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The UD Skolt Sami Giellagas treebank is based almost entirely on spoken Skolt Sami corpora.


UD Skolt Sami is the original annotation (CoNLL-U) for texts in the Skolt Sami language. It originally consists of twenty translated sentences made by Hilkka Fofonoff from the Finnish texts: here with UD 1. dependencies. Subsequent sentences come from the Giellagas Corpus of Spoken Saami Languages of the University of Oulu, Finland, which, in part, include research materials transferred from (Kotimaisten kielten keskus) «Kotus» 'Institute for the Languages of Finland'.

Treebank sentences marked with text id beginning in [kotus-skak2010] originate from the publication Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll, for which the publisher 'Institute for the Languages of Finland' (Kotimaisten kielten keskus) has granted written permission to include in the treebank. Citation of the original publication should be included when the treebank is used (see References section below).


The original annotations have been performed by Jack Rueter at the University of Helsinki and Markus Juutinen at the Giellagas Institute (University of Oulu, Finland) using morphological tools developed with funding from a Kone Foundation «Language Programme» funded project: «Skolt Sami Revitalization through Intelligent Computer-assisted Language Learning means and the development of guidelines for transfering these methods to other threatened languages» (2015–2018) with the linguistic consultation of Merja Fofonoff and Eino Koponen. The tools used have been facilitated through the open-source Giella infrastructure at the Norwegian Arctic University in Tromsø.

Work with the Skolt Sami treebank builds upon previous experience with the UD_Erzya-JR treebank as well as growing discussions with Francis Tyers, Tommi Pirinen, Jonathan Washington, Mika Hämäläinen and Niko Partanen. Without the Skolt Sami speakers and writers themselves, however, we would be no where…


  • Eino Koponen, Jouni Moshnikoff & Satu Moshnikoff. 2010: Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll.Helsinki: (Kotimaisten kielten keskus) Institute for the Languages of Finland. Dommjânnmlaž ǩiõli tuʹtǩǩeemkõõskõs. Online publications of the Institute for the Languages of Finland, 14. ISSN 1796-041X. URL:

  • Pekka Sammallahti, Jouni Moshnikoff. 1991: Suomi-Koltansaame sanakirja / Lääʹdd-sääʹm sääʹnnǩeʹrjj [Finnish-Skolt Sámi Dictionary]. Girjegiisá Oy. Ohcejohka.

  • (citation)


  • 2022-04-29
    • Deprel correction and documentation
    • Trouble shooting in dependencies
    • Continued annotation of stories from Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll.
  • 2021-10-31
    • Auxiliary, feature and deprel documentation
    • Continued annotation of stories from Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll.
  • 2021-04-29
    • Auxiliary, feature and deprel documentation
    • Continued annotation of stories from Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll.
    • Language tag systematization.
  • 2020-11-15 v2.7
    • Adding stories from Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll
  • 2020-05-15 v2.6
    • Adding two stories from Sääʹmǩiõll, äʹrbbǩiõll: Kämmǥa Maainâs, Kååʹdd Maainâs
    • Expanding advmod:mmod, :lmod, :tmod and adding NameTypes.
  • 2019-11-15 v2.5
    • Initial release in Universal Dependencies.
=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================
Data available since: UD v2.5
License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Includes text: yes
Genre: nonfiction news spoken
Lemmas: converted from manual
UPOS: converted from manual
XPOS: manual native
Features: converted from manual
Relations: converted from manual
Contributors: Rueter, Jack; Juutinen, Markus; Tyers, Francis; Pirinen, Tommi A; Hämäläinen, Mika
Contributing: here