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FinnTreeBank 1 consists of manually annotated grammatical examples from VISK. The UD version of FinnTreeBank 1 was converted from a native annotation model with a script and later manually revised.


The UD version of FinnTreeBank 1 was derived from FinnTreeBank 1 2014 by a scripted mapping of labels and some restructuring in an attempt to conform approximately to the UD Finnish model.

Unannotated linguistic material in FinnTreeBank 1 2014 was adapted from the examples in Ison suomen kieliopin verkkoversio (The Web Version of the Large Grammar of Finnish, VISK), available on-line as, and annotations originally produced and further revised in FIN-CLARIN projects in the Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.

Differences from the UD Finnish model

Some differences from the UD Finnish model remain unaddressed.

Surface words that have an adverb or a conjunction fused with a following negative verb are separated into two tokens in the FinnTreeBank model. The UD version keeps them as such but adds the unannotated joined token before the two.

Most punctuation tokens are linked to a nearby token instead of a clause head.

As a catchall, the dep relation is used as intended when a more proper mapping could not be determined.

Some FinnTreeBank annotations and other notes are retained in the MISC field.


The previous version of the treebank was split into training, development, and test sets by repeatedly taking 8 sentences into training set, 1 into development set, and 1 into test set.


Tree count: 18723 Word count: 159612 Token count: 159314 Dep. relations: 38 of which 8? language specific POS tags: 17 Category=value feature pairs: 80


VISK = Auli Hakulinen, Maria Vilkuna, Riitta Korhonen, Vesa Koivisto, Tarja Riitta Heinonen and Irja Alho 2004: Iso suomen kielioppi. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. Online version. Available: URN:ISBN:978-952-5446-35-7 (native treebank version)


  • UD v1.1 -> UD v1.2

Negative=Yes was changed to Negative=Neg The data was re-split to resolve train/dev/test overlaps within the treebank as well as with UD_Finnish

  • UD v1.2 -> UD v1.3

A major revision of the underlying FinnTreebank 1 with some manually annotated UD analyses (notably xcomp; manual annotations are visible in the UD version as Alt in the MISC field).

Adjusted the conversion script to better match the universal guidelines (e.g. finite verbs now have VerbForm, again using PART) and the Finnish guidelines (e.g. now using nsubj:cop, csubj:cop, nmod:own).

Components of multiword names are now separate tokens.

Duplicates in the underlying FinnTreebank 1 have been removed and sentences are now labeled with unique identifiers like "ekvje-124" (the part before the hyphen identifies the sentence within FinnTreebank 1).

  • UD v1.3 -> UD v2

nmod:own -> nmod, rotate conj groups to have head on left

  • UD v2 -> UD v2.4

Revised annotations that were rejected by the validator (except those that the validator only rejects since 2019-05-01)

  • VERB/aux - change pos to AUX
  • non-ADV/advmod, non-NUM/nummod - change pos or rel
  • children of 'case' and 'mark' - hoist to parent
  • cop other than 'olla' - re-annotate manually
  • non-projective punctuation - re-attached by script
  • 'koska' and 'kun' as SCONJ/advmod - changed most to PART
  • etc.
  • UD v2.2 -> UD v2.12

Revised annotations that were rejected by the validator

  • AUX-aux-VERB rotated to VERB-ccomp-VERB (lemma rejected as AUX)
  • AUX-aux-OTHER rotated to VERB-xcomp-OTHER (lemma rejected as AUX)
  • removed non-head annotations in six or so goeswith constructions
  • marked first subject as :outer when there were two
  • corrected non-projective punctuation marks (some from rotations)
  • corrected two instances of conj direction
=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Data available since: UD v1.1
License: CC BY 4.0
Includes text: yes
Genre: grammar-examples
Lemmas: converted from manual
UPOS: converted from manual
XPOS: manual native
Features: converted from manual
Relations: converted from manual
Contributors: Piitulainen, Jussi; Nurmi, Hanna
Contributing: elsewhere