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The Galician-TreeGal is a treebank for Galician developed at LyS Group (Universidade da Coruña).


The resource derives from a subset (called xeral) of the XIADA corpus (v2.6), created at the Centro Ramón Piñeiro para a Investigación en Humanidades (

All the information except the syntactic one was semi-automatically converted to UD from the original resource. The dependency labels were assigned using cross-lingual parsing techniques, and then manually corrected by a linguist (see the references for more information). At the end of this process, several corrections were carried out in order to agree with the UD guidelines.

Galician-TreeGal v0.42 contains 1000 sentences of the xeral corpus (~25k tokens), and it is divided 60-40 splits (train-test).

Differences from the generic Galician guidelines



  • The Galician-TreeGal treebank uses the following morphological features:
    • Nouns have inherent or inflected Gender (common, feminine, or masculine) and Number (singular or plural).
    • Verbs can have four different VerbForm features (finite, gerund, participle, or infinitive):
      • Forms in participle inflect for Gender (feminine or masculine) and for Number (singular or plural).
      • Both finite and infinitive verb form may inflect for Number (singular or plural) and for Person (1, 2, 3).
      • Finite forms also inflect for Tense (present, future, past, imperfect, and pluperfect) and Mood (indicative, subjuntive, imperative, and conditional).
    • Adjectives agree with nouns with respect to the features Gender and Number. In addition, some adjectives inflect for Degree (comparative, superlative).
    • Negative adverbs have negative Polarity in Galician-TreeGal. Also, relative and interrogative adverbs are labeled with Rel and Int (PronType), respectively.
    • Few adpositions (e.g., sen) and conjunctions (nin) are also labeled with negative polarity.
    • PronType is used to differentiate the following pronouns and determiners: Demonstrative, indefinite, relative, interrogative, personal, and article. Personal (Prs) stands for personal and for possessive pronouns and determiners (Poss disambiguates between these two types). PRON Articles (Art) are those determiners acting as pronouns (heads) when a noun is elided (e.g., "a [elided noun] de Abel")).
    • Determiners and pronouns inflect for Number (singular or plural) and for Gender (feminine, masculine, common, and neutral).
    • Possessive determiners and pronouns (Poss) also have a language-specific feature which encodes the number of the possessor: Number[psor] (singular or plural).
    • Clitic pronouns inflect for Case with three values (nominative, accusative, dative).
    • Determiners agree with nouns in the same way as adjectives.

For more information, see Garcia, Marcos (2016), Universal Dependencies Guidelines for the Galician-TreeGal Treebank (note that this document follows old UD guidelines).


  • Galician-TreeGal uses four dependency relation subtypes:


  • Garcia, Marcos, 2016. Universal Dependencies Guidelines for the Galician-TreeGal Treebank. Technical Report. LyS Group, Universidade da Coruña.

  • Garcia, Marcos, Carlos Gómez-Rodríguez and Miguel A. Alonso, 2018. New treebank or repurposed? On the feasibility of cross-lingual parsing of Romance languages with Universal Dependencies. Natural Language Engineering, 24(1): 91-122.

  • Rojo, Guillermo, Marisol López Martínez, Eva Domínguez Noya and Fco. Mario Barcala, 2015. Corpus de adestramento do Etiquetador/Lematizador do Galego Actual (XIADA), v2.6. Centro Ramón Piñeiro para a Investigación en Humanidades.


  • Tree count: 1000
  • Word count: 25548
  • Token count: 23478
  • Dep. relations: 37 of which 4 language specific
  • POS tags: 16
  • Category=value feature pairs: 44


  • There are a few tokens with blank spaces (telephone numbers: "xxx xxx xxx").
  • The morphological features of some tokens (analyzed as part of proper nouns in the original corpus) are not available.
  • The dependency labels need to be reviewed by another expert to calculate inter-annotator agreement.


  • 2019-03-26 v0.42:

    • Correction of AUX verbs and some others POS-tags.
    • Adaptation of copulative analysis to the latest UD guidelines.
    • Minor review of other cases.
  • 2018-03-21 v0.41:

    • Few features and POS corrections.
    • 'orphan' dependency correction.
  • 2017-06-02 v0.4:

    • POS-tags, morphological features and dependency relations adapted do UDv2.
    • Multiword expressions expanded (previously as single tokens).
    • Complex proper nouns expanded (previously as single tokens).
    • General review.
    • Added original text.
=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Documentation status: partial
Data source: manual
Data available since: UD v1.4
License: LGPL-LR
Genre: news
Includes text: yes
Lemmas: manual native
UPOS: manual native
XPOS: manual native
Features: converted with corrections
Relations: manual native
Contributors: Garcia, Marcos
Contributing: elsewhere