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Icelandic-PUD is the Icelandic part of the Parallel Universal Dependencies (PUD) treebanks.


The Icelandic-PUD consists of Icelandic translations of 1.000 sentences from the news domain and from Wikipedia. The morphological and syntactic annotation have been manually validated. Icelandic-PUD was not created and a part of the CoNLL 2017 shared task like the other PUD treebanks.


Translations were produced by Ölvir Gíslason, a professional translator. The automatic tagging was carried out using ABLTagger, which is based on BiLSTM models, a morphological lexicon and lexical category identification. It is developed by Steinþór Steingrímsson, Örvar Kárason and Hrafn Loftsson and available from For lemmatizing the high accuracy lemmatizer Nefnir was run, it is developed by Jón Daði Ingólfsson, Svanhvít Lilja Ingólfsdóttir and Hrafn Loftsson and available at For preprocessing the syntactic annotation, a delexicalized parser was run using UDPipe, developed by Milan Straka, see

The morphological and syntactic annotation were checked and corrected manually by Hildur Jónsdóttir.

PUD Treebanks

There are 1.000 sentences in each language, always in the same order. (The sentence alignment is 1-1 but occasionally a sentence-level segment actually consists of two real sentences.) The sentences are taken from the news domain (sentence id starts in ‘n’) and from Wikipedia (sentence id starts with ‘w’). There are usually only a few sentences from each document, selected randomly, not necessarily adjacent. The digits on the second and third position in the sentence ids encode the original language of the sentence. The first 750 sentences are originally English (01). The remaining 250 sentences are originally German (02), French (03), Italian (04) or Spanish (05) and they were translated to other languages via English. Translation into German, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Hindi, Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Thai and Turkish has been provided by DFKI and performed (except for German) by professional translators. Then the data has been annotated morphologically and syntactically by Google according to Google universal annotation guidelines; finally, it has been converted by members of the UD community to UD v2 guidelines.

Additional languages have been provided (both translation and native UD v2 annotation) by other teams: Czech by Charles University, Finnish by University of Turku and Swedish by Uppsala University.

The entire treebank is labeled as test set (and was used for testing in the shared task). If it is used for training in future research, the users should employ ten-fold cross-validation.


  • 2020-05-15 v2.6
    • Initial release in Universal Dependencies.
=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Data available since: UD v2.6
License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Includes text: yes
Genre: news wiki
Lemmas: automatic with corrections
UPOS: automatic with corrections
XPOS: automatic with corrections
Features: automatic with corrections
Relations: automatic with corrections
Contributors: Jónsdóttir, Hildur
Contributing: here