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This is a North Sámi treebank based on a manually disambiguated and function-labelled gold-standard corpus of North Sámi produced by the Giellatekno team at UiT Norgga árktalaš universitehta.


The corpus was first analysed using a finite-state morphological analyser for North Sámi, and then disambiguated using a constraint-grammar-based disambiguator. The constraint grammar disambiguator also annotated syntactic function labels. The analyses and the function labels were manually corrected to produce a gold standard, and then a rule-based dependency parser was run on top of the gold data. On top of those parsers a series of tree-rewrite rules were used to convert the corpus to Universal Dependencies. Please see the paper below for details.


We are immensely grateful to the Giellatekno team, and especially to Trond Trosterud and Lene Antonsen for annotating the original data and for producing the rule-based parser on which the treebank is based. Their comments and help were invaluable.

If you use this data in your work, please cite:

@inproceedings{sheyanova:2017, author = {Mariya Sheyanova and Francis M. Tyers}, title = {Annotation schemes in North Sámi dependency parsing}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop for Computational Linguistics of Uralic Languages}, pages = {66--75}, year = 2017 }


  • 2018-04-15 v2.2
    • Repository renamed from UD_North_Sami to UD_North_Sami-Giella.
  • 2017-11-15 v2.1
    • First official release after it was used as a surprise dataset in the CoNLL 2017 shared task.
=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Data available since: UD v2.1
License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Includes text: yes
Genre: nonfiction news
Lemmas: converted from manual
UPOS: converted from manual
XPOS: manual native
Features: converted from manual
Relations: converted from manual
Contributors: Trosterud, Trond; Antonsen, Lene; Tyers, Francis
Contributing: elsewhere