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Swedish-PUD is the Swedish part of the Parallel Universal Dependencies (PUD) treebanks.


Swedish-PUD was created (together with the other parallel treebanks) for the CoNLL 2017 shared task on Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies ( It consists of Swedish translations of the 1000 sentences from the news domain and from Wikipedia, annotated according to the principles of the Swedish-PT treebank. The syntactic annotation has been manually validated, but the morphological annotation is automatically predicted.


Translations were produced by Jacob Nolskog at Teknotrans AB and checked by Joakim Nivre. The automatic annotation was carried out using SwePipe, a tool suite trained on the Stockholm-Umeå Corpus and the Swedish-TP treebank, developed by Robert Östling, Aaron Smith and Joakim, and available from The syntactic annotation was checked and corrected manually by Joakim Nivre.

PUD Treebanks

There are 1000 sentences in each language, always in the same order. (The sentence alignment is 1-1 but occasionally a sentence-level segment actually consists of two real sentences.) The sentences are taken from the news domain (sentence id starts in ‘n’) and from Wikipedia (sentence id starts with ‘w’). There are usually only a few sentences from each document, selected randomly, not necessarily adjacent. The digits on the second and third position in the sentence ids encode the original language of the sentence. The first 750 sentences are originally English (01). The remaining 250 sentences are originally German (02), French (03), Italian (04) or Spanish (05) and they were translated to other languages via English. Translation into German, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Hindi, Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Thai and Turkish has been provided by DFKI and performed (except for German) by professional translators. Then the data has been annotated morphologically and syntactically by Google according to Google universal annotation guidelines; finally, it has been converted by members of the UD community to UD v2 guidelines.

Additional languages have been provided (both translation and native UD v2 annotation) by other teams: Czech by Charles University, Finnish by University of Turku and Swedish by Uppsala University.

The entire treebank is labeled as test set (and was used for testing in the shared task). If it is used for training in future research, the users should employ ten-fold cross-validation.


From v2.0 to v2.1, no changes have been made.

From v2.1 to v2.2:

  • Harmonization with other Swedish treebanks:
    • Possessives retagged DET -> PRON
    • Negations ("inte", "icke", "ej") retagged ADV -> PART
    • Comparative markers ("som", "än") retagged CCONJ -> SCONJ
    • Comparative with nominal complement relabeled advcl -> obl [mark -> case, SCONJ -> ADP]
    • Clefts reanalyzed as copula constructions and relabeled acl:relcl -> acl:cleft
    • Temporal subordinating conjunctions ("när", "då") retagged ADV -> SCONJ and relabeled advmod -> mark
  • Added enhanced dependencies

From v2.2 to v2.3:

  • Fixed a few errors in enhanced dependencies

=== Machine-readable metadata (DO NOT REMOVE!) ================================ Data available since: UD v2.1 License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Includes text: yes Genre: news wiki Lemmas: automatic UPOS: automatic XPOS: automatic Features: automatic Relations: manual native Contributors: Nivre, Joakim Contributing: here Contact:

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