also welcome pull requests. If you want to make edits, please modify the trees in the idividual files in the not-to-release/sources directory instead of making direct changes to en-ud-{dev,test,train}.conllu.

Acknowledgments

Annotation of the Universal Dependencies English Web Treebank was carried out by (in order of size of contribution):

  • Natalia Silveira
  • Timothy Dozat
  • Sebastian Schuster
  • Miriam Connor
  • Marie-Catherine de Marneffe
  • Nathan Schneider
  • Samuel Bowman
  • Hanzhi Zhu
  • Daniel Galbraith
  • Christopher Manning
  • John Bauer

Creation of the CoNLL-U files, including calculating UPOS, feature, and lemma information was primarily done by

  • Sebastian Schuster
  • Natalia Silveira

The construction of the Universal Dependencies English Web Treebank was partially funded by a gift from Google, Inc., which we gratefully acknowledge.

Citations

You are encouraged to cite this paper if you use the Universal Dependencies English Web Treebank:

@inproceedings{silveira14gold,
  year = {2014},
  author = {Natalia Silveira and Timothy Dozat and Marie-Catherine de
	  Marneffe and Samuel Bowman and Miriam Connor and John Bauer and
	  Christopher D. Manning},
  title = {A Gold Standard Dependency Corpus for {E}nglish},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language
    Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2014)}
}

Metadata

=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Data available since: UD v1.0
License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Includes text: yes
Genre: blog social reviews email
Lemmas: automatic with corrections
UPOS: converted with corrections
XPOS: manual native
Features: automatic
Relations: manual native
Contributors: Silveira, Natalia; Dozat, Timothy; Manning, Christopher; Schuster, Sebastian; Bauer, John; Connor, Miriam; de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine; Schneider, Nathan; Bowman, Sam; Zhu, Hanzhi; Galbraith, Daniel
Contributing: here source
Contact: syntacticdependencies@lists.stanford.edu
===============================================================================